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1 932 


Organization of a City Department of Visual Aids 

Units of Instruction for Teacher Training Courses 

An Integrated Project on Copper, Utilizing Visual 
Aids in Various Forms 

Films for Washington and Lincoln Programs 

The Film Estimates 

Single Copies 25c 
• $2.00 a Year • 

**> . un i ,■) 

•- ! • 

■ • • • • 

-• .» .••••: .v. f\ 


New . ♦ . . Spectacular 

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quieter easier operation, better performance from a dozen standpoints. 

Normally the Filmo Model J Projector is equipped with the powerful 
375-watt 7 5 -volt lamp. There has recently been developed a new lamp 
which may be used in the Model J Projector and which gives increased 
brilliance. The superiority of this lamp is especially marked in Koda- 
color projection for it eliminates color wedging, lost color values, all 
color distortion. It is a 400-watt, 100-volt lamp with 8 filaments set 
in two staggered rows like this *.•.*.•.. Thus intervals which for- 
merly were filled with reflected light are now flooded with direct light. 

The use of the Biplane Filament Lamp is made practical by the com- 
bination of highly efficient fan and aero-type cooling used exclusively 
in the Filmo Model J Projector. The 400-watt lamp will be supplied as 
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January, 1932 

Educational Screen 

: J ag* 1 

. - 

JANUARY, 1932 






Herbert E. Slaught, Pres. 
Frederick J. Lane, Trees. 
Nelson L Greene, Editor 
Evelyn J. Baker 
Josephine Hoffmen 
Otto M. Forkert 
Dwight Furness 

Stanley R. Greene 
Joseph J. Weber 
William R. Duffey 
R. F. H. Johnson 
Marion F. Lanphier 
F. Dean McClusky 
Stella Evelyn Myers 

Editorial . 

The Organization of a City Department of Visual Aids 
Arnold W. Reitze 

Units of Instruction for Teacher Training Courses (No. I) 
L Paul Miller 


National Academy Meets in Washington 9 

Film Production Activities 10 

News and Notes. Conducted by Josephine Hoffman 1 2 

Among the Magazines and Books. 

Conducted by Marion F. Lanphier 14 

The Film Estimates 1 6 

The Church Field. Conducted by R. F. H. Johnson 1 8 

Films for Washington and Lincoln Programs 20 

School Department. Conducted by Dr. F. Dean McClusky 2 1 

Integrated Project on Copper, Utilizing Visual Aids 

Louis A. Astefl 2 1 

Among the Producers 29 

Here They Are! A Trade Directory for the Visual Field 30 

The Educational Screen Service Bureau 3 1 

Contents of previous issues listed in Education Inde* 

General and Editorial Offices, 64 East Lake St., Chicago, Illinois. Office 
of Publication, Morton, Illinois. Entered at the Post Office at Morton, 
Illinois, as Second Class Matter. Copyright, January, 1932, by The Edu- 
cational Screen, Inc. Published every month except July and August. 
$2.00 a Year (Canada, $2.75; Foreign, $3.00) Single Copies, 25 cts. 

• • • • i 
v : : 

The Educational Screen 


WITH this issue The Educational Screen begins 
its second decade, bidding a fond farewell to 
its first. The farewell is distinctly "fond", for 
we feel little desire to repeat. Those who have known 
us best realize that the past ten years have had their 
graver moments for the magazine, to put it mildly. 
There have been times when the old Egyptian assign- 
ment of "bricks without straw" seemed to us by no 
means the last word in hard jobs. One pioneering 
period is enough for most humans, and we claim to 
be human. 

There were four other magazines in the same field 
when we started ten years ago. We have no illusions 

as to why The Educational Screen is the only 

The one of the five to survive. Our own efforts 

Second would never have sufficed. A host of friends 

Mile — in the educational field, in the commercial 

field, and in the field between, thinking lay- 
men — gave us constantly the splendid cooperation with- 
out which our own efforts must have come to naught. 
These friends are now offering us congratulations by 
every mail, as we pass our tenth milestone. Only 
mutual congratulations are in order. So, here and 
now, our sincerest acknowledgements and thanks to 
all those who have helped keep the wheels turning, 
down through The Educational Screen's first ten long 


The decade ahead offers a far more alluring pros- 
pect. The worst of the chaos and colic is past for the 
visual movement. Henceforward it will be afflicted 
chiefly with growing pains, annoying at times but ap- 
parently necessary and quite normal. Through the 
spoon-fed infancy of visual education we did our best 
to help find proper food and manipulate the spoon. 
The change of the infant's diet from milk to meat has 
already begun, to be sure, but it has been painfully 
gradual. Visual education progress through infancy, 
youngsterism and youth to maturity can be safely 
speeded up a bit. It is merely a matter of clearing the 
path. Given a clear path, the sturdy youngster is am- 
ply able to do his own locomotion. 


"HERE is a larger role for The Educational 
Screen in the future than in the past. The visual 
field has shown physical growth that is fairly sub- 
stantial, but interest in the visual idea has widened 
and deepened enormously. Interest must precede 

ulate this interest until it culminates in action. Add- 
ing fuel to a fire is much easier than nursing the 
original spark. Specifically, the task is to remove 
remaining obstacles that are delaying action and the 
forward march. 

Probably no obstacle has so clogged the progress of 
the visual movement as the lack of teacher-training. 

Not long ago there were no teacher-training 

In courses at all. There are now scores. There 

This should be hundreds at the present moment. 

Issue Above all, there should not be a single Normal 

School in the country without regular courses, 
and these required for graduation. The primitive 
idea that visual education means merely throwing a 
switch or pushing a button still survives in too many 
quarters. It is gratifying news that The National 
Academy of Visual Instruction is to make "teach- 
er-training" a major topic for discussion at the Febru- 
ary meeting in Washington. 

We are privileged to begin in this issue a series of 
teaching outlines for use in such courses, as developed 
and used by L. Paul Miller in his work of training 
teachers in visual methods at Bucknell University. 
These outlines will appear consecutively, one in each 
issue, for an indefinite period. The collected issues 
containing them will be invaluable working material 
for those planning or conducting such courses. A 
special 5-issue subscription rate has been established 
for such class groups, renewable as long as series 
lasts. The author earnestly invites all users of the 
material to cooperate actively by written suggestions, 
emendations and additions, in order to develop a com- 
plete technique with full working material for such 
courses. At the author's suggestion, all such commu- 
nications may be sent to The Educational Screen. 

Another problem is the "central bureau." Mam- 
are in operation and they vary endlessly in method and 
organization. An exhaustive study of existing bu- 
reaus has just been completed by Arnold W. Reitze, 
in order to survey the field, harmonize the facts and 
ascertain the consensus of opinion and practice. His 
thesis has been accepted by New York University but 
has not yet been printed. A brief excerpt from it in 
our November issue roused such interest that Mr. 
Reitze agreed to summarize the whole in three arti- 
cles. The first is in this number, entitled "The Organ- 
ization of a City Department of Visual Aids." The 

growth. In general, the task ahead is to feed and sfcink.* -« v£ e L conc ' W 'H appear in February. 


January, 19J2 

Page 3 


'HE FUTURE development of the visual 
movement is going to depend chiefly upon the linns serving the field." The quotes 
are personal. It is a statement of our own made some 
years ago. At the time it evoked vague agreement 
from a microscopic minority, hut more or less frenzied 
denial from the rest. There would be a far louder 
chorus of assent now. 

It is a favorite idea, and an exceedingly venerable 
one in the educational field, that only educators can 
have anything to say about education. 
Education The university atmosphere is strongly 
and the conducive to the hermit attitude of mind 
Business which sees the vast commercial field as 
World an outside world that cannot possibly un- 
derstand the inner mysteries. The schol- 
arly mind unfortunate enough to have attained such 
intellectual isolation is prone to forget at least three 
points— first, that the said commercial world is quite 
thickly peopled with men and women who have re- 
ceived exactly what the scholar himself approves as 
true education; second, that the alumni of daily life, 
the greatest body of alumni in the world, represent a 
greater total of educated mentality than could be 
achieved by all our colleges together ; and, third, that 
there can be no alumnus of any college who does not 
owe the major part of his education to that arch- 
educator, daily life. If these things be true, the world 
outside school and college walls may well have much 
to say about "education." 

The glory of the visual method is its power to bring 
this "daily life" experience of millions to the indi- 
vidual pupil, factual experience from any corner of 
the world within the classroom confines of the most 
isolated country school. The physical means to this 
great end are pictures, maps, charts, models, slides, 
films, and all needed display and projection equipment. 
The mere production of such materials is utterly be- 
yond the resources of any educational institution or 
any combination of them. Years of costly experi- 
mentation in picture production, in cameras, stere- 
opticons and motion picture projectors have already 
been supplied by the commercial world. Millions have 
been spent, countless millions more will be spent. The 
educational field could not have achieved a fraction of 
the experimenting, let alone the production. The past 
accomplishments of visual education have been largely 
a gift from the commercial world — the future of vis- 
ual education will rest almost wholly in commercial 

This situation is nothing new. Consider textbooks. 
In the Pilgrim days any available book had to be a 

textbook. Even two hundred years later Bunyan's 
classic was serving Lincoln as a textbook. Many gen- 
erations of devoted teachers had to make their own, 
laboriously by hand. Only in the nineteenth century 
was the idea developed that textbook-production was 
a task for commercial firms organized expressly for 
that sole purpose. At first the educator wrote the 
text, and let the budding company print it. With the 
growth of organization, the assembly of an expert edi- 
torial staff, the installation of eminent educators with- 
in the company itself, the whole situation changed. 
With rare exceptions the average author-educator now 
writes his book, submits it hopefully, hears the verdict 
respectfully. If favorable, the company goes at the 
manuscript, indicates changes, additions, deletions, 
improvements to be made by the author, determines 
typography and format, then prints and markets the 
book. The modern textbook company makes the text- 
books, letting the educators supply the raw material, 
provided it is the raw material the company wants. 
The commercial world seems to have much to say 
about education where textbooks are concerned. Ob- 
viously educators are and must always be the authori- 
ties on the general content of school texts. No com- 
pany would dream of putting out a book with contents 
not approved by scholars as sound subject-matter for 
schools. But in the creation of American textbooks 
the educator's part is limited. 

It will inevitably be the same in the visual field. 
There will be text-slide and text-film companies, 
equipped with a staff of educational authorities as well 
as technical and commercial experts. The educational 
field will submit subject-matter, or often merely sug- 
gest it ; the company will reject, select and perfect, 
then produce and market the finished material. And 
because the technique of text-picture-production is far 
more complex and costly than textbook-production, 
the companies must have still greater resources and 
broader talent. The future of visual education will 
be even more dependent upon commercial firms than 
textbook-education has ever been. 

IN CASE any of our readers have failed to notice 
it, we may point out superficial bits of evidence 
that The Educational Screen means to progress. 
For several issues we have been experimenting with 
type faces. We are paying attention to the matter of 
lay-out on various pages and believe we are improving. 
And we have done a lot of fussing over the new cover 
of the present issue. Ca vaut la peine, n'est ce pas' 

Nelson L. Greene. 

Page 4 The Educational Screen 

The Organization of a City Department 
of Visual Aids 


II N THIS article some of the more important phases 
| of organization are presented. It is concerned 
primarily with the physical lay-out of the department. 
Organization is dependent upon so many and such 
variable factors that it is impossible to set up any one 
method as superior to all others. Some of the ways in 
which organization methods vary in different cities are 
revealed, several methods for each phase of organiza- 
tion are discussed, whenever possible, and from the 
several methods presented must be selected the one 
which best meets any given situation. 

The Need of Organization 

A carefully organized department is necessary as a 
matter of efficiency, economy, and service. Mr. W. H. 
Dudley in the United States Bulletin on Organization 
for Visual Instruction states : 

"Visual instruction service to be worth- 
while requires careful organization and 
administration, the adoption of a definite edu- 
cational policy, a study of the needs of bor- 
rowers with a view to fitting the service to 
those needs, and unceasing attention to me- 
chanical detail." 

Mrs. Anna V. Dorris in her book Visual Instruction 
in the Public Schools also stresses the importance of 

An organized department means economy in that 
the material is put in circulation and can therefore be 
used more extensively than if it is placed in one 
school. Visual aids can be used most effectively when 
the numerous details connected with the acquiring, up- 
keep, and study of the aids are removed from the 
shoulders of the teacher. 

When organizing a department, it is well to set up 
definite aims or objectives as a goal. Such aims and 
objectives will enable all to realize more fully the re- 
sponsibility and importance of the work of the de- 
partment. The aim may be in the form of a brief 
slogan or a detailed set of objectives. 

Editor's Note : This article is one of a series based on a 
Master's thesis prepared for New York University en- 
titled "The Organization, Functions, and Administration 
of a City Department of Visual Aids". 

A Visual Aids Center 

A visual aids center is a necessary adjunct of an 
organized department of visual aids. It is the nucleus 
around which is built up a systematic use of visual aids. 
Mrs. Dorris in her book states : 

"A centralized bureau either in a state or 
in a community seems to be one of the first 
steps toward effective educational results." 

The visual aids center varies in size, purpose, and 
location in different cities. Some visual aids centers 
are concerned primarily with booking various aids 
from commercial agencies. Other centers are con- 
cerned with the actual circulation of many types of 
aids. Such centers have need for some person in 
charge of the center and several clerks who can care 
for booking, checking, and shipping the various aids. 
Other centers conduct teacher training courses, pro- 
vide an opportunity for teachers to try out the aids, 
make up photographs and lantern slides, and perhaps 
have an educational museum. This type of center re- 
quires a staff of considerable size and also a large 
amount of floor space. 

The place used for the visual aids center varies from 
a single room in some school building to a separate 
building entirely devoted to the department of visual 
aids. A few departments maintain a number of centers 
throughout the city. It seems highly desirable for a 
well organized department to have a separate building. 
This building does not necessarily have to be new ; an 
abandoned school building, which can be converted at 
a minimum cost to suit the needs of the department, 
is adequate at least until the department has been 
placed upon a solid foundation. Some of the rooms 
which might be included in such a building are : a direc- 
tor's office, a general office, a general file and ref- 
erence room, a conference and demonstration room, a 
typical classroom, a file room for mounted pictures, a 
file room for slides, a film storage room, a receiving 
and shipping room, a workshop, a storage room for 
exhibits, and a photographic room. An auditorium 
seating several hundred persons is also desirable. If 
a museum is established as part of the visual aids 
center, additional rooms will be needed. 

January, 1932 

Page 5 

Distribution of Visual Aids 

The distribution of the various aids is a phase of 
organization which must be given careful attention. 
The value and effectiveness of visual material is de- 
pendent upon its timeliness. There are three methods 
in common use for the distribution of visual aids. The 
most desirable plan is that of regular weekly delivery 
and collection service by means of a department truck. 
Another method requires a school to send a messenger 
to the center to collect and return all material. Accord- 
ing to a third plan, the department distributes no 
material from the center but arts as a hooking agent 
for the individual schools. Material is ordered from 
commercial agencies and sent direct to the schools. 
Motion picture film is distributed by the call method, 
through a film circuit, or by a combination of the two. 
The call method is preferable. 

Selection of Visual Aids 

In organizing a department consideration must be 
given to the types of aids which are to be placed in the 
schools and the aids which are to be circulated. A 
decision on this point can be made only after consider- 
ing the many factors involved. Some of the aids 
which are circulated and placed in the schools are : 
16 & 35 MM. Silent Mounted Pictures 

Motion Picture Film Post Cards 
16 & 35 MM. Sound Specimens 

Motion Picture Film Mounted Birds 
Film Slides and and Mammals 

Stillfilm Paintings 

Stereographs Costumed Dolls 

Charts and Figures 

Posters Pageant and 

Maps Play Material 

Exhibits Related Booklets 

Models Sheet Music 

Photographs Phonograph 

Prints Records 

In addition, a number of departments arrange for 
class visits to industries, museums, historical land- 
marks, and similar centers of interest. 

The department must be organized for the selection 
of the various aids and equipment, both those to be 
placed in the schools and those to be circulated. One 
method is to have a number of test schools. In these 
tchools, which should typify the average school in the 
System, the various aids and equipment can be tried 
out under actual classroom conditions. Committees of 
teachers and supervisors will be found invaluable in 
selecting many of the visual aids. The committee sys- 
••■in should also be used in relating the various aids to 
the courses of study. 

The Loan Period 

The department must be organized around a definite 
loan period for which the aids may be retained. Con- 
sidering the many factors involved, a period of one 
week seems to be most desirable. A period of one 
week usually gives ample time to use the material ef- 
fectively and at the same time allows a certain amount 
of flexibility as to when the aids shall be used. A 
shorter period does not allow for any unforeseen hap- 
penings nor does it give an opportunity for using the 
aids more than once. A longer period tends to make a 
teacher lax in arranging her program. 

Printed Matter Needed 

A well organized department has need for many 
and varied printed forms. The size, kind, and num- 
ber used varies greatly among the different depart- 
ments. In general, the forms should be the kind and 
number needed properly to book, file, and record the 
work of the department efficiently. The forms should 
be placed upon standard size paper or cards in order 
that they may be filed economically. Some of the 
most essential forms are : a requisition form, a book- 
ing form, a shortage notification form, an exhibit re- 
port form, a film and slide report, a receipt form, a 
slide checking form, and various shipping labels and 

The department must also issue much printed ma- 
terial including lists of aids, lesson plans, suggestions 
for the use of the various aids and the care of equip- 
ment, catalogs, and other similar information. Since 
most of this material must be retained for some time 
careful attention should be given to its arrangement 
and form. It should be placed on standard size paper 
or cards. For the most part, all printed or mimeo- 
graphed information could be placed on standard let- 
ter size paper. It is well to try out all printed material 
in mimeograph form before it is set in type. Cata- 
logs might best be issued in loose-leaf form, which 
permits adding to them as well as making corrections 
easily. The following suggestion may be helpful in 
making up a catalog. A separate page of the catalog 
should be used to list each film, set of slides or pictures, 
and other aids. This page should include the title, 
the file and catalog number, a list of the individual 
units in the set. and a description of the aid. The 
description should be detailed enough to be used as a 
synopsis. The grade and subject for which the aid is 
suitable should also be included as well as a typical 
picture or two. 

Size and Stock of Films 
The size of motion picture film to be circulated by 
the department must be decided. The two sizes of film 

Page 6 

The Educational Screen 

usually considered for school use are the 16 and 35 
MM. film. The 35 MM. film is made up in two forms ; 
the nitrate or inflammable stock and the acetate or non 
inflammable safety stock. The 16 MM. film comes only 
on safety stock. The nitrate film requires a regular 
licensed operator, a fire-proof booth, and must be stored 
in a fire-proof vault. It is forbidden, for school use, by 
most fire departments. In view of these facts, it seems 
to be for the best interest of the schools to forbid the 
use of nitrate film. If it is necessary or desirable to 
use 35 MM. film only safety stock should be used. 

It is generally agreed that the most effective use 
of any teaching aid is in the classroom. As the 35 MM. 
film is not particularly adapted for classroom use, it 
seems that the 16 MM. offers the solution. A good 
policy to follow seems to be to collect only 16 MM. film 
for the permanent film library. When 35 MM. films 
are needed, they can be borrowed or rented. 

The matter of storage must also be considered. With 
the exclusive use of safety film, in either or both sizes, 
they can be stored in steel cabinets or on steel shelving. 
The size of the reel is another point to think about. 
Through the use of standard size reels, the films can be 
stored easily but there is a tendency to have each reel 
contain the same amount of film regardless of the 
teaching value. Obviously, teaching films should con- 
tain only the number of feet which have educational 
value. While most 35 MM. projectors are equipped to 
use only a thousand foot reel, with the 16 MM. pro- 
jector any size reel up to four hundred feet and on 
some models up to one thousand feet can be handled 
with equal ease. If all school projectors were equipped 
to use the thousand foot reel the film could be placed 
on any size reel from fifty feet to a thousand feet. 

Mounting Pictures 

If mounted pictures are distributed, the department 
must be organized to handle them efficiently. The size 
of the mounting material is important in order that 
it may be filed economically. The standard letter size 
of 8^ x 11 inches seems to be well suited for this 
purpose. The color of the mount must also be con- 
sidered. It should be a color which blends well with 
the many colors found in the pictures and yet it must 
not soil easily. Typical colors used are steel gray and 
chocolate brown. The material used must be stiff and 
yet not brittle neither must it be too thick, else it will 
require much filing space. Material used for mount- 
ing purposes varies from a double thick cover paper 
to photographers' mounting board. The filing of the 
mounted pictures can be done in several ways. Each 
picture may be filed according to title. The better 
way, however, is to arrange them into sets directly 

related to the subjects in the course of study. Each 
set should then be placed in a strong envelope with a 
list of the individual pictures on the outside. 

Individual School Equipment 

The equipment placed in the individual schools is 
dependent upon many factors. Where the funds are 
limited, it is impossible to place the equipment in the 
schools but it must be circulated as are the aids. There 
are many objections to this method and it should be 
avoided if possible. A number of departments require 
each school to purchase its own equipment. This 
method also has many objections. For the most ef- 
ficient results the department should have direct con- 
trol of the equipment. This may be done by the de- 
partment purchasing all equipment or by requiring the 
schools to purchase only approved equipment. For 
economy and ease in teacher training the equipment 
should be standardized. Each school should be 
equipped with a minimum standard amount of equip- 

Classification, Indexing, Filing 

The various aids must be arranged for ease and ef- 
fective use. There are several methods which can be 
employed. One method is to title and number each 
picture, slide, and other aids and then catalog it. Such 
a catalog must be elaborately cross-indexed. With this 
method much time is spent in looking up the aid- 
wanted. Another method is to arrange and classify 
all material according to subject and, if possible, grade. 
This method has the advantage of placing a certain 
amount of material in the hands of the teacher deal- 
ing with a certain subject. However, if not well se- 
lected and graded, much work is required before it 
can be used. A combination of these methods is nec- 
essary for the efficient use of the aids. The arrange- 
ment should be based primarily upon unit sets of 
material directly related to the subject and grade in 
the course of study. The size of the sets of material 
should be reasonably small. It seems well to limit the 
number of individual units in a set to twenty-five. 
These sets can be further divided into units of five. 

The material can be filed according to subject, by 
number classification, or by a combination of these 
methods. Each method has its advantages and disad- 
vantages. In filing by subject matter the material is 
classified according to the subject under which it is to 
be filed. It can then be placed in the files alphabetically 
or by school subjects. As the material under a subject 
increases beyond the number which belong in a unit, 
it is sub-divided into smaller units. An objection to 
this method is the difficulty of selecting suitable subject 

(Concluded on page 11) 

January, 1932 

Page 7 

Units of Instruction (or Teacher 
Training Courses (No. 1) 

How are "Still" Projectors Selected, 
and Proper Focal Lengths Determined? 


Buclmell University, Lewisburg, Penna. 

(A) How are "still" projectors classified? 

Separate types of projectors are available for use 
with (1) glass slides, (2) film slides, (3) still films, 
(4) micro-slides, (5) opaque objects. 

Combination projectors are also on the market, for 
projecting two or more of these types of visual aids, 
or, both slides and motion picture films, by means of 
simple adjustments. Attachments to project film 
slides, stillfilms and micro-slides may also be secured, 
as added equipment for standard glass slide projectors 
previously purchased. 

(B) What factors must be considered in selecting 
"still" projectors? 

(1) They should be portable. 

(2) They should be equipped with Mazda lamps 
of sufficient intensity. The lamps used in pro- 
jectors range from 100 watts to 1000 watts, but 
500-watt lights are most commonly used. All 
standard lamps except the 1000-watt, should be 
designed for use with 110-115 volt lighting cir- 

(3) They should have projection lenses of prop- 
er "equivalent focal lengths" to give sizes of 
images desired on screens, at fixed projection 


Author's Note: — This is No. 1 of a series of units 
of instruction, for training teachers in use of projec- 
tion equipment. The series is intended to pave the 
way for the organizing of teacher-training courses in 
"visual education" in the colleges, as laboratory courses. 
In this teaching of "visual education," emphasis is 
placed on the use of visual aids, such as opaque pic- 
tures, slides, and films which help to teach the me- 
chanics of projection. There is also stress placed 
on individual practice, by student teachers, in use 
of projection equipment. No. 2 of the series will be 
entitled: "How Are 'Still* Projectors Used?" 

Suggestions regarding the series will be very wel- 

(C) What are "equivalent focal lengths?" 

The equivalent focal length, (sometimes designated 
as merely focal length, or lens focus, or abbreviated 
E. F. or F. L.,) of a lens or combination of lenses, is 
the measure of the distance from the lens to the point 
at which all rays passing through the lens form a 
sharp image. In a later unit, in our study of lenses, 
we shall measure focal lengths of lenses, and review 
the relationships between focal lengths, object and 
image distances, and sizes of objects and images. For 
the present these three fundamental laws should be 
learned : 

(1) The size of the image on the screen is in- 
versely proportional to the focal length of the 
projection lens, provided distance between lens 
and screen remains constant. In other words, the 
larger image on the screen is produced by means 
of the smaller focal length lens, at the same dis- 

(2) The size of the image on the screen varies 
directly with the distance from the lens, provided 
the focal length of the lens remains constant. In 
other words, the larger image on the screen is 
produced at the greater distance, with the same 
focal length lens. 

(3) The intensity of illumination of the image 
on the screen varies inversely as the square of its 
distance from the projector. In other words, the 
more brilliant picture is produced at the shorter 
distance, although it is of course smaller. 

These three laws never change. They must be kept 
in mind when determining the focal length to use in 
projection. They will apply equally, of course, when 
we consider motion picture projection later. We first 
measure our projection distance, then determine the 
size of the picture we want on the screen, and then by 
reference to tables (at the close of this unit), find what 
focal length lens to use. 

Page 8 

The Educational Screen 

(D) How does "daylight" projection, through trans- 
lucent screen, differ from projection on opaque 
For so-called daylight projection, the projector is a 
short distance behind the screen. Special types of 
"daylight" projectors are available, as well as projec- 
tion lenses of different focal lengths. The focal lengths 
can be found by reference to catalogs. 

Verbal Aids for Teaching This Unit 
Dorris, Anna V., Visual Instruction in the Public 
Schools, pp. 167-171. 

Catalogs of companies handling projectors. (See "A 
Trade Directory for the Visual Field," any recent is- 
sue of The Educational Screen.) 

Visual Aids for Teaching This Unit 
Samples of all types of "still" projectors. 
Cut-outs from catalogs, of pictures of projectors. 

These can be projected on the screen, by use of opaque 


Motion picture films projected — The Behavior of 

Light and Illumination (Eastman Teaching Films, 

Rochester, N. Y.) 

Individual Practice 

Demonstration lessons, given before the class, on 
(1) "Reflection," and "Refraction," using units 2 
and 3 respectively of the film Behavior of Light, and 
on (2) "Measurement of Illumination," using unit 
2 of the film. Illumination. Refer to teachers' man- 
uals accompanying these films. Construction of 
tests based on these film units should be part of the 
practice work. 

Use of mirrors in opaque projectors, and vertical, or 
"overhead" projectors, to illustrate laws of reflec- 
tion of light rays. 

Use of lenses in glass slide or film slide projectors, to 
illustrate laws of refraction of light. 

Measurements made of distance from lens to screen, 
and of widths of corresponding images on screen, 
for lenses of different focal lengths. Measurements 
made of different distances from lens to screen, 
and of widths of corresponding images on screen. 
for a lens of the same focal length. Results entered 

Written Summary 
Below are references to principal types of "still" projectors, taken from catalogs of dealers : 

Type of Projector 

( 1 ) Glass slides only 

( 2 ) Film slides only 

( 3 ) Micro-slides only 

( 4 ) Opaque objects only. . . 

( 5 ) Glass slides and opaque . 

( 6 ) Film slide attachment . . 

( 7 ) Micro-slide attachment 

( 8 ) Overhead 

( 9 ) Slides and motion films. 

(10) Slides, daylight 

(11) Slides and opaque, day . 

(12) All combined, daylight. 

Add : 

1. . 

2. . 

3. . 

4. . 

Model : 

Watts : 



Dealer : 

Distances From Screen : 

Widths of Images: 

Focal Lengths of Lenses: 

(Compare your results with the following tables.) 

Focus of 

in inches 





Table I. For Opaque Objects 
(6 x 6-inch opening) 

Distance from projector to screen, in feet : 
15 20 25 30 35 40 45 

6 8 10*4 

sy 2 7y 2 °y 2 ny 2 
4/ 2 6 8 9y 2 11 

Ay 2 5/ 2 6y 2 8 9 10 

Focus of 

in inches 




Table II. For Opaque Objects 
(7 x 7-inch opening) 

Distance from projector to screen, in feet : 
15 20 25 30 35 40 

6y sy 4 lm 

5y 7 9 1134 

5 6/2 734 934 10/2 




Table III. 

Fob I. 

Page 9 

intern Slides 

>; 3-inch 

opening i 

Focus of 

1 distance 



to screen, it 

feel : 

lens in in< 



















































6y 2 

7/ 2 








6/ 2 




11 *S 




6/ 2 









8/ 2 


Focus of 

lens in inches 


Table IV. For Strip Film 
(0.687-inch opening ) 

Distance from projector to screen, in feet: 
















M7«// fomt of lens is needed for each different type 
of projector, to secure a picture on the screen of a 
certain Xvidtkt 

To determine what focus or equivalent focal length 
of lens to use, in a projector, refer to table below for 
that type of projector. Find distance in feet from 
screen (in horizontal line at top of table) correspond- 
ing to distance you have the projector from the screen 
when using it. Then go down the vertical column un- 
der that distance, to the approximate width of picture 
that you want to project on the screen. The focus of 

lens, in inches, in the first vertical column, on a hori- 
zontal line with the desired width of picture, is the 
focus you want to use. This is important, in ordering 
the right lenses, when buying new projectors. 

If you already have a projector, equipped with a 
lens of a certain focal length, reverse above procedure, 
to find what distance you must be from the screen to 
get a picture of a certain width, or what width you can 
get at a fixed distance. 

In ordering screens, for projection, be sure to use 
these tables to determine what sizes to get. 

National Academy Meets in Washington 

The thirteenth annual meeting of the National Acad- 
emy of Visual Instruction is to be held February 23 
and 24 in Washington, D. C, concurrently with the 
meeting of the Department of Superintendence of the 
X. E. A. 

The headquarters for the Academy will be at the 
National Press Club, where the regular and luncheon 
sessions will take place. The auditorium of the club 
is equipped with complete projection facilities and will 
be available for the use of speakers who wish to pro- 
ject films or slides with their discussions. 

The first session will convene at ten o'clock on the 
morning of February 23, followed by another in the 
afternoon. There will also be meetings next day, 
February 24, consisting of a regular session at ten 
o'clock, a luncheon at 12:30, and an afternoon meet- 

ing which will be devoted largely to the regular busi- 
ness of the Academy. 

The two subjects which will receive particular atten- 
tion and discussion are, the training of teachers in the 
use of visual aids, and the merging of various visual 
instruction groups into one strong organization — ques- 
tions of paramount importance to the field. 

All visual instruction workers and live educators 
are urged to attend the meeting, which promises to 
be the most significant since the original meeting at 
which the Academy was founded. 

A detailed program of the sessions will appear in 
our February issue. For further information con- 
cerning the National Academy, write to Mr. Ells- 
worth C. Dent, Secretary, University Extension 
Division, Lawrence, Kansas. 

Page 10 

The Educational Screen 


The aim of this new department is to keep the educational field intimately acquainted with the 
increasing number of film productions especially suitable for use in the school and church field. 

A University Talking Film Production 

The use of talking motion pictures by educational 
institutions to acquaint alumni, benefactors and pros- 
pective students with the activities and advantages of 
such institutions is gaining widespread favor. The 
University of Chicago has been one of the first of the 
great universities to avail itself of such an effective 
publicity medium. 

Their film, Life on the Quadrangles, produced by 
the Vitaglo Corporation, has captured the very essence 
of campus life at Chicago. The president and several 
of the college's outstanding educators are introduced. 
Students are shown in their classrooms, club-rooms, 
dining-halls, residence halls and favorite gathering 
places. There are glimpses of various activities and 
sports they engage in — music, dramatics, social affairs, 
archery, swimming, hockey, football, pep meetings, etc. 

The University's educational plan, with its extensive 
library and laboratory facilities, its renowned mu- 
seums, is thus brought to thousands of people in far- 
away places in a complete, realistic and convincing 

Women's Bureau Film 

Behind the Scenes in the Machine Age is the title 
of a new three-reel motion picture available in both 
35 mm. and 16 mm. from the Women's Bureau of the 
United States Department of Labor. 

The picture deals with the general theme of human 
waste in industry, particularly as related to women 
workers. Special emphasis is given to technological 
changes as a possible factor in unemployment, unless 
a well-planned program of adjustment of workers dis- 
placed by machines is adopted. 

The part played by the Women's Bureau in helping 
to avert human waste through its investigations of con- 
ditions pertaining to employed women and its stand- 
ards formulated to promote their welfare, is also fea- 

The beginning of the film stresses the rapid growth 
of industry in this country and the important industrial 
role now played by women in the Machine Age. Nat- 
ional progress, however, is shown to be shadowed by 
human waste in industry, the causes and wide-spread 
effects of which are suggested in animated cartoons. 

The Women's Bureau standards, making for the 
safe and efficient employment of women are outlined in 
a daily dozen rhymes for employers and are graphically 
illustrated by scenes in progressive plants showing 
women engaged in different industrial processes. Fol- 
lowing this is a series of interesting and typical fac- 
tory scenes to picture employers' efforts to cut down 
waste in production through the installation of labor- 
saving machines. A contrast is shown between hand 
and machine processes in the making and handling of 
everyday articles, such as silk hose, cigars, automobile 
cushions, crackers, cereal, lollipops, and so on. Defi- 
nite figures tell the story of increased production and 
decreased numbers of women workers through the use 
of mechanical devices. A long-range program to keep 
workers from suffering, because of these technological 
changes, such ill effects as loss of jobs, wage cuts, mo- 
notony and strain, is advocated. 

Non-Theatrical Field Offered Classic Films 

The motion picture version of Rostand's Cyrano de 
Bergerac, in 8 reels, is available for non-theatrical 
bookings from Prime Pictures Corporation. This film, 
made in France on the original locations of the great 
drama with the co-operation of the French Govern- 
ment, should be of particular interest to French, Eng- 
lish, and Literary departments or groups. 

This firm also distributes the 8- reel opera-drama, 
La Tosca, filmed in Italy with Francesca Bertini in 
the immortal role, and Spiri's renowned juvenile clas- 
sic, Heidi of the Alps, in 5 reels. 

Universal's Basketball Series 

With the waning of the football season, Universal 
will satisfy the sports urge on the screen with three 
Basketball single-reelers. These were made by one of 
the greatest basketball authorities of the United States, 
Dr. Walter Meanwell, mentor of the University of 
Wisconsin Basketball team, which is as much a by- 
word in the Middle West as Notre Dame is in foot- 

The first to be released is Fundamentals of Offense, 
which shows the University of Wisconsin going 

January, 1952 

Page 11 

through some snappy drill work, then finishing with a 
spirited game. The second in the series, Defensive 
Play, demonstrates the fine art of checking, blocking 
and team-play defense, 

European Films for American Exhibitors 

Numerous non-theatrical exhibitors have often de- 
sired to obtain certain foreign silent films on which 
they had heard favorable reports, but the procuring of 
such films was somewhat complicated for them. This 
situation has now been simplified by the establishing 
of a centralized booking system by Mr. George Schnei- 
der of New York, who has specialized in foreign films 
for considerable time. 

Mr. Schneider is handling 80 outstanding German 
I 1 \ productions (mostly with English titles) and 
many other Kuropean films. Since he is thoroughly 
familiar with all the pictures he handles, he can sup- 
ply ample publicity material, an item which is some- 
times lacking in the foreign field. 

As especially fit for school and church showings. 
Frederick the Great, Siegfried and Kricmhilde's Re- 
venue are recommended. 

An Instructive Motion Picture 

The General Biological Supply House of Chicago 
has produced a one-reel 16 mm. motion picture, Vivar- 
ium VitWS, which clearly shows how to establish an 
aquarium, a semi-aquatic habitat, woodland and desert 
habitats. There are also closeups of the animals which 
are placed in each one of these particular habitats and 
views of feeding these animals. 

The film is available for loan to schools. Although 
it is designed primarily to assist teachers in the con- 
struction of a vivarium, it will be of interest to stu- 
dents also, since it depicts numerous intimate phases 
of the living plants and animals used. 

New Releases in Educational Series 

Further releases in the series of Bill Cunningham 
Sports Revieivs, being distributed by Educational Film 
Kxohanges, are Canine' Capers, a graphic and humor- 
ous description of various breeds of dogs with shots 
of some champions, and Hc-Man Hockey, showing 
the training work of a professional hockey team and a 
thrilling game between the Boston Bruins and Detroit. 
The next sport in the series to be portrayed is that of 
automobile racing. 

The latest addition to Educational's Romantic Jour- 
neys series is Road to Romance, in which Claude Flem- 
ming conducts a trip through the wonders of the Grand 
'anyon region, showing particularly some marvellous 

views of the famous Bryce Canyon, done in multi- 

Vitaphone Studio Produces 
Juvenile Subjects 

Six of the series of thirteen one-reel Booth Tark- 
ington juvenile stories being produced for Warner 
Brothers, under the direction of Alf Goulding, have 
been completed. They are, in order of their release, 
Snakes Alive, Batter Up, One Good Deed, Detectuvs, 
His Honor and Hot Dog. 

Seven-year-old Billy Hayes portrays the role of 
Penrod, and David Gorcey, son of the well known 
stage actor, Bernard Gorcey, that of Sam. Jackie Kelk 
is cast as Georgie Bassett, the "mama's boy", and Betty 
Scholar as Marjorie Jones. Tarkington's two little 
pickaninnies, Herman and Verman, are played by 
Paul White and Edward Edwards, respectively, while 
Ray Collins and Lucille Sears appear as Penrod's 
father and mother. 

This series should have particular appeal to young 

The Organization of a City 
Department of Visual Aids 

(Concluded from page 6) 

headings. The system of filing by numbers is usually 
based on the Dewey decimal system of classification. 
Such a system requires considerable study before it 
can be used, but it allows for unlimited expansion. The 
material for the elementary schools might best be 
classified according to school subject and grade. In 
filing, cataloging, and classifying the various aids it 
is well to identi f y each type by prefixing a letter to the 
number or title assigned to the aid. Thus an "F" be- 
fore the title or number would indicate that the aid is 
a motion picture film while an "L" would identify the 
aid as a lantern slide. 

The whole question of organizing a department of 
visual aids is a matter of studying each phase before 
attempting to place it into operation. It is a slow and 
gradual growth based on a careful consideration of the 
many factors involved. Each phase of the organiza- 
tion must be considered in its relation to the school 
system as a whole. Care must be exercised to prevent 
the department of visual aids from becoming an inde- 
pendent department in the sense that it does not fit in 
with the rest of the school system. As the organiza- 
tion is the foundation for the whole structure of the 
department, it should be built accurately and on solid 

Page 12 

The Educational Screen 



A Study of Motion Pictures and Slides 

The subjects for which motion pictures as a means 
of classroom instruction are most effective are geog- 
raphy, science and history, according to a study made 
by Albert H. Covell, superintendent of schools at 
Oneida. He found that there is also opportunity for 
use of motion pictures in the teaching of health, civics, 
shopwork and English. 

The inquiry covered every school system in the State 
maintaining an academic department, with the excep- 
tion of New York City. Of the 645 systems, 494 sent 
replies. These replies indicated that 26% of the 
schools are using motion pictures. Of those who have 
used motion pictures, 70 expressed satisfaction with 
the results, five expressed dissatisfaction, eight were 
indefinite and 44 gave no answer. The general opinion 
was that the use of motion pictures does not result in 
a decreased use of slides. 

At the suggestion of A. W. Abrams, Director of the 
Visual Instruction Division of the Department, Super- 
intendent Covell sought the opinion of officials in six 
places where motion pictures have had extensive trial. 
These places were : Buffalo, Pittsburgh, Cleveland, 
Schenectady, Kansas City and Batavia. In general, 
the officials were agreed that slides offer a more definite 
opportunity to make specific observations ; that slides 
are likely to secure more complete preparation of the 
teacher than are motion pictures ; that such matter 
should not be included in motion picture films which is 
not primarily the representation of motion or action ; 
and that the qualities added to the instructional pro- 
cedure by motion pictures which slides do not yield are 
life, vitality, continuity, motion and novelty. 

The University of The State of New York Bulletin 
to the Schools contains a brief account of Superin- 
tendent Covell's study, but the complete report may 
be obtained from him by those who are interested. 

Federal Supervision of Movies Advocated 

At a movie conference held last October in Rome 
at the International Educational Cinematograph Insti- 
tute of the League of Nations, under the auspices of 
the International Council of Women, recommendations 
were unanimously adopted to take steps to overcome 
the difficulties of blind and block booking, and to in- 

stitute governmental regulation of film making. Mrs. 
Robbins Gilman, president of the Federal Motion Pic- 
ture Council, and Mrs. Diehl, chairman of the Com- 
mittee on Motion Pictures of the National Council of 
Women, were present and rendered valuable services 
in securing these resolutions. 

Motion pictures also came in for their share of con- 
sideration at the general convention of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church at Denver. By an almost unani- 
mous vote, the convention adopted a petition to Cong- 
ress providing for the federal supervision of films in 
interstate and foreign commerce establishing higher 
moral standards to be applied before pictures are 

Programs for George Washington 

Nation-wide observance of the Two Hundredth An- 
niversary of the birth of George Washington will 
begin February 22 and extend to Thanksgiving Day, 
1932. While February 22 will be especially celebrated, 
Memorial Day, Flag Day, Independence Day, Labor 
Day, Thanksgiving and other days of historical sig- 
nificance will be devoted to programs portraying Wash- 
ington's personality and career. 

The Bicentennial Commission has prepared a book- 
let containing an outline of suitable programs entitled 
"Suggested Programs for the Bicentennial Celebra- 
tion," which includes a comprehensive list of significant 
anniversaries of events associated with Washington 
and his contemporaries. 

An exhibit of books, pamphlets, pictures and other 
objects connected with George Washington and his 
time has been undertaken by the Public Library of 
Washington, D. C, of which Dr. George F. Bower- 
man is librarian. The Bicentennial Commission an- 
nounces that it will soon publish a special library 
bulletin showing pictures of several model exhibits and 
outlining methods by which the libraries can play an 
important part in the Bicentennial Celebration. This 
bulletin will be sent to every school and public library 
in the United States. Libraries are urged to start col- 
lecting all the data they have available on George 
Washington for similar exhibits. 

One of the outstanding features of its program is 
the making of a motion picture of the life of George 

January, 1952 

Page 13 

\\ mrtiing ton which is regarded as an accurate record 
of Washington's acts and of the customs, costumes 
and buildings of his time. 

Survey on Visual Aids in Health and 
Physical Education 

Mr. Franklin B. Hoar, of the Department of Phy- 
sical Education at Taylor Allderdice High School, 
Pittsburgh, Pa., has compiled an extensive list of films 
on his "Survey on Visual Aids in the Field of Physical 
and Health Education" which should prove valuable 
to teachers in that field. 

He has organized the film material into the follow- 
ing classifications : Health; Muscular and Skeletal 
System: Respiratory System; Excretory System: 
Nervous System; Circulatory System; Eyes, Nose, 
Ears, Teeth; Posture. Corrective Gymnastics; Nutri- 
tion: First Aid; Safety: Disease. Physical Educa- 
tion includes : Aquatics ; Outdoor Sports and Games ; 
Baseball; Football; Tennis; Golf; Track and Field; 
Tumbling; Wrestling and Boxing, Fencing, etc. 

Information on the size, stock and sources of the 
films is given. Those who are interested in this list 
can obtain a mimeographed copy from Mr. Hoar at 
the above address. 

Further Tests to be Made on Value 
of Sound Pictures 

A study to determine the value of sound motion pic- 
tures in the teaching of General Science is to be made 
by Harvard University, co-operating with the Uni- 
versity Film Foundation under a grant from the Car- 
negie Fund. The experiment will be conducted with 
classes taking General Science in the Junior High 
Schools of Lynn. Quincy, and Revere, Mass. 

Three hundred students will be instructed with films 
and text books over a period of six weeks. 

Six of the eight films to be used were produced by 
the University Film Foundation and the tests were 
devised by the Harvard graduate school of education. 

Visual Education on Pittsburgh Program 

A Round Table on Visual Education was conducted 
at the Pennsylvania State Education Association meet- 
ing December 28-30. President Wilber Emmert of 
State Teachers College, Indiana, spoke on "Present 
Status and Some Tendencies in Visual Education." 
Other addresses were: "Training Teachers in Service 
in the Use of Visual and Sensory Techniques," by C. 
F. Hoban, State Director of Visual Instruction, and 
"Responsibility of a School District in Financing a 

Visual Instruction Program." by Albert Lindsay Row- 
land, Superintendent of Cheltenham Township 
Schools. Demonstrations were given on the Use of 
Visual Aids in Geography, History, English and Sci- 

Mr. Hoban also contributed to the Graded School 
Department session with a discussion of "Visual Edu- 
cation as an Aid in the Development of Future Citi- 
zens." Mr. John A. Hollinger, Director of Depart- 
ment of Science and Visualization, Pittsburgh, put 
visual education on the program of the Agriculture 
Section with an address on "Visual Aids in Agricul- 

Mrs. Dessez Returns to Field 

One of the prominent names in the educational field 
of pictures for more than a decade past is that of Mrs. 
Elizabeth Richey Dessez. For many years head of the 
Educational Department of Pathe, later with Fox- 
Case, Mrs. Dessez left the field entirely for a time. 
Her thousands of friends will be glad to know that 
this able and charming executive is back again in the 
field where she belongs. Mrs. Dessez is now with 
Beacon Films, Inc., New York City, who specialize in 
the production and exhibition of motion pictures for 
the non-theatrical field. Mrs. Dessez is Director of 
Public Relations. 

Visual Aids in Social Work 

The Social Work Publicity Council is an informally 
organized clearing house of information and ideas on 
publicity methods. One of their recent news bulletins 
emphasizes the power of cartoons, graphs, posters, 
symbols and pictures in conveying messages to the 
public. In Europe, puppets are commonly used as an 
aid to health and social education. The bulletin car- 
ries a news item on the availability of a new film on 
child welfare sponsored by the Massachusetts Society 
for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children. 

Further information on the work of the Council 
can be secured by addressing inquiries to 130 E. 22nd 
Street, New York City. 

Scotland to Have School Films 

With the establishment of the Scottish Educational 
Cinema Society begins the first important movement 
to examine the teaching value of the film and to have 
the findings carried into effect in the schools. The 
aims of this society, which is mainly composed of 
teachers, are to investigate the place of the motion pic- 
ture in education ; to discover the best methods of 

(Concluded on pay? 19) 

Page 14 

The Educational Screen 



New York State Education (December) "Stand- 
ards for the Selection of Pictures" is the second of a 
series of articles by Mr. A. W. Abrams, Director of 
the New York State Visual Instruction Division, ap- 
pearing in this publication. 

If the most desirable results are to be secured with 
pictures, they must have certain characteristics, just as 
certain standards of language expression have been 
recognized. Mr. Abrams names the following stand- 
ards for picture selection : truthfulness, authenticity, 
quality, significance and attractiveness. 

High Points (November) "Organizing the Visual 
Instruction Program," by Harvey N. Smith of Abra- 
ham Lincoln High School, New York City, describes 
the functioning of the Visual Instruction Division of 
that city. The purpose of the Division is to assist and 
co-operate with the various departments in the use of 
visual aids. This work is divided into two parts : first, 
that of facilitating the use and distribution of equip- 
ment, and second, that of collecting and classifying in- 
formation concerning available material. The writer 
is convinced that visual instruction has come to stay 
and that older methods must give way to the new. 
But, if any measurable outcome is to be expected, the 
teacher must know her visual material. 

The Historical Outlook (November) "Slide-Mak- 
ing and the Social Studies Laboratory, III", by An- 
nette Glick, Assistant Director, Visual Education Di- 
vision, Los Angeles City Schools, completes this valu- 
able series of articles on slide making. None of our 
readers actively engaged in visual work should fail to 
obtain these three discussions. 

The Living Age (December) "America's Film Mo- 
nopoly" discusses the increasing hostility of Europe to 
American production, particularly since talkie develop- 
ment. The editor writes that the American film in- 
dustry had reached an impasse in 1927-28, with for- 
eign markets falling off noticeably. 

The talking film brought salvation. Not that it was dis- 
covered by some happy chance just at that time. The inven- 
tion had been made long ago but it had not been adopted 
because up to that time there had been a good market for 
silent films. But, when the film industry noticed that its 
income curve had begun to drop, it accepted with pleasure 
the offers of new capital made by rich electrical manufac- 
turers, although it had, of course, enough reserve funds to 

continue in business for some time. Now that the talking 
films were backed by the fine new money of the electrical 
industry, the conquest of the European films began in earnest. 
American or Americanized talkies were to rule the theatres 
of Europe. Americans bought or financed European theatres, 
supported or controlled film companies, and established their 
own studios to make talkies in European languages. 

In the November issue of Living Age, Mickey 
Mouse again appears in the "As Others See Us" de- 
partment. This time, however, there is only approba- 
tion for this rakish screen creature. Under the cap- 
tion, "America's Comic Draughtsmen", we find an 
English viewpoint offered by Paul Nash, a contribu- 
tor to the Week-end Review of London. He divides 
the cartoonists of America into three classes, whose 
work he describes as follows. 

"The three principal channels of expression are the 
film, the newspaper comic strip, and illustrated books 
and periodicals. Through these mediums a constant 
stream of inspired nonsense gushes out. I say 'in- 
spired' because American humor so often has that ele- 
ment of brilliant, spontaneous invention that is the 
essence of wit — something unlikely but instantly con- 
vincing; a percussion of ideas that fires laughter like 
a gun. Take, for instance, the daring absurdities cre- 
ated by Walt Disney in his Mickey Mouse cartoons. 
Disney's genius lies in his extravagant impossibilities ; 
he has done more to release our inhibited consciousness 
than the solemn assurance of many psychoanalysts. It 
used to be thought unreasonable to want the moon ; 
now, Mickey Mouse can just make an incredibly long 
arm and reach it down. Only the film could have given 
Disney his opportunities, but only a very gifted artist 
could have exploited them as he has done." 

Educational Focus (October) This number con- 
tains two articles which should prove of particular 
value to our readers. "This Week's News in Pictures," 
by Edward Mayer, is an account of the work done 
by the Department of Visual Instruction of the Uni- 
versity of California with Current Events Illustrated . 
a weekly filmslide newsreel, which was issued to a 
number of schools last year. Although this service 
proved to be a valuable and practical visual aid and 
fulfilled all expectations, it has been discontinued by 
the University for the time being. 

In "Slide Making in the Classroom" Miss Muriel 
Pettit relates how her Physiology and Biology stu- 

January, 1932 

Page 1$ 

dents prepare their own lantern slides. This activity 
arouses greater interest and results in quicker learning 
of the illustrated subject. 

Educational Focus is a quarterly publication issued 
by Bausch and Lomb Optical Company to all those 
requesting it: 

Parents' Magazine (November) Dr. Fred East- 
man's second article entitled. "What Can We Do 
about the Movies?", discusses the methods whereby 
the motion picture trust gained complete and auto- 
cratic cunt ml of the industry, and the possible remedies 
to defeat this trust. An excellent article for our read- 
ers who may need reminding of this crucial and ever- 
nt situation. 

The Oklahoma Teacher (November) "The Magic 
Carpet of Visual Education," by Mary Pruitt of Web- 
ster Junior High School, Oklahoma City, is an extended 
account of the tests made at Washington last summer 
to determine the value of visual education through 
the use of sound motion pictures. 

International Review of Educational Cinematog- 
raphy (September) In this issue we find another in- 
stallment of the investigation by Mr. Lucien Viborel in 
the Departments of France. Again we emphasize the 
importance of this writing to our readers. Prof. Lio- 
nello Petri's "Utilisation of the Moving Picture for 
Agriculture", supplemented by F. W. Albertson's and 
H. B. Reed's enquiries into this same field, offer a 
mass of vital reading. M. P. DeVuyst's "The Im- 
provement of Rural Life and Cinema" is of particular 
interest to teachers employed in rural districts. Walter 
Cumber's, "The Film Lecturer in the Country" is, al- 
so, valuable to this group. ■ 

The report on "The Cinema and the School" is con- 
cluded in the November issue of this worthy maga- 
zine. The conclusions derived from the teachers' re- 
plies to the questionnaire are summarized briefly and 
offer a valuable contribution to the data on this field. 

Book Reviews 

The jargon of certain film critics indicates their sat- 
isfaction at crusading : they have founded their line of 
patter on the one word, Job. Probably, they experi- 
ence a nice warm sensation of fearless virility each 
time they employ their pet "key-word :" and how they 
must feel "in the movement" by not shirking what they 
love to call the social urgencies! 

Cinema (By C. A. Lejeune. London: Alexander 
MacLehose & Co. Price 5s.) is an honest job of criti- 
cism out to tackle honest jobs of cinema! Well, well! 

Do You 

Teach Geography? 

IM F >-«n teach or direct the teaching of Geography, you Will 
I want to investigate The Journal of Geography, an illustrated 
m monthly magazine owned by the National Council of Geogra- 
phy Teacher*, and published especially for teachers. 

THE JOURNAL GIVES YOU— Supplementary material for stu- 
dents and teachers . . . confidence by enabling- you to know 
the best and thus keep several leagues ahead of the non-sub- 
scribers . . . success to teachers and students who sincerely 
want it. 

If you are not familiar with this splendid magasine pin this ad 
to your letterhead and the next copy will be sent to yoti FREE 
of charge. 


3333 Elston Ave. 
Chicago, 111. 


It's quite neat to believe in the film as only a celluloid 
job, but I happen also to believe in it as magic. What 
of the dark theatre, the hypnosis of the light oblong, 
the beams of the projector's lens tangling and twisting 
in space before they fall onto the screen? 

It is important that our critics should learn that, so 
often, the actual images do not matter : it is what they 
suggest that counts. Poetically, cinema can be made 
into a far surer formula for strange loveliness than 
crystal gazing. In other words, can the true poetry of 
cinema be covered by the Job heading? 

Stargazing (By June Head. London: Peter Davies. 
Price 5s.) is a most joyous work written with a genu- 
ine love of the "screen magic." It is a great relief 
after a glut of books which are so true that one is 
puzzled to know what they are all about. 

Other new film books over here include : Talking 
Pictures by Bernard Brown (Published by Sir Isaac 
Pitman & Sons. 12/6.) which is a sound if customary 
technical manual, Walking Shadows by Eric Walter 
White (Published by The Hogarth Press. 2/6.) which 
is a long essay on the silhouette films of Lotte Reini- 
ger, and Celluloid by the excellent Paul Rotha (Pub- 
lished by Longmans. 7/6.) 

Oswell Blakeston. 

Page 16 

The Educational Screei 


Being the Combined Judgments of a National Committee on Current Theatrical Films 

(The Film Estimates, in whole or in part, may be reprinted only by special arrangement with The Educational Screen) 

Titles of Films (Actors) (Producers) 

Anybody's Blonde (Dorothy Re- 
vier) (Action) Cheap concoction of 
crooked prize-fighting, night club 
villains, and cabaret girls — with 
mediocre acting and crude direction 
as chief features. 

Around the World in 80 Minutes 
(Douglas Fairbanks) (United Ar- 
tists) Glorified travelog on oriental 
countries and peoples, skillfully 
made for fun, not information, but 
gives both. Continuous chatter by 
Doug, written by Robert Sherwood, 
with stunts, acrobatics, trick cam- 
era-work. Most entertaining trav- 
elog yet made. Long. 

Beau Hunks (Laurel and Hardy) 
(4 reels) (M-G-M) Excellent non- 
sense comedy, burlesquing Beau 
Geste and Foreign Legion stuff. 
These amusing apostles of general 
futility are getting near the top 
among screen comics. Character 
work defter and surer, and they 
wisely avoid the risque and vulgar. 

Blonde Crazy (James Cagney, 
Joan Blondell) (Warner) Exploits 
breezy, brazen sophistication of 
young hero and heroine. Glorifies 
"easy money" racketeering as aim 
in life. No gun-play. Swindling 
by trickery instead. Hero faces jail 
at end, but still wins out by happy 
reconciliation with sweetie. Enter- 

Cheat, The (Tallulah Bankhead) 
(Paramount) Fine acting by hero- 
ine in cheaply sensational film. 
Happily married, gambling gets 
her financially involved with rich 
villain, who brands her in Oriental 
style and husband is tried for mur- 
der she commits. Everybody lavish- 
ly rich. Highly unconvincing. 

Compromised (Rose Hobart, Ben 
Lyon) (First National) Rich, self- 
made father forces son to begin at 
the bottom and live in suburb near 
factory. Falls devotedly in love 
with boarding-house slavey — orphan 
of disreputable mother — and fights 
all father's efforts to separate them. 
Rather human and interesting. 

Deceiver, The (Ian Keith) (Co- 
lumbia) Backstage murder-mystery- 
detective-thriller above average of 
its kind. Great dramatic star is 
also cruel Lothario and blackmailer. 
Two murders and a surprising solu- 
tion make interesting complications. 
Good suspense. Probably unobjec- 

Delicious (Gay nor and Farrell) 
(Fox) Gaynor and Farrell again at 
their charming best in charming 
little story, about little Scotch im- 
migrant girl and rich young polo- 
playing aristocrat. El Brendel, his 
valet, is a bit funnier and less silly 
than usual. Thoroughly enjoyable 






See it 
and think 


of kind 



(15 to 20) 








(under 15) 








Titles of Films (Actors) (Producers) 

Devil Plays. The (Jameson Thom- 
as) (Chesterfield) Meaningless title 
for murder-mystery story that mys- 
tifies thoroughly, holds suspense to 
end, but otherwise mediocre. Role 
of the writer of mystery stories 
who solves the crime excellently 
played by Thomas, who should be 
used for better pictures. 

Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde (Fred- 
ric March) ( Paramount > March ex- 
cellent in title role, also Miriam 
Hopkins as mistress, fine support- 
ing cast, notable direction, extra- 
ordinary photography. But story is 
distorted, Hyde grotesquely exag- 
gerated, his sex side heavily ex- 
ploited — for maximum horror and 

False Madonna, The (Kay Fran- 
cis, William Boyd ) ( Paramount) 
Traveling crook quartet assign Kay 
Francis to impersonate long-lost 
mother of rich young orphan for 
swindling purposes. Blind and 
mortally ill, his love and devotion 
revive her better self. Racketeering 
is made very unalluring. Human 
and convincing story. 

Guilty Generation, The (Leo Car- 
rillo) (Columbia) Gangsterism made 
unalluring. King racketeer, swag- 
gering vulgarian, with Florida 
home a la Capone but only fear 
and unhappiness for family. His 
daughter and son of rival gangster 
make romantic complications. AH 
is solved when old mother shoots 
her "hero" son. 

Heaven on Earth (Lew Ayres) 
(Universal) Stupid title for medio- 
cre film of feud between steamboat 
captains and poor white "river 
rats" living along shore. Melodra- 
matic flood brings hectic climax and 
reconciliation between hero and 
foster father whom he had left for 
shanty life. Unconvincing. 

Husband's Holiday (Clive Brook) 
(Paramount! Realistic little study 
of infidelity and unhappy marriage, 
done with seriousness, decency and 
humor. Not cheap, sexy, or sensa- 
tional. Husband and wife work 
back to reconciliation quite con- 
vincingly. Much unhappiness 
throughout but entertaining. 

In the Line of Duty (Sue Carol, 
Noah Beery) (Monogram) Second or 
third-rate Western, with stale 
Northwest Mounted story. Most of 
the acting is painfully inferior, and 
Noah Beery scowls, snarls, drinks 
and fights to excess. 

Ladies of the Big House (Sylvia 
Sidney) (Paramount) Artificial, 
sensational story of innocent young 
married couple framed by gangster 
rival and crooked officials. Many 
reels of sordid prison life for wom- 
en, death cells for men, made as 
harrowing as possible. Happy end- 
ing relieves agony only in part. 




of kind 


of kind 







(15 to 20) 








(under 15 









January, 1932 

Page 17 

Title* of Film* (Acton) (Producer*) 

Men of Chance < Mary Antor. 
Ricardo Cortes) < Paramount! Ex- 
plolta "big money" and Cortex as 
crooked, racetrack gambling hero, 
nearly beaten by "Countess" foisted 
on him by his enemies. But "love" 
comes and cures all. Chief merit 
John Halliday's acting of a minor 

Over the Hill i Mae Marsh. James 
Dunn) (Fox i The old-fashioned, 
very sentimental, village-life story 
of devoted mother's joy and sorrow 
over her four children could hardly 
be better done. Notable acting by 
principals. Genuine, convincing, 
wholesome, but very sad and de- 
pressing in parts. Happy ending. 

Nice Women (Sidney Fox, Alan 
Mowbray) (Universal) Pleasant Jit- 
tle realistic comedy. Poor but am- 
bitious family tries to marry off 
older daughter to rich and charm- 
ing man. Complications enable 
younger daughter to marry him in- 
stead. Two notably well-played 
roles. Some objection, but total 
effect good. 

Peach O* Reno i Wheeler and 
Woolsey ) ( RKO , Fast farce, with 
hokum, shady wisecracks and usual 
horseplay of these "stars". Mostly 
burlesque of Reno and divorce, with 
the stars as crack-brained divorce 
lawyers. Quite laughable or boring, 
depending on one's taste in amuse- 

Private Lives (Norma Shearer 
and Robert Montgomery (M-G-M i 
Elaborate sex -exploitation. Divorced 
pair marry new mates. The two 
.mi pies begin honeymoon at same 
hotel. Old love revives, original 
pair elopes to resume same old al- 
ternation of wrangling and amor- 
ous love-making for reels. Lively 
and humorous- 
Rainbow Trail, The (George O'- 
Brien) (Fox) Typical and very ordi- 
nary Western, of complex struggle 
over gold fields in 1880. Usual 
thrills and dangers and deaths. Ex- 
traordinary for splendid photog- 
raphy of the Grand Canyon as 
background for the action. 

Secret Witness, ThelUna Merkell 
< Columbia ) Murder-detective-mys- 
tery rather above average and 
fairly free from objectionable ele- 
ments. Ingenious crime, rather in- 
terestingly solved by heroine 
Methods of creating and holding 
suspense to the end not dramatic- 
ally sound but quite effective. 

Sherlock Holmes' Fatal Hour (A. 

Wontner) (Warner) Poor title for 
English production of real interest, 
making Sherlock and famous fel- 
low-characters convincingly true. 
Two Doyle stories woven together. 
Fairly good technique, good acting. 
slow tempo of real life, fine English 
finely spoken. 

Sooky (Jackie Cooper, Robert 
Coogan) (Paramount) Interesting 
realistic, heart -interest story of 
little rich boy and poor boy, 
staunch pals. Mostly thoroughly 
amusing but very pathetic at times. 
Too much megaphone control makes 
the boys' speeches and actions rath- 
er unboylike in spots. Generally 

Sporting Chance. The (Buster 
Collier) (Peerless) Racetrack story 
of no distinction whatever — the us- 
ual crookedness in owners and 
jockeys — the girl — hero wins final 
race in blase of glory, etc. etc. 
Just another imitation film, made 
in a hurry for what it will bring 
in at the box office. 





(15 to2«) 



Fine of 



bat food 



on taste 


(under 15) 

Titles of Films (Actors) (Producers) 





See it 
and think 





Good of 













but sad 


Strictly Dishonorable ( Paul Lu- 
kas, Sidney Fox. Lewis Stone) 
(Universal* Charming, sophisticated 
comedy beautifully acted by the 
three principals. In part a strong 
argument in favor of "love" with- 
out marriage, but avoids the cheap 
or offensive. Fine dialog, fine direc- 
tion, fine photography. 

Surrender < Warner Baxter. Leila 
Hyamsi (Fox) Grim, depressing 
picture of life in German prison 
camp during great war. with ro- 
mance furnished from nearby cas- 
tle. Soundly realistic rather than 
sensational. Plot and action only 
fair, but total effect genuine. Ex- 
cellent propaganda against war. 

Tonight or Never (Gloria Swan- 
son) (United Artists) Highly sexed 
comedy, typically made for Gloria's 
clothes, form, and voluptuous go- 
ings-on. Temperamental prima-don- 
na needs "love" for sake of her art, 
chases and wins a lover, is instant- 
ly a greater artist next day, so 
marries him. Hardly notable. 

West of Broadway (John Gilbert, 
Lois Moran) (M-G-M) Rich hero 
returns invalid from war, finds 
fiancee marrying another. Hence, 
drunken orgy, marriage to gold-dig- 
ger heroine — attempts divorce but 
good little heroine, really in love, 
wins out. Mostly mediocre enter- 
tainment, including the acting. 

Working Girls (Charles Rogers. 
Paul Lukaa) (Paramount) Simple, 
direct story, attempting to be real- 
istic and not sensational— but made 
worthless by naive direction, stupid 
dialog, and very dull acting. Paul 
Lukas wasted. 





mi tastt 





(IS to 2*) 


(ander IS) 

Jy no 











Morrison Hotel 

Clark and Madison Streets 

Centrally located. Nearest 
to stores, offices, theatres 
and r e i I r o e d stations. 
Guest rooms are all out- 
side with bath, circulating 
ice water, bed-head read- 
ing lamp and Servidor. 
Garage Facilities, 

Managing Director 

2500 Rooms 
$3.00 Up 

The World's Tallest Hotel 
Stories High 

Page 18 

The Educational Screen 



Talkies for the Church 

We note that Sacred Heart Church of Highland 
Falls, N. Y., has purchased a 16 mm. talkie reproduc- 
ing outfit. The fact that a talkie reproducer operating 
with theatre-like efficiency can now be secured for less 
than $700, coupled with the availability of an increas- 
ingly satisfactory supply of educational and entertain- 
ment sound releases for use with it, points definitely 
to a serious consideration of talkies for church use. 

One manufacturer's 16 mm. sound reproducer, using 
sound discs and, optionally, either a 400-watt or 375- 
watt projection lamp, projects pictures up to 16 feet 
wide with a sound accompaniment that will fill any 
church auditorium seating up to 2500 or 3000 people. 

Movies Come in Handy for Meetings 
of Parish Organizations 

A movie projector comes in handy for many meet- 
ings held in the church. Boy Scout gatherings, for 
example, are wonderfully "pepped up" by motion pic- 
ture programs. A wealth of films for such occasions 
is readily available and the enthusiasm engendered 
makes for tremendously increased morale. 

The other night an Illinois Boy Scout troop was 
given a treat with the following program of four 
movies: America's Heritage, a Felix the Cat comedy, 
Why Be a Goose?, a safety picture, and a Grantland 
Rice Sportlight. 

Churches with boys' clubs can always find a means 
of stimulating interest and attendance by showing 
movies, and men's clubs and other adult organizations 
respond to movies seemingly just as enthusiastically, 
although of course the program pabulum has to be 
slightly different. We say "slightly" quite advisedly, 
for young and old often react with almost equal ap- 
proval to Felix for example. 

Of course, it goes without saying, the oldsters do not 
want everything on a comedy basis. In considering 
program material for adult organizations don't forget 
that there are many travel films available on a free loan 
basis. These can be secured from many steamship 
companies and travel agencies on request. The writer 
recently saw one picture of this character which he 
esteemed particularly worthwhile. It was called Graf 

Zeppelin over Europe, and was secured from the Ham- 
burg-American Line. 

For the missionary societies there is a comparatively 
large volume of mission films to draw from. A num- 
ber of these are so broadly informative as to condi- 
tions in the countries depicted that they would be in- 
teresting to many adult parish organizations other 
than those strictly concerned with mission work. 

A quite comprehensive list of such films is to be 
found in the "Sources of Religious Films" issued by 
the Bell & Howell Company, a copy of which will be 
sent free on request to the editor of The Educational 

Improved 16 mm. Silent Projection 

The other evening at the football dinner of North- 
western University in the grand ballroom of the Stev- 
ens Hotel, Chicago, the writer had the pleasure of wit- 
nessing the showing of pictures sixteen feet wide with 
a 16 mm. silent projector. 

The little projector weighing only about ten pounds 
was placed in the ballroom balcony opposite a screen 
regularly used for 35 mm. pictures, 160 feet away. 
The efficiency of the apparatus seemed little less than 

A short time ago it was the generally accepted opin- 
ion that 16 mm. projection was suitable for groups of 
300 persons at most. Now, with the tremendously im- 
proved efficiency demonstrated by such a projector as 
that used at the Northwestern gathering, practically 
any sized audience can be satisfactorily served with 
16 mm. film. 

Obviously, this means that churches everywhere can 
use 16 mm. films effectively. They can use such films 
not only for group meetings, such as club and circle 
gatherings, but also for services held in the main audi- 
torium of the church. 

Change in Film Distributorship 

We note an important change in distributorship of 
one of the most extensive series of religious films, in- 
cluding the / Am The Way and Spirit of Christ at 
Work pictures. The service formerly offered by the 
International Film Service, Inc., has been discontinued. 
The films may be drawn, however, from Beacon Films, 
Inc., 25 W. 45th St., New York; Religious Motion 

January, 1932 

Page 19 

Picture Foundation, 140 Nassau St., New York; and 
the Y. M. C. A. National Council Motion Picture Bu- 
reau, with offices both in New York and Chicago. 
The first mentioned of these sources, Beacon Films, 
Inc., also offers on a rental or "road show" basis a 
number of full length entertainment and educational 
features, specially selected for church use. The last 
mentioned, the Y. M. C. A. has about 500 excellent 
free and rental (silent) 16 mm. films. Catalogs will 
be sent by these organizations, upon request. 

McAII Mission of France Uses Movies 
for Securing American Support 

This interesting invitation card is used by the Amer- 
ican Mi All Association to secure attendance for show- 
ings of its film Sunshine and Shadow in France. 

"This card." says C G. Bittner, Field Representa- 
tive of the association, "will be distributed during the 


A motion picture "film 
presented by the Amer- 
ican McAII Association 
in behalf of the Mission 
Populaire Evengelique 
(McAII Mission of 

Depicting: ' 

1. France as the tourist sees it. 

2. France as it really is. 

3. Timely views of the Colonial Eiposition. 

4. The program of Christian service in the McAII Mission 
for thousands whose lives are spiritually barren. 

next six months to the congregations of hundreds of 
churches, to young people's societies, meetings of Boy 
Scouts, Girl Scouts, and kindred organizations." 

The little girl holding the Filmo camera which was 
used in making the film enjoys, so we are told, the 
French nickname of Dedc. We are sure it was a proud 
moment for her when she was permitted to hold the 
"appareil" and look through the viewfinder. 

News and Notes 

{Concluded from payc 13) 

using films ; to determine the most suitable type or 
types of projection apparatus and screens for use in 
schools without electric power, and to collect and dis- 
tribute information regarding films suitable for school 
use. It is proposed to establish a library of educa- 

tional films by collecting and re-editing for school use 
non-inflammable copies of films at present available, 
and by preparing for teaching purposes films not avail- 
able through trade channels. Membership in the li- 
brary will be open for educational purposes to schools, 
educational bodies, juvenile organizations, and indi 

Educational Film Congress in Paris 

A national congress of educational film was recent- 
ly held in Paris at which every aspect of the educa- 
tional use of films was considered and important 
resolutions taken toward obtaining closer co-operation 
among the various bodies using or distributing films 
as a means of education. A permanent commission 
has been instituted to insure contact between the official 
or semi-official regional and departmental film libraries. 
It is hoped that this will put an end to overlapping and 
dispersed efforts, to the waste of money, and to petty 

It appeared during the Congress that there are now 
in France 6,000 projectors in various institutions using 
educational films. 

Over 100,000 
Seemann Slides 

In all subjects of Science, Art, Religion, 
Literature, Music, Technic, etc. 

Famous paintings reproduced in their original 
colors, with introductory texts, in beautiful loose 
leaf bindings. 






"The Life of Jesus", sixty picture* in color, 
large and small sizes. 

Send for free Lists and information. 

International Artprints 

64 East Lake Street, Chicago, 111. 

Page 20 

The Educational Screen 

Films for Washington and 
Lincoln Programs 

NOTICE is given in the News and Notes Depart- 
ment of this issue of plans for Washington Bi- 
centennial programs to begin on February 22. We 
offer the following list of films, with brief description, 
as suggestions to those who desire to use appropriate 
motion pictures in connection with such programs. 

George Washington, His Life and Times (A ser- 
ies of four 1-reel subjects) The official motion pic- 
ture life of George Washington, distinguished for 
its historical authenticity as well as for its vivid 
story. The film emphasizes those features in the 
life of Washington which reveal his character and 
which reflect the conditions and spirit of his times. 
Many of the scenes were taken where the original 
events actually occurred. Available in 16 mm. and 
35 mm. from Eastman Teaching Films. 

Washington, The Man and the Capital (2 reels) 
Specially produced for the Bicentennial Celebration 
with Clarence Whitehill playing the title role. Many 
scenes photographed on exact historical spots. Dis- 
tributed by Warner Brothers. 

Yale Chronicles of America — The Gateway to the 
■ West (3 reels) Washington as a youth ; Yorktown 
(3 reels) Washington during the Revolution, show- 
ing the surrender of Cornwallis ; Alexander Hamil- 
ton (3 reels) Washington as the first President of 
the United States. Available in 16mm. and 35 mm. 
from Yale University Press Film Service and Met- 
ropolitan Museum of Art; in 35 mm. only from 
Iowa State College and Wholesome Films Service. 

George Washington (1 reel) One of the American 
Statesmen Series. Distributed by Edited Pictures 
System, A. Joseph Grobarick, Pinkney Film Serv- 
ice, QRS-DeVry Corporation, Wholesome Film 
Service, Y. M. C. A. Motion Picture Bureau. May- 
be obtained in either 16 mm. or 35 mm. Bell and 
Howell Co. and Iowa State College have this sub- 
ject in 16 mm. only. 

Betsy Ross (5 reels) Story of Revolution days 
and the Quakeress who at Washington's personal 
request, made the first American flag. Available in 
35 mm. from Edited Pictures System, A. Joseph 
Grobarick, Pinkney Film Service, Wholesome 
Films Service. 

American Holiday Series — Washington (1 reel) 
An appropriate subject released by Fitzpatrick Pic- 
tures, in 16mm. and 35 mm., silent or sound. 

The Son of Democracy (10 chapters, 2 reels each) 
Written, directed and produced by Benjamin Chap- 
in, who enacts Lincoln role. Distributed by Church 
Film Co., Pinkney Film Service, Wholesome Films 
Service. 35 mm. only. 

Land of Opportunity (2 reels) A moving incident 
in the life of Lincoln, with Ralph Ince as "Honest 
Abe". Distributed by Church Film Co., A. Joseph 
Grobarick, Pinkney Film Service, Wholesome Films 
Service. 35 mm. only. 

The Highest Law (4 reels) Ralph Ince as Lincoln 
in a dramatic episode of Civil War days. Distrib- 
uted by Church Film Co., Pinkney Film Service, 
Wholesome Films Service. 35 mm. only. 

Abraham Lincoln (9 reels) A D. W. Griffith mas- 
terful production with Walter Huston in title role. 
Entire life of Lincoln shown. Released in sound by 
United Artists. 

Abraham Lincoln (1 reel) One of the American 
Statesmen Series. Distributors are the same as for 
the reel on George Washington of the same series. 

Lincoln's Early Life in Indiana (3 reels) Details 
of his early life in Indiana, including a pageant 
showing interesting incidents. Available from Iowa 
State College in 35 mm. 

American Holiday Series — Lincoln (1 reel) Avail- 
able in 16 mm. and 35 mm., silent or sound, from 
Fitzpatrick Pictures. 

Bell & Howell Co., 1801 Larchmont Ave., Chi- 

Church Film Co., 28 Piedmont St., Boston, Mass. 

Eastman Teaching Films, Rochester, N. Y. 

Edited Pictures System, 130 W. 46th St., New 
York City. 

Fitzpatrick Pictures, 729 Seventh Ave., New 
York City. 

A. Joseph Grobarick, Trenton, N. J. 

Iowa State College, Visual Instruction Service, 
Ames, Iowa. 

Metropolitan Museum of Art, 5th Ave. at 82nd 
Sb.,^New York City. 

Pinkney Film Service, 1028 Forbes St., Pitts- 
burgh, Pa. 

QRS-DeVry Corp., 4830 S. Kedzie Ave., Chicago. 

United Artists, 729 Seventh Ave., New York City. 

Warner Brothers, 321 W. 44th St., New York 

Wholesome Films Service, 48 Melrose St., Bos- 
ton, Mass. 

Yale University Press Film Service, 386 Fourth 
Ave., New York City. 

Y. M. C. A. Motion Picture Bureau, 347 Madison 
Ave.. New York City. 

January, 1932 

Page 21 






Director, Scarborough 


Scarborough-on-Hudson, N. Y. 

An Integrated Project on Copper, Utilizing 
Visual Aids in Various Forms 


THIS project was originated and tested by the author 
in schools at the secondary level. It may be used 
cither as a special study of a base metal in chemistry 
courses, or as a more or less extended project for 
chemistry study clubs. It was used originally for a 
thorough integration between the chemistry of copper 
and its relationships with business, with literature, and 
with every-day life. It will be noted that certain 
metallurgical principles are given a clarity beyond the 
limits of the average high school chemistry text book. 

The preparation of a scrap book, as a part of each 
student's assignment, may constitute a genuine advant- 
age These books may well represent the individual 
topics assigned and include annotated bibliographies of 
materials not otherwise included. Through such ac- 
tivities, students may find an awakened or an in- 
creased appreciation for this very important metal. 

Chemistry departments which have limited library 
facilities may meet the problem of subject matter by 
placing all related materials on reserve, then giving 
over a few regular class periods to supervising the 
progress of the individual students. If no periodical 
indices are at hand, it will be necessary to locate, order, 
and catalogue available material. If there are stu- 
dents working on subject matter unrelated to this 
project, the time element may be adjusted by using 
students either engaged upon the project, or upon the 
unrelated work, to do all the cataloguing for both 
groups. In this manner the entire class may finish the 
work of assimilation and organization together. At the 
time of presentation for the copper project, all stu- 
dents may be given text assignments on the subject of 
copper and may serve as a critical audience. At the 
conclusion of the project suitable tests may be given. 
In schools where periodical indices are available, the 
problem of cataloguing articles in the current lit- 
erature will be confined to the periodicals and pamph- 
lets not listed. 

Some notes for the paper on "Copper Markets" 
have been included for two reasons. First, the project 

was developed at a crucial period in the marketing of 
this essential commodity which has extended to the 
present time; and second, because the quotations sug- 
gest important considerations which in some instances, 
at least, tend toward being inaccessible. 

Care should be taken in making the assignments of 
topics to meet the needs and interests of the individual 
students as far as possible. Before a given student has 
presented his paper, he should have an opportunity to 
see that portion of the film which pertains to his sub- 
ject, otherwise a most beneficial treatment may not 
be made. It is believed that through the use of the 
many agencies at hand and from the many possible 
angles such subjects as this may be made more dynamic 
and more practical with a corresponding improvement 
in genuine educational values. 

Equipment: One motion picture projector, 35 milli- 
meter. General chemical apparatus and supplies. 
Expenses: Under actual field conditions, the cost of 
this project was as follows : 

Expressage on films $1.79 

Postage 10 

Schedule of Talks, Papers, and Films 
in Copper Project 

1. Paper: The Many Uses of Copper — a compila- 
tion from lists prepared by individual class mem- 
bers of the uses in homes, industries including 
agriculture. This paper and all others, by a 

2. Talk: Life in the Copper Mining Districts of 
the United States, as I know it — by a student, a 
teacher, or some experienced person in the com- 

3. Talk: General Relationships between Copper 
and Coal Mining Operations — by experienced 

4. Paper: The History of Copper. 

Page 22 

The Educational Screen 

I. Mining: 

5. Paper: The Occurrence of Copper — geological 

Reel I. Prospecting. 

6. Paper: Copper Mining. 

Reel II. Mining. 

7. Paper : Copper Production in the United States. 

"Arizona, Montana, Utah, and Michigan are 
the four leading states in the production of 

"Cochise County (Arizona) has the highest 
valuation of mines in the state, the assessed val- 
uation being $64,205,000.00. Prima ranks 
fourth." (See note under Paper No. 8.) 

Reel III. Mining (cont.) 

8. Paper : Copper Production Beyond the United 

"Arizona produces 51 percent of the copper 
of the United States and 25 percent of the 
world's copper." 

From the Butte deposits in Montana come 
one-third of the copper produced in the United 
States and one-sixth of the world's supply. 

Reel IV. Mining (Cont.) 

9. Paper: Properties of Copper. An analysis of 
high school and college text books for properties 
listed in each case represents a part of this study. 

Reel V. Mining (Concl.) 

II. Milling: 

10. Paper: Milling, including acid leaching. 

Reel VI. Milling. 

11. Paper: Milling, including ammonia regenera- 

12. Paper : Froth Flotation in the Copper Industry. 

Reel VII. Milling (Concl.) 

III. Smelting: 

13. Paper: Copper Smelting. 

Reel VIII. Smelting. 

IV. Refining: 

14. Paper: Copper Refining. 

Reel IX. Refining. 

15. Paper: Copper Wire. 

Reel X. Refining (Concl.) 
V. Industrial and Other Aspects: 

16. Paper: Copper Markets. 

This paper includes a discussion of the difference 
between stocks and bonds ; the difference between 
making an honest investment and speculation such as 
has been witnessed in recent years ; and an analysis 
of daily sales of leading copper stocks over a period 
of one month, together with any indicative informa- 
tion as to the general trend of the market. 

"The increase in the price of copper from 14.4 cents 
a pound in 1928 to 17.9 in 1929 was a big boon to 
production during the year."— Statistical quotations 

from 'Mining Briefs", Arizona Daily Star, Tuscon, 
Arizona, Rodeo Progress Edition, February, 1930. 

"Copper at 10^4, lowest in 30 years." Headline of 
article, page 44, New York Times, September 16, 1930. 

"Export Copper is Reduced to 7jS4c a Pound De- 
livered." — Headline, Chicago Tribune Press Service, 
New York, Sept. 10, 1931, to the Chicago Daily Tri- 
bune. September 11, 1931. 

"Custom smelters continue to supply metal at 7 
cents for electrolyte in the Connecticut valley, but 
inquiry is largely confined to 1932 position." — Asso- 
ciated Press, Oct. 18, '31. 

"World Politics Act as Break on London Mart." — 
"Manchurian political news has also restrained busi- 
ness, while a pre-mature report of the breakdown of 
the copper conference brought a particularly sharp 
relapse of base metals." — Sidney Cave in the Chicago 
Tribune Press Service, London, Nov. 14, '31, in the 
Chicago Sunday Tribune, Part 2, page 5, Nov. 15, '31. 

New York Stock Transactions 

Principal Copper Stocks — December 12, 1931 

Prev. 1931 Div. yld. Description Sales High Low Close Net 

High Low pet. Bid Asked chge. 

S8/ 2 \9yi 7.7 \9Y A 193/ 8 Am. Smelt(l.SO) 2,900 19J4 19 19 & 
43J4 10 954 10 Anaconda 14,500 10 9Vi 9% Yt, 

255/8 &/& 6 6^ Phelps Dodge 3,900 6H 6% 6% 

17. Paper: Copper and Its Relationships to Elec- 

18. Paper : Copper in Mintage. 

19. Paper: Copper in Building Construction. 

20. Paper: Copper in Plumbing Industry. 

21. Paper: Copper in the Automobile. 

22. Paper : Copper in the Telephone. 

23. Paper: Copper in Medicine and Health. 

24. Paper: Copper in National Defense. 

25. Paper: Copper in Literature. 

The reel on Prospecting in the Rothacker- 
Bureau of Mines film on "The Story of Copper" 
contains a poem, "The Call of the Prospector." 

"They boiled it in a copper to the half." — 

"Mv friends filled my pockets with copper." 
— Franklin. 
VI. Laboratory Demonstrations: For variety these 
demonstrations may be given between papers of 
Part V. (above), if the two reels on fabrication 
are not shown. 

26. Student lecture-demonstration : "Electroplating 
Flowers, Insects and Other Objects." — See Lip- 
pet, Thomas, "Electroplating Metallic and Non- 
Metallic Objects," The Experimenter, 4:406, 
April, 1925. 

27. Student lecture-demonstration : "Wood's metal" 
and a resume of other experiments of conse- 
quence pertaining to copper as found in the av- 
erage high school laboratory manual of chem- 

January, I9i2 

Page 23 

28. Student lecture-demonstration: Lipowitz's alloy. 
Formula: Bismuth 50$ ; Lead 27% ; Tin 13%; 
( admium 10%. To this add 2 parts of mercury 
or somewhat more if a very fusible alloy is de- 
VII. Scrap Books: 

VIII. Field Trip: The entire class or club should visit 
a copper or brass fabrication plant, or a copix-r 
mine, if possible. 

Film Sources 

I. The ten reels on "The Story of Copper" may be 
obtained from 

(1) Kothacker Film Corporation, 7510-14 
North Ashland Ave, Chicago, Illinois, or 

(2) The Department of Commerce, United 
States Bureau of Mines, at one of the fol- 
lowing points : 

(i) Pittsburgh Experiment Station, Pitts- 
burgh, Pa. 

(ii) North Central Experiment Station, 
University of Minnesota, Minne- 
apolis, Minnesota. 

( iii ) Intermountain Experiment Station, 
University of Utah, Salt Lake City, 

(3) American Museum of Natural History, 
77th Street and Central Park West, New 
York. X. Y. 

II. In the event that a copper fabrication plant is not 
near enough to make a field trip feasible, two reels 
on "The Story of the Fabrication of Copper" 
may be obtained through one of the following: 

(1) United States Bureau of Mines, as listed 

(2) American Smelting Company, 120 Broad- 
way, New York, N. Y. 

III. A shorter film study of copper may be had in place 
of the 10 or 12 reel study outlined above, from : 

(1) Y. M. t . A. Motion Picture Bureau, 347 
Madison Ave., New York. X. Y., or from 

Y. M. C A. Motion Picture Bureau, 300 
\Y. Adams Bldg., Chicago, Illinois. 

These specific films are: 
No. 1126: Copper Mining and Smelting. 

1 reel. 
No. 1127: Refining and Manufacture of 
Copper. 2 reels. 

(2) American Museum of Natural History, 
77th Street and Central Park West, New 
York, N. Y. 

"From Mine to Consumer" — produced by 
the Anaconda Copper Company. 



THE Spencer Model YAC Classroom lantern is the only 
really portable projector for use with the "daylight" or 
translucent screen. It is light in weight for portability; is so 
designed that ventilating fan is not needed to keep it from 
over-heating; and will project four types of picture material, 
opaque, glass slides and film slides or microscope slides 

The chief advantage, however, is that it is practically a 
"daylight" projector. If the ordinary window shades are 
drawn to shut out the sharp sunlight, the lantern will give 
perfect results. 

Folder K-74E completely describes these and other features 
of the Spencer Model YAC Classroom Lantern. Write for 
it now. 


Spun i y .^) (ouipfuiip 


Admiral Byrd giving final instructions to Mr. Walden 
in charge of the base laying party. 

The Byrd Antarctic Expedition 


Descriptions by Captain Ashley C. McKinley 
Official Photographer of the Byrd Expedition 

Five Units — 30 Slides To Each Unit 

Unit I— The Ships, and the Buildings of Little America 
Unit II — Life in Little America and on the Trails 
Unit III— The Flight to the Pole and Other Flights 
Unit IV — The Dogs and Antarctic Animal Life 
Unit V — Ice and Icebergs 
PRICE $15.00 PER UNIT Detailed List Sent on Request 



Page 24 

The Educational Screen 


to the Biggest 
and Best 
in Current 

Write today for free 

non-theatrical Cata- 

log 78. 





730 Fifth Ave. 
New York City 


Evolution Made 

Plain in 

Clarence Darrow's 


7 Reels 

,al'$ unusually enter 

historic il 5-Reelc 

- - Tocher's outlin 

mailed on aopli 

Write for 


A. General 

Chemistry in Industry, Volumes I and II. Chemical Founda- 
Chemistry Texts : 

(1) High School: Black and Conant; Bradbury; Bruce; 

Brownlee and Others ; Gordon ; Holmes and Mattern ; 
Kendall; McFarland; McPherson and Henderson; 

(2) College : Noyes ; Smith. 

Copper and Brass Research Association publications: 
Address: 25 Broadway, New York, N. Y. 

(1) "A Real Home," 43 pages, 9th Edition, 1927. 

(2) "The Story of Yesterday and Today Writ in Brass, 

Copper, and Bronze," 14 pages. 

(3) "The Story of Copper." 

Encyclopedias: Britannica, Compton's, International, Winston, 
World Book. 

B. Periodicals: 

Chemical Magazines of Local Areas 
Chemist Analyst 

Blanc, Allen H., "Copper in Antimony Lead Alloy," 18 :5, 
(July 1, 1929) 

Lloyd, J. D., "Plan : Control Methods for Analysis of Cop- 
per and Lead Ores," 19:4-6, Jan., 1930.) 

Smith, E. H, "The Idiometric Determination of Copper," 
18:6-7, (July, 1929.) 
Chemistry Leaflet 

"Copper in the Stock Market," 1 :20, (March 5, 1928.) 

"Manganese-Copper, Silicon-Copper, Chromium-Copper," 
2:5, 6, 18, (March 25, 1929.) 
Journal of the American Chemical Society 

Lears, George W., "Critical Studies on the Fusion of Rare 
Metal Ores," 51:122-129, (Jan., 1929.) 

Maier, Charles G., "Oxide Cells of Cadmium, Copper, Tin, 
and Lead," 51:194-207, (Jan., 1929.) 

Frolich, and Others, "Studies of Copper Catalysts Prepared 
from Precipitated Hydroxide," 51:61-5 (Jan., 1929), 
and 51: 187-93, (Feb., 1929.) 

Richards and Phillips, "The Atomic Weight of Copper from 
the Lake Superior Region and from Chile," 51 :400- 
10, (Feb. 5, 1929.) 

Bery, Edgar New, "The Single Potential of the Copper 
Electrode," 51:1315-22, (May, 1929). 

Hal ford, J. O., "Triaxlmethyl Carbonates. Catalytic De- 
composition in the Presence of Copper," 51 : 2157-9, 
(July, 1929.) 
Journal of Chemical Education 

Howard, J. W., "The Story of Copper," 6:413-31 (March, 

Keyes, D. B., "How New Chemical Products are Invented," 
6:2178-80, (Dec, 1929). 

Sullivan, J. D., "Leaching Copper from Its Ores," 8: 829-47 
(May, 1931) 

Whiteley, Frank A., "Chemistry in the Copper Mining In- 
dustry," — a winning high-school essay, 4: 1145-9, 
(Sept., 1927). 
Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 

Frolich, and Others, "Studies from Copper Catalysts Pre- 
pared from Precipitated Hydroxide," 21 : 109-12, 
(Feb., 1929). 
Howard and Dunn, "Crystalline Changes in Copper Due to 
Annealing," 21:550-3, (June, 1929). 

January, 193 2 

Science Education 

Krueger, Roy, "Copper"— a poem, 15:245 (May, 1931). 
Review of Reviews 

< ..minion, William E., "Copper— Call now be made hard," 
84: 58-62 (Oct., 1931). 
World's Work 

Willielm. "Things I didn't Know About lira**,"— A trade 

article, 229- (June, 1927). 
No attempt has been made above to indicate use of 
that invaluable visual aid, the lantern slide. Obvious- 
ly slides arc- indicated at many points in the project. 
Slides arc- available- from many sources, illustrating 
practically every detail and aspect of this study, and 
stereopticons are exceedingly common in schools to- 
day. It is needless, therefore, to point out that ex- 
cellent use of appropriately selected slides can be made 
throughout the work — especially in connection with 
the "talks", "papers", and "student-lecture demonstra- 
ting. " Selection of such slides from accessible col- 
lections is an additional activity that is educationally 
valuable for the student in his work on this project. 

Film Review 

Because teacher-training in the use of visual aids is 
a fundamental necessity for the right future develop- 
ment of visual education, Electrical Research Products. 
Inc. has wisely devoted many of its first film produc- 
tions to this field. These subjects cannot fail to en- 
lighten all those engaged in or concerned about the 
education of America's coming generations. Such 
films will be interesting, of course, but enormously in- 
structive also as to changes of method going on in 
modern teaching and the reasons for such changes. 
The logical audience, which should see these films 
sooner or later, includes not only the whole rank and 
tile of the teaching profession but P. T. A. groups 
throughout the country and every parent who has an 
intelligent interest in educational progress. 

We have recently enjoyed a viewing of one of these 
subjects entitled: 

The Teaching of Reading ( 2 reels) The professor 
who appears in the film and conducts the entire dis- 
cus-ion and explanation is Dr. Arthur I. Gates, of 
Teachers College, Columbia University. He first sets 
forth three important differences in purpose between 
modern method- and the old— (1) to achieve immedi- 
ate perception of word-phrases as a whole, without 
study of isolated letters, sounds and words; (2) to 
develop oral reading so that it is as natural and infor- 
mal in school as outside; and (3) to make reading a 
component part of other activities rather than an iso- 
lated end in itself. 

Professor Gates then retires from the picture and 
we see actual class activity by teacher and pupils, as 

Page 2 5 

Simplifying Visual Instruction 

VISUAL instruction is simplicity itself with the 
Bausch & Lomb Overhead Projector. This Balop- 
ticon accessory increases the effectiveness of this mod- 
ern teaching method. 

By a system of mirrors, slides are projected over the 
teacher's head to a screen in sight of the entire class. 
Seated at the desk, facing the classroom with all ma- 
terials at hand, the teacher is enabled to proceed com- 
fortably and at ease with the illustrated lesson. Fea- 
tures to be stressed in the picture may be pointed out 
with a pencil on the slide rather than with a pointer on 
the screen. 

This instrument, as efficient as it is inexpensive, is 
built to stand daily use in the classroom. It conserves 
the teacher's energy, concentrates pupil attention and 
eliminates the necessity of an assistant. 

Write for descriptive literature on the B & L 
line of Balopticons. 

Bausch & Lomb 
Optical Co. 

688 St. Paul St., 
Rochester, N. Y. 


Page 26 

The Educational Screen 

the new methods are used in the Fox Meadow School 
at Scarsdale, N. Y. First, a topic is proposed that has 
lively appeal for the children — a circus ! Do they want 
to create a circus, draw pictures for it, write about it, 
read about it ? They do ! Almost instantly the room 
becomes alive with interest, teeming with mental ac- 
tivity. The children announce needed steps in the pro- 
cedure — teacher writes the announcements verbatim on 
the blackboard. These are read and re-read by indi- 
vidual pupils and it is evident that all the pupils are 
busy at the reading, not merely the child speaking. 
New and difficult names of objects are associated with 
the pictured objects. Supplementary matter is needed 
from books and notebooks — more reading, eager read- 
ing, reading for a purpose! And when a youngster 
has occasion to read aloud to the class a paragraph 
pertinent to the subject of "circus", it is no longer in 
a voice that is wooden, formal and self-conscious, as 
of old. He is not trying to get some oral reading done 
because the teacher requires it — he is using his newly 
acquired art to tell his fellows something worthwhile, 

something that contributes to the work in hand. He 
reads now to accomplish bigger things than merely 
"to read." 

Such a film as The Teaching of Reading will make 

A Reading Lesson on "The Circus" 
many a grown-up envy the children of Fox Meadow 
School — when he recalls the struggle of his own 
Primer and First Reader davs. 

A Lesson With Doll Slides in the Kindergarten 


THE following is a report of conversation, which 
' took place between a group of kindergarten chil- 
dren and their teacher during the showing of a set of 
doll slides in color. This group of pictures was used 
by the teacher as an introduction to a study of family- 
life among people, and later among animals. There 
are also other possibilities of further development in 
using this series, such as, an Indian project. 

"In this first picture (1st slide), what do we find the 
children doing?" 

"They are getting up, and a little boy is washing his 

"Yes, Bobby is washing his teeth just as we do each 
morning, noon, and night." (Slide changed) "But he 
hasn't enough water, so he asks who will get him some 

"And Florette says, 'I will, I will'." 

"I'm sure that that is the wax we like to do things 
for people when they ask. She is Bobby's little helper." 
(Slide changed) 

"The first room that we saw was a bed-room. Is 
'his the same kind of room or a different one?" 

"It's a different one." 


"Because the picture changed." 

(All very true!) 

"But what do we call this room?" 

"It's a kitchen." 

"What makes you think it is a kitchen?" 

"We can tell because there is a stove over in the 

"Here we see Grctchen and Bess from Holland. 
What are they doing?" 

"Getting breakfast ready for all the dolls." 

(A dog appeared in the picture which caused the 
next remark from the children.) 

"Will they give the dog something to eat?" 

"Yes, of course, they want to share their meal with 
their pets, so they won't go hungry, and I think the 
dolls will eat about the same things for breakfast that 
zve do, so let's tell zvhat we had this morning:'' (Slide 

"I had cereal." 

"I had two eggs." 

"Hozu many drank milk?" (Many hands went high 
in the air.) 

( About six pictures had dogs in them, and the chil- 
dren counted them.) 

"After the children finished eating breakfast under 
the shade of the umbrella, they began to play. (Slide 
changed) So all the dolls with their week-day and 
Sunday clothes were gotten out and Florette wanted 
to play house and be the 'mama.' Bowser i)isisted on 
being the watch dog for the family. (Slide changed) 

"Here we see some boys going to school. Hozv many 
arc there?" 


January, J 93 2 

Page 27 

A living 


comes to the classroom 

Thrilling motion pictures ot 
his life. ..prepared for the 
Bicentennial. ready! 

A flash of light on the screen, and 
the thrilling drama begins. 

Washington — boy, surveyor, colonel, 
general, president — becomes a living 
reality. In four fifteen-minute reels — 
available on safety film in both 16- and 
j 5-millimeter widths — the class sees re- 
enacted the whole life story of the man 
who, through the sheer force of his 
character, brought a nation into being. 

Both children and adults will cherish 
these pictures as precious memories. 
They were prepared, with great care, at 
the request of the George Washington 
Bicentennial Commission. They contain 
much material new to the screen. 

You will want these films for your 
Bicentennial program, and for use in 
the years to come. Act now to insure 
their early delivery. Write for details 
and prices. Eastman Teaching Films, 
Inc., Rochester, New York. 

Present Washington to 
your classes with alt 
the vividness of actual 
experience. These mo- 
tion pictures make 
textbook history leap 
into life and action, 
and are a valuable sup- 
plement to your regu- 
lar leaching program. 

Produced at the 
request of the 

George Washington 
Bicentennial Commission 

Eastman Teaching Films, Inc.— Subsidiary of Eastman Kodak Company 

Page 28 

The Educational Screen 

''What do they have on their shoulders?" 


"How are they fastened on?" 

"They are tied on." "They are strapped on." ( Slide 

"How many shoes are there?" 

"Three — no, three pairs." 

"And that makes six shoes." 

"Let's count :" 

"I, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6." 

"Now comes wash-day. Mother usually washes on 
Monday. But these dolls are washing on Saturday, 
because one little doll zvasn't careful and fell in a mud 

"After they had worked hard, zuashing, they decided 
to play store. (Slide changed) Perhaps zve could have 
a store in our room, sometime, like the dolls." 

"And can we sell mud pies?" 

"Well, we will sell something, even if we don't have 
mud pies." 

"These dolls just did all kinds of things. (Slide 
changed) Here we see the boys, Bobby and Ed, dressed 
tip like Indians." 

"I have a pair of shoes like those." 

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The Perfect Stereo Camera 

The Perfect Micro Camera 

The Perfect Clinical Camera 


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and its 5 Interchangeable Lenses 

The Indispensable 
Equipment for 
Visual Instruction 
— Endorsed by 

The LEICA is 
famous for its 
versatility, its con- 
venient size and 

weight, and its scientific accuracy. It takes up to 36 pictures 
on a single roll of cinema film, double frame size. With its 
five interchangeable lenses, and its wide range of accessories, 
adapted for every purpose, this one camera does the work of a 
dozen others. Wide-angle views, telephoto pictures, action shots, 
color photos, projection slides, are only a few of the many 
types of pictures you can make with the LEICA. It is an 
indispensable educational aid. Equally efficient in and out of doors. 
Describing the Leica Camera and Equipment. 

E. LEITZ, InC. Dept. 16 60 East 10th St., New York 

"Who knows what zee call this kind of shoe?" 

"They are moccasins." 

"Yes, and could you bring them to school for us all 
to see?" (Vigorous nod for answer) 

"Here we see the children selling something besides 
mud pics. Here they have bouquets of flowers to sell." 

"Bobby is bringing a bunch of violets." 

"Yes, to give to Dolly Dimple when he visits her. 
You see Dolly has had her house re-decorated (slide 
changed ) that means she has had it painted and pa- 
pered and all fixed up. She wants some one to make 
her a visit so badly." ( Slide changed) 

"All the dolls have decided to call upon her." 

"Yes. what arc they doing?" 

"Taking their trunk and suitcases." 

"And I can tell you they are very polite little guests. 
Everyone has such a good time there, too." (Slide 

"What do you suppose Dolly Dimple is saying?" 

"She asks them to come again." 

The theme of the pictures, expressed in a musical 
way, was sung by the children with vastly greater 
gusto, thanks to the slides. 

The above is offered merely as an example of thor- 
ough "participation", instead of "recitation." 

pictures for 






vfo/k. your dealer 
about our IGNIm. films 

January, 19)2 

Page 29 


Where the commercial firms — whose activities have an important bearing on progress in the visual field — 
are free to tell their story in their own words. The Educational Screen is glad to reprint here, within nec- 
essary space limitations, such material as seems to have most informational and news value to our readers. 

An Important Development in Non- 
Theatrical Film Distribution 

The most serious handicap in the non-theatrical field 
has always been the lack of an adequate distributing 
channel. The organization of Educational Talking 
Pictures Company, Ltd., New York City, marks the 
first definite effort to establish an extensive and cen- 
tralized distributing service of motion pictures for the 
non-theatrical field. 

Its purpose is to obtain motion pictures of every 
type, including entertainment, educational, industrial, 
religious and scientific reels from all possible sources, 
and to make these films available. Because of the com- 
pany's resources) it is able to secure the finest pro- 
ductions from not only the major motion picture pro- 
ducing organizations, bul also from the independent 
and the individual producers. 

It is significant that this new firm has acquired the 
distribution of the educational sound films produced 
by Electrical Research Products, Inc.. which are classi- 
fied under the following topics: Teacher Training. 
Natural Science. Music Appreciation, Physics, .Mathe- 
matics. Vocational Guidance, Physical Education, 
Catholic and Protestant Education and Civics. Other 
material available include feature films from Fox and 
Paramount which are especially suitable for non-the- 
atrical use. many series of talking comedies, and 

Educational Talking Pictures Ltd. is planned as a 
clearing house of motion pictures for the non-theatrical 

Slides on Washington 

To aid in the Washington Bicentennial, Eastman 
Educational Slides have just released three new sets 
of glass slides on Washington's character and deeds. 
The titles of the sets are Washington and the Declara- 
tion of Independence, Washington and Five Colonial 
Artists, and Washington in Peace. Planned along 
strictly educational lines, these slides should be of 
value not only for the celebration during 1932, but for 
permanent class use. 

A new series of slides in biology is being planned 
by Eastman, the first of which, The Living Green 
Plant. Photosynthesis, is now ready. Other unit sets 

comprise Latin, on which is placed special emphasis, 
History, Social Science, English Classics, Art and 

A New Enterprise in the Talkie Field 

Talking Picture Products Company, Chicago, an- 
nounces their appointment as distributor for the 
Holmes Portable and Auditorium Sound Projector. 

The Holmes Portable Sound-On-Film Projector 
can easily be operated by one man. It is light in 
weight and compact. The designers have worked with 
the idea of portability constantly in mind and the ex- 
perience of twenty years in projector building has 
taught them that this factor is only less important than 
Three types of equipment are available for audi- 
ences up to 3000 prsons. The two smaller types are 
completely AC operated, requiring no batteries of any 
kind. The larger size uses a smaller storage battery 
for exciter lamp excitation and this type of apparatus 
is suitable for large audiences. 

The Imperial Sound Projector and Sound Unit is 
for permanent booth installation and two types are 
offered ; the Standard Size for Auditoriums of less 
than 1200 seating capacity and the Super Size for the 
larger Auditoriums. 

School Presentations 
Talking Picture Products Company has inaugurated 
a Presentation Department. Complete sound projector 
equipment and film subjects will be supplied on a 
rental or percentage basis to school or church organ- 
izations desiring to sponsor an educational entertain- 
ment talking picture program. 

Filmo Model JL Projector Announced 

Bell & Howell Company announces the Filmo Model 
JL projector — a slight modification of the recently de- 
veloped Model J — which permits the use of the new 
400-watt biplane filament lamp just perfected by lamp 
engineers after years of experimentation. 

In this connection the Bell & Howell Technical de- 
partment states: 

"Increased brilliance, plus uniform direct illumina- 
tion on every fraction of the screen area, are brought 
to 16 mm. projection by the new lamp. This impor- 

(Concluded on page 32) 

Page 30 

The Educational Screen 


A Trade Directory for the Visual Field 


Bray Pictures Corporation (3, 6) 

729 Seventh Ave., New York City. 

Carlyle Ellis (1, 4) 

53 Hamilton Terrace, New York City 
Producer of Social Service Films 

Columbia Pictures Corp. (3, 6) 

729 Seventh Ave., New York City 
(See advertisement on page 28) 

Eastman Kodak Co. (4) 

Rochester, N. Y. 

(See advertisement on outside back cover) 

Eastman Teaching Films, Inc. (1, 4) 

Rochester, N. Y. 

(See advertisement on page 27) 

Edited Pictures System, Inc. (1, 4) 

130 W. 46th St., New York City 

Ideal Pictures Corp. (1, 4) 

26 E. Eighth St., Chicago, 111. 

Mac Callum, Inc. (3, 6) 

132 S. 15th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Modern Woodmen of America (1, 4) 
Rock Island, 111. 

Pinkney Film Service Co. (1, 4) 

1028 Forbes St., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Ray-Bell Films, Inc. (3, 6) 

817 University Ave., St. Paul, Minn. 

Rowland Rogers Productions (1, 4) 

74 Sherman St. at Harris Ave., 
Long Island City, N. Y. 

Society for Visual Education (1, 4) 

327 S. LaSalle St., Chicago, 111. 

(See advertisement on inside back cover) 

United Projector and Films Corp. (1, 4) 
228 Franklin St., Buffalo, N. Y. 

Universal Pictures Corp. (3) 

730 Fifth Ave., New York City 

(See advertisement on page 24) 

Williams, Brown and Earle, Inc. (3, 6) 
918 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Y. M. C. A. Motion Picture Bureau (1, 4) 
347 Madison Ave., New York City 
300 W. Adams Bldg., Chicago, 111. 

School Presentations 

Bookings arranged either on a rental or 
percentage basis. Complete talking pic- 
ture equipment and suitable film sub- 
jects supplied. Write for details. 

666 Lake Shore Drive, Chicago 


Bell & Howell Co. (6) 

1815 Larchmont Ave., Chicago, 111. 

(See advertisement on inside front cover) 

Eastman Kodak Co. (4) 

Rochester, N. Y. 

(See advertisement on outside back cover) 

Edited Pictures System, Inc. (1) 

130 W. 46th St., New York City 

Ideal Pictures Corp. (1, 4) 

26 E. Eighth St., Chicago, 111. 

Mac Callum, Inc. (3, 6) 

132 S. 15th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Regina Photo Supply Ltd. (3, 6) 

1924 Rose St., Regina, Sask. 

Talking Picture Products Co. (2) 

666 Lake Shore Drive, Chicago. 

United Projector and Film Corp. (1, 4) 
228 Franklin St., Buffalo, N. Y. 

Victor Animatograph Corp. (6) 

Davenport, la. 

Williams, Brown and Earle, Inc. (3, 6) 
918 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 


Williams, Brown and Earle, Inc. 
918 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Eastman Educational Slides 
Iowa City, la. 

Edited Pictures System, Inc. 
130 W. 46th St., New York City 

Ideal Pictures Corp. 
26 E. Eighth St., Chicago, 111. 

International Artprints 
64 E. Lake St., Chicago, 111. 

(See advertisement on page 19) 

Keystone View Co. 
Meadville, Pa. 

{See advertisement on page 23) 

James C. Muir & Co. 

10 S. 18th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Society for Visual Education 
327 S. LaSalle St., Chicago, 111. 

(See advertisement on inside back cover) 

Spencer Lens Co. 
19 Doat St., Buffalo, N. Y. 

(See advertisement on page 23) 

Stillfilm Inc. 
1052 Cahuenga Ave., Hollywood, Cal. 

University Museum Extension 
Lecture Bureau 
10 S. 18th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Williams, Brown and Earle, Inc. 

918 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 


Keystone View Co. 
Meadville, Pa. 

(See advertisement on page 23) 


Bausch and Lomb Optical Co. 

Rochester, N. Y. 

(See advertisement on page 25) 

E. Leitz, Inc. 
60 E. 10th St., New York City 

(See advertisement on page 28) 

James C. Muir & Co. 

10 S. 18th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Regina Photo Supply Ltd. (3, 6) 

1924 Rose St., Regina, Sask. 

Society for Visual Education 
327 S. LaSalle St., Chicago, 111. 

(See advertisement on inside back cover) 

Spencer Lens Co. 

19 Doat St., Buffalo, N. Y. 

(See advertisement on page 23) 

Stillfilm Inc. 
1052 Cahuenga Ave., Hollywood, Calif. 

Williams, Brown and Earle Inc. 
918 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 



indicates firm supplies 35 




indicates firm supplies 35 



indicates firm supplies 35 
sound and silent. 



indicates firm supplies 16 



indicates firm supplies 16 



indicates firm supplies 16 
sound and silent. 


January, 1952 

Page 31 


THE EDUCATIONAL SCREEN offers on this page a helpful service. Informa- 
tion on sources of supply for the items listed below 'will be furnished our readers on 
request. Fill out the coupon and mail. 

(Note that sources for some of the equipment listed are given in the Trade Directory on the opposite pave.) 

Accoustical installations 

Adapters, mazda 

Advertising projectors 


Arc lamps, reflecting 

Arc regulators 


Booths, projection 
Bulletin boards, changeable 





Cases, film shipping 

Cement, film 


Chairs, theatre 


Controls, Volume 

Dynamic Speakers 

Electric power generating plants 

Film cleaning machines 

Film rewinders 

Film slides 

Film splicing machines 

Film strips 

Films, Educational 

Films, Religious 

Films, Entertainment 

Films, Sound 


Fire extinguishers 

Fireproof curtains 

Gummed Labels 


Ink, pencils for slides 


Lamps, incandescent projection 
Lamps, high intensity 
Lamps, reflecting arc 
Lights, spot 
Loud Speakers 


Map slides 

Mazda projection adapters 

Mazda regulators 


Microphone attachments 


Micro projectors 

Motors, electric 

Motor generators 

Motors, phonograph 

Motion picture cable 


Needles, phonograph 

Opaque projectors 


Phonograph turntables 
Photo-electric cells 

Pictures, Prints 

Projectors, lantern slide 
Projectors, motion picture 
Projectors, opaque 
Projectors, portable, (16 mm.) 
Projectors, portable, (35 mm.) 
Public Address Systems 



Record cabinets 

Recording, electrical 


Regulators, mazda 


Reel end signals 



Screen paint 


Slides, lantern (glass) 

Slides, film 

Slide making outfits 

Slide mats 


Shutters, metal fire 

Speakers, dynamic 


Stage lighting equipment 

Stage lighting systems 

Stage rigging 

Stage scenery 





Talking equipment (35 mm.) 

Talking equipment (16 mm.) 

Title Writers 

Tone Arms 


Turntables, phonographs 

SERVICE BUREAU, The Educational Screen, 
64 East Lake St., Chicago, 111. Date 

Gentlemen: I should like to receive reliable information on sources of supply for the following items: 


Name Business or Profession. 

City State 


Page 32 

The Educational Screen 


The Producers 

(Concluded from page 29) 

tant lamp development means that improved projection 
quality is now available to all 16 mm. films. Especial- 
ly in Kodacolor projection the superiority is marked, 
for the new lamp eliminates color wedging, lost color 
values, and color distortion. 

"The use of the Biplane Filament Lamp is made 
practical by the combination of the highly efficient fan 
and aero-type cooling used exclusively in the Filmo 
Model J type Projector, and the new lamp will here- 
after be supplied as regular equipment in the slightly 
modified Model J known as Filmo Model JL Pro- 

"The 375-watt lamp may also be used in the Model 
JL, or in previous Filmo Model J's which have been 
adjusted for the new lamp, as there will be a marking 
for this lamp on the new voltmeter. The use of the 
250- watt lamp will be eliminated, as the resistance will 
not take care of lamps with a wattage of less than 

The Voice of Authority 
in the Field of Visual Education 

The Educational Screen 

A few valued opinions: 

"After reading the current issue of The Educational 
Sckekn I am further convinced of the magazine's ines- 
timable value to all who are interested in the problems 
of visual material use." . . . Paul C. Reed, Board of 
Education, Rochester, N. Y. 

"I am pleased with the forward-looking notions ' ex- 
pressed in your editoria's. . . . Your Film Production 
Activities are another step in the right directon." . . . 
W. M. Gregory, Educational Museum, Cleveland, Ohio. 
"Its general worth becomes more and more indispen- 
sable. With its aid I am able to keep abreast of the 
times." . . . E. A. Hyldoft, Dept. of Biology, High 
School, Huntington, West Va. 

"We consider The Educational Screen the most 
important visual aid we have. Only with such work 
as this can we stride along more rapidly in the visual 
field." . . . Vernett E. Peterson, Principal, Junior High 
School, Eau Claire, Wis. 

Subscribers are entitled to a copy of the famous "1000 and 
One Blue Book of Non-Theatrical Rims" for 25c. This an- 
nual publication, the standard reference work for film users, 
lists several thousand films for education and entertainment, 
classified and arranged in 136 numbered subject groups, with 
full information given on every film — title, number of reels, 
brief summary of contents and sources distributing the film. 
Includes 35 mm. and 16 mm. silent and sound films. 

64 East Lake St., Chicago. 

One year $2.00 □ two years $3.00 □ 
(add 25c for "1000 and One" if desired) 
Please enter my subscription as checked. 



City State 

Catalog of 16 mm. Sound Equipment 

A comprehensive catalog of 16 mm. sound pictures 
available through the Filmo Library has just been is- 
sued by the Library Division of the Bell & Howell 
Co. Approximately 500 subjects are listed. 

Many persons will be surprised to learn that so 
large a number of such sound films are available. The 
fact that producers have been so prompt in putting so 
great a volume of these sound releases on the market 
in the comparatively short time since 16 mm. talkie 
reproducing equipment was first perfected is an un- 
questionable indication of the great importance they 
are attributing to the 16 mm. sound field. 

The subjects listed in the catalog cover a wide range. 
Many are strictly of an entertainment nature, while 
others are educational and informative. The listing 
will, therefore, be of interest not only to the users of 
sound equipment in the home, but to many others 
also, including educators everywhere. Many business 
concerns will find here excellent material to serve as 
a sort of appetizer in conjunction with their industrial 
sound picture presentations. 

All subjects listed are sound on disc. A copy of the 
catalog, consisting of 33 mimeographed pages bound 
in an attractive cover, will be sent on request to any- 
one who sends eight cents in stamps to defray postage 
charges. Requests should be addressed to Library 
Division of the Bell & Howell Co. 

A Pictorial Story of the Leica Camera 

A new booklet teeming with action pictures which 
tells the fascinating and ever broadening story of the 
Leica Camera is now available from E. Leitz, Inc. 
Twenty rotogravure pages present Leica pictures 
which really speak for themselves in quality and il- 
lustrative value. Some of these pictures even show 
actual production methods at the factory where the 
cameras are made under the most exacting demands 
ever applied to a photographic instrument. Other pic- 
tures present a more general application of the camera 
which appeals to the amateur or professional photo- 
graphic worker. 

The entire 20 pages of this booklet are printed in 
rotogravure, thus preserving the fine detail of the many 
pictures which are reproduced. This booklet really 
tells the Leica story in Leica language ; that is, by pic- 
tures made from original Leica negatives. Copies of 
this booklet, A Pictorial Story of the Leica Camera, 
may be secured by writing directly to E. Leitz, Inc., 
New York, N. Y. 



1 932 


The Functions of a City Department of Visual Aids 

The Sound Film in Education 

Units of Instruction for Teacher Training Courses 

Twelfth Annual Meeting of The National Academy 
of Visual Instruction 

The Film Estimates 

Single Copies 25c 
• $2.00 a Year • 

Here's the finest school projection 
at lowest cost per year 

See the New Filmo Model J 

. . . at the N. E. A. Department of Superintendence Convention 

IF you could buy one pro- 
jector to do all your school 
job ... in the largest 
auditorium as well as in the 
smallest classroom . 
saving not only the cost but 
the booth space required for 
a theatrical type, standard 
projector installation, -would 
there be any question about 
what visual education equip- 
ment to buy? 

Now, with the new Bell & 
Howell Filmo Model J Pro- 
jector, you can have just such 
a machine. With its 100 up 
to 185 foot throw, its theater- 
brilliant flickerless projection 
of pictures up to twenty feet 
in size, its improved illumina- 
tion that cuts through resi- 
dual light and minimizes the 

need for room-darkening equipment, its compactness 
that steals no seating space, it ideally and econom- 
ically meets auditorium needs. 

And for use in the classroom, it can be picked up in 
one hand and carried to any part of the building for 
quick, convenient, intimate projection and effective 
visual instruction. 

Among distinct new advantages are: silent 100% 
gear drive — no belts, automatic geared re-wind, built- 
in pilot light, easy tilting, illuminated voltmeter, radio 
interference eliminator. 

Filmo not only gives the most excellent of projection 

The new Filmo Model J Projector, complete 
with case, is priced at $297. Other Filmo Pro- 
jectors for as low as $198. 

results with a remarkable 
operating convenience and 
simplicity, but it gives this 
superb school service at the 
lowest cost per projection 
year. Filmo economy has been 
thoroughly proved in schools 
from coast to coast. Preci- 
sion manufacture and scien- 
tific design by the world's 
leading cinematographic engi- 
neers are the reasons behind 
Filmo's dependable operation 
and long life . . . the 
reason -why it can be said that 
no Filmo has ever worn out. 

See a demonstration of the 
new Filmo Model J Projector 
at the N. E. A. Department 
of Superintendence meeting, 
or at the nearby Filmo deal- 
er's. You'll be convinced. 

Seeing is Believing 

The Bell & Howell Company will demonstrate the new Filmo 
Model J Projector at Booth 110. Washington Auditorium. Wash- 
ington, D. C, during the meeting of the Department of Super- 
intendence, National Education Association, Feb. 20th to 26th. 

See this demonstration. Let your eyes prove that this new 
projector will solve your whole school projection problem. 

I!i i.i. & Howell Company, 

1817 Larchmont Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 

Gentlemen : Please send me □ Descriptive literature on the new Filmo 
Model J Projector for School Auditoriums ; □ A copy of "Filmo Motion 
Pictures in Visual Education." The length of our auditorium from 
back (or booth) to screen is feet. 





February, J 932 

Page 33 

Educational Screen 







Herbert E. Slaught. Pres. 
Frederick J. Lane. Treat. 
Nelson L. Greene, Editor 
Evelyn J. Baker 
Josephine Hoffman 
Otto M. Forkert 
Dwight Furnest 

Stanley R. Greene 
Joseph J. Weber 
William R. Duffey 
R. F. H. Johnson 
Marion F. Lanphier 
F. Dean McClusky 
Stella Evelyn Myers 

The Functions of a City Department of Visual Aids 
Arnold W. Reitze 


The Sound Film in Education. E. J. Nally Jr 39 

Units of Instruction for Teacher Training Courses (No. 2) 

L Paul Miller 4 2 

Film Production Activities 44 

News and Notes. Conducted by Josephine Hoffman. 46 

Editorial 47 

Twelfth Annual Meeting of the National Academy 

of Visual Instruction 48 

The Film Estimates 


Among the Magazines and Books. 

Conducted by Marion F. Lanphier 53 

The Church Field. Conducted by R. F. H. Johnson 55 

School Department. Conducted by Dr. F. Dean McClusky 57 

Among the Producers °' 

Here They Are! A Trade Directory for the Visual Field 62 

The Educational Screen Service Bureau. 63 

Contents ot previous issues listed in Education Inde*. 

General and Editorial Offices. 64 East Lake St.. Chicago. Illinois. Office 
of Publication, Morton, Illinois. Entered at the Post Office at Morton. 
Illinois, as Second Class Matter. Copyright, February. I932, by the Edu- 
cational Screen, Inc. Published every month except July and August. 
$2.00 a Year (Canada. $2.75; Foreign, $3.00) Single Copies, 25 ch. 

Page 34 

The Educational Screen 



/"A screen light the way to 
a clear understanding and an 
exact knowledge that stir the 
imagination and lead to a 
desire for deeper knowledge. 

Ask to see the brilliant 
classroom and auditorium 
presentations of VICTOR 16 
mm Projection Equipments . . . 
Silent or with Sound. 

Ask about the Exclusive, Vitally Important Features 
that have made VICTOR the most popular and practical 
of all 16 mm school projectors. 

Ask for a FREE copy of the Victor Directory, which tells 
"Where to Buy, Rent and Borrow thousands of 16 mm 



Ask your dealer about the new 
QUIETMODEL 7 with 300 
WATT"No Resistance" Lamp. 

i^ ls 

Manufactured by 




Distributed by 


Branches in All Principal Cities 

ERAS (left) are built 
in two models. 


Projector (right)is the 
acknowledged peer 
of all 1 6 mm Sound 


to the Biggest 
and Best 
in Current 

Write today for free 
non-theatrical Cata- 
log 78. 





730 Fifth Ave. 
New York City 


Evolution Made 

Plain in 

Clarence Darrow's 


7 Reels 

Write for 

February, 19)2 

Page 35 

Model DC 

Model VAC 




AT the N. E. A. Convention, February 2025th, we will ex' 
hibit lanterns for projecting every type of still picture to 
meet every instructor's projection problem. Be sure to see 
our Model DC, for projecting glass slides, microscope slides and 
film slides, and our new Model VAC for projecting four types of 
material; opaque copy, glass slides, microscope slides and film slides. 

You are invited to consult us on your projection problems at 
Booth No. 246, Washington Auditorium, Washington, D. C. 

Visit us at Booth No. 246 

Page 36 

The Educational Screen 

The Functions of a City Department 
of Visual Aids 


A WELL organized department of visual aids 
has many and varied functions in connection 
with the regular grade classes and the many 
special classes and departments within a school sys- 
tem, and in addition a number of functions which 
seem to belong solely to the department of visual aids. 

The Primary Function 

The primary function of the department may be 
briefly stated as : To supply any teacher from the kin- 
dergarten through the high school with the proper vis- 
ual aids at the time when they will be most helpful as 
teaching devices. 

The department is chiefly concerned with the work 
affecting the largest number of pupils. It should be 
organized and principally function around the regular 
classroom work. As this phase of the work is perhaps 
the best known, it has not been discussed at great 
length in this study. However, the department can 
furnish much valuable material to the teachers of the 
regular grade subjects of geography, history, science, 
civics, nature study, health, language, and other sub- 

Numerous Other Functions 

In addition to the function of supplying the regular 
class teacher with visual aids, the department has many 
functions in connection with the special classes and 
departments within the school system. A number of 
these functions are presented in this study. 

The department should prove a valuable asset to the 
art and drawing department as practically every les- 
son involves the use of visual aids. Many of these, 
including charts, films, slides, models, pictures, and 
posters, dealing with the work of great artists can be 
supplied by the department. Films can be furnished 
showing artist at work on paintings, sculpturing*, and 
other similar activities. The department can also 
co-operate in arranging trips to museums and art 

There are a number of visual aids which the depart - 

Editor's Noti : This is the second of a series of articles based 
on a Master's thesis prepared for New York University 
entitled, "The Organization, Functions, and Administra- 
tion of a City Department of Visual Aids." 

merit can furnish for the use of the classes of foreign 
born pupils. These include lantern slides, which can 
be used as an aid in word study, as is done in the pri- 
mary grades. In addition, numerous charts, films, and 
pictures dealing with citizenship, history, patriotism, 
and the operation of city, state, and federal govern- 
ment can be supplied. There is a possibility that with 
the further development of sound motion pictures 
these may be of value in teaching both the English 
language and the subject matter of the film. 

The department can be of exceptional value to the 
continuation school classes as many of these students 
are of the type who cannot readily assimilate knowl- 
edge through the use of books or by the usual class- 
room methods. Films, pictures, and slides dealing 
with the many fields of business, trade, and industry 
can be supplied by the department to arouse the inter- 
est of these pupils. With this material much can be 
taught in a relatively short period of time. As time 
is an important factor in these classes, this material 
should be of real value. Class visits to industries can 
also be arranged. 

The department can supply valuable material for 
the domestic science classes. In these classes there is 
much related information which it is desirable to 
teach. In order to have a well rounded course, a girl 
should have some background regarding the growing, 
packing, and marketing of the important food prod- 
ucts. This can be effectively taught through visual 
aids, including, class visits to local food packing plants, 
markets and bakeries. 

In the field of educational and vocational guidance 
the department can be of real service. For special 
classes of guidance a complete program of visual aids 
can be supplied. Visual aids on guidance can also be 
supplied for use in the regular classes. The depart- 
ment can furnish much educational guidance material, 
such as, films dealing with the various branches of 
special or higher education carried on by the city and 
films dealing with colleges and special types of schools. 

In conjunction with the health program carried on 
in the schools, the department can supply charts, films, 
pictures, and posters dealing with all phases of health. 
This includes visual material of the health, medical, 
and sanitary work of the city. The department can 

February 19)2 

Page 37 

also circulate visual aids dealing with Tire prevention 
and safety work. 

\ department of visual aids can be extremely useful 
to the industrial, technical, and vocational depart- 
ments. These departments require much related in- 
forni ding with raw materials, industries, and 

finished products. Much of this information can he 
tivel) presented through the u>e of visual 
aids supplied by the department. The department can 

1 plant-. 

Tlv hich the department can 

h the music department, includin slides 

and various ' harts. Films dealing 

with :' n be furnished 

With the sound film it is 

>w and hear the works of the great com- 

played by the- leading orchestras of the 

aling with the orches- 

of the individual instrumi groups of 


The function- of the department in relation to the 
- and departments in a school system 
which have been.briefly presented are l>ut some of the 
many important functions. There are many other 
fuctions and many other ways in which the depart- 
ment can be of value to the special classes and de- 

Teacher Training 

< >ne of the functions which seem to belong soleh 
to the department of visual aids is the training of 
teachers in the proper technique of using visual aids 
and equipment . This is one of its most important 
functions, as the whole success of visual material is 
based on the ability of the teacher to effectively use 
the aids. This function may he a cooperative one in 
cities which have a training school for teachers and 
a training program for teachers in service. 

Teachers may he trained in the proper use of visual 
material through a regular college course or through 
short - courses conducted by the dep art ment. Another 
method is to train, at the visual aids center, certain 
teachers from each school, who pass the information 
along to the other teachers in the school. This can he 
done by giving demonstration lessons to this group 
of teachers, and having them give similar demonstra- 
tions in their school. In addition, general meetings 
can he held to dis.uss and demonstrate certain basic 
principles. A training course for teachers should be 
hasic in nature and should not he extremely technical. 
It should include a brief discussion of the educational 
and psychological value of visual aids, the types of 
aids, the selection and use of certain aids, and the 

testing and checking of the results from using visual 
aids. Teachers should also he instructed in the opera- 
tion and care of projection apparatus. Such instruc- 
tion may he a requirement for the use of the depart- 
ment's equipment. It might also include certification 
of the teacher by the department. In addition, much 
information can he given through various printed bul- 
letins issued by the department. 

Testing, Selection, Standardization of Aids 

All aids and equipment should he carefully studied 
by the department and their apparent value as teaching 
devices should he kept on tile. All aids and equipment 
should he given a thorough try-out. 'This can he done 
in test schools where the equipment can he tried out 
under actual classroom conditions. It is important 
that these schools he representative of the schools 
throughout the city. 

Another function of the department is the selection 
and standardization of equipment. One method is to 
carefully examine and evaluate each type of equip- 
ment and then select one or two of each as standard. 
'This is the type which is then placed in the schools. 
With this method, the equipment is usually purchased 
by the department and placed in the schools on a loan 
hasis. \nother method is to study the various aids, 
and place on an approved list, those which meet the 

standards of the department. Each school is expected 
to acquire its own equipment which is to he selected 
from this list. With another method, each school can 
acquire any kind of projection apparatus and use the 
aids circulated from the visual aids center. Certain 
departments circulate the equipment as well as the 
aids, which, needless to say. is not very satisfactory, 
as projection equipment is not well adapted to trans- 
portation. The plan for standardized equipment, pur- 
chased by the department and placed in the schools on 
a loan hasis seems to he the most desirable method, 
all factors considered. 

Acquisition and Care of Materials 

The acquiring of the various visual aids is an im- 
portant function of the department. There are many 
sources from which visual aids may be obtained. As 
complete a list of these sources as possible should he 
kept on tile. This file can be divided into three sec- 
tions and each section subdivided according to the 
type of aid. ( me section should list material which 
can be obtained free or at the cost of packing and 
shipping; another section should list material which 
can he obtained on a rental basis ; and another section 
should list aids which can he purchased. As complete 
a set of the free material as possible should be ob- 

Page 38 

The Educational Screen 

tained by the department. This can be used to show 
the schools what they can acquire for their own use ; 
they can be circulated, and they can be used as models, 
by the department, in preparing exhibits. The rental 
material can be used to determine whether it is worth- 
while for the department to purchase. Material can be 
rented and tried out to determine its value. Such mate- 
rial as can be obtained only through purchase, should 
be studied carefully and if possible tested in the schools 
before it is bought. Much pictorial can be obtained 
from magazines, which can be acquired free or at small 
cost. The criterion of any visual aid is its educational 
value and unless an aid can meet this criterion it 
should not be acquired. 

The department is responsible for the condition of 
the various aids and equipment. The aids should be 
carefully checked upon return from the schools and 
all necessary repairs made. Equipment should be giv- 
en a periodic examination and the schools should be 
required to report immediately any machine which is 
not functioning properly. No school should be al- 
lowed to make any repairs or adjustments. Extra ma- 
chines should be at the visual aids center which can 
be sent to the school to replace any machine which 
needs repairs. 

Relating Visual Aids to Course of Study 

Another important function is the relating of the 
various aids to the course of study. To be of the most 
value visual aids must be connected directly to the 
subject being taught. The department must arrange 
the material so it can be used most effectively. One 
method of doing this is through the use of committees 
for each grade and subject. These committees, com- 
posed of the leading teachers and possibly certain 
supervisors, act in an advisory capacity relative to the 
purchase, organization, and use of the aids in their 
subject and grade. One method of relating the vari- 
ous aids, to the course of study, is to arrange each 
type of aid into sets directly related to the subject or 
grade. These sets should contain only material direct- 
ly related to the subject and they should be kept down 
to a maximum number of individual units. 

Supervision of Use 

The supervision of the use of the visual aids is also 
a function of the department. On the whole, super- 
vision should be general for groups of teachers, prin- 
cipals, or special supervisors. Supervision should be 
limited to teacher training, demonstration lessons, the 
opportunity of observing classes taught with various 
aids, and assisting teachers in selecting the best aids. 
The department should work in co-operation with the 
various supervisors, rather than attempt to supervise 

the individual teacher. In this connection, the depart- 
ment can co-operate in preparing films, possibly with 
sound, dealing with the technique of teaching various 

Additional Functions of the Department 

The department can give much help in the matter 
of school publicity. Publicity concerning the activi- 
ties of the schools is often neglected and too frequent- 
ly the taxpayers know little of what is being done in 
the schools. The department of visual aids can do 
much to remedy this situation. The activities of all 
branches of the school system can very effectively be 
shown in pictorial form, particularly through the mo- 
tion picture. The department can also keep a pictorial 
record of all important educational and civic events 
in the city. 

The department can assist in the organization and 
presentation of special programs. These programs 
may include films, pageants, and dramatizations for 
holidays or special celebrations. The department can 
co-operate with certain civic organizations in present- 
ing programs of an educational nature. The depart- 
ment can also arrange for material of a purely enter- 
taining nature for the schools and it can issue a weekly 
list of recommended films for children. 

The department must formulate tests and checks 
of various kinds to determine the effectiveness of the 
aids. These tests can be used to decide the relative 
value of each type of aid and in turn can be used in 
apportioning the budget. Rating or score cards for 
determining the value of certain aids must also be 
formulated. As few of these tests or rating forms 
are available it is necessary for the department to orig- 
inate them. The department must carry on investiga- 
tions and research covering the effective use of visual 
aids, better methods of using the aids, means of ac- 
quiring and devising new aids, and methods of filing, 
listing, checking and evaluating aids. 

The department should have a complete file of cata- 
logs and descriptions of the various aids and. equip- 
ment. Such a file is indispensable in preparing speci- 
fications, comparing types of equipment, and in pre- 
paring talks and bulletins to be presented to the 
teachers. There should be a library, at the visual aids 
center, covering the field of visual aids in education. 
This is needed to study ways and means of improving 
the work of the department. The department should 
be an information bureau for all branches of the 
school system on matters pertaining to the use of 
visual aids. 

In co-operation with the various supervisors the 

{Concluded on page 45) 

February, 19)2 


Page 39 

Sound Film in Education 


SINCE ilic da) that the stubby hand of that un- 
known Cro-Magnon artist sketched in poly- 
chrome a surprisingly life-like bison on the walls 
of a cave in what is now southern France, man lias 
constantly added to his fellow man's knowledge 
through pictures of the life and happenings of the 
age in which he lived. 

Framed by brilliant blues and reds that centuries 
have not faded, frescos on the walls of smothered 
Pompeii admirably reconstructed for the student of 
today the civilization of a long dead past. 

( hi manuscripts of the finest uterine vellum, jewel- 
like miniatures recapture the gorgeous pageantry of 
the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Costly as these 
manuscripts were, the urge for knowledge was so 
great that the scribes used half the goose quills in 
Christendom in their efforts to meet the demand, and 
literally thousands of folios were produced. Swiftly 
as the Black Death spread this lust for knowledge 
among the common people. The fifteenth century 
attempted to satisfy this yearning by printing on flimsy 
single sheets from crudely carved blocks of pear wood, 
religious and secular scenes which could be readily 
understood by the illiterate public. Not long after, 
the rush-strewn halls of countless monasteries echoed 
with expressions of wonderment from the sandal- 
shod monks at the contrast of Guttenberg's jet black 
ink against the virgin white pages of the hand made 
paper used in his magnificent forty-two line Bible. 
The rumble of this first press has been magnified into 
a mighty roar down the ages, to the eternal enrich- 
ment of mankind's store of knowledge. 

Man's ingenuity has captured the ephemeral and 
elusive spirit of his age with paint and oil, graver and 
steel, acid and copper, chalk and stone, nitrate of sil- 
ver and cellulose. By the means of these methods our 
common heritage of culture has been broadened and 
expanded until even the humblest may enjoy what was 
formerly destined for wealthy alone. The barriers of 
creed and color have been destroyed — the obstacles of 
physical geography have been leveled — the confusio' 
of foreign tongues surmounted so that the student of 
today may survey the panorama of world without 
leaving the hall of study. The muddied perceptions 
which our great grandparents laboriously derived 
from the words of their preceptors and the somewhat 

turgid text books available, can, by the catalytic agent 
of the visual aids of today, be transmuted into crystal 
clear mental experiences within the easy reach of 
modern youth. 

To such mental adventurers as Scheele, Farrup and 
Wedgewood is due the undying gratitude of genera- 
tions yet to come. For handicapped as they were by 
clumsy tools, scanty and inaccurate laboratory equip- 
ment, their keen minds overcame these physical ob- 
stacles and, as a result of their several investigations, 
the process that we know today as photography came 
into being. 

The insatiable curiosity which characterizes youth 
has been a trial at times to parents and a challenge 
to the ingenuity of teachers. The handmaidens of 
photography — photographic engraving, photo-litho- 
graphy and the rotogravure have, by their vivid ap- 
peal, added more to the factual knowledge of these 
young inquisitors than a thousand involved explana- 
tions. The fortuitous combination of visual and aural 
appeal give the child a mental picture which only 
actual experience can duplicate or surpass. 

The stereopticon, the stereoscoj>e and their variations 
have illuminated countless school rooms with vignettes 
of life. The thin pointer in the hand of the teacher 
has probed, by means of the reflected image on the 
screen, into the organized tumult of our factories, the 
vast complexities of agriculture, the picturesque dis- 
order of the studied precision of life in foreign lands. 
The complacent insularity of a static existence is shat- 
tered by these vistas. The finger of the classroom 
can, by its mere reaching, touch the pulse of the world 
and record for its own satisfaction and information, 
the powerful beats of commerce, industry, culture and 
all that goes to make up the world in which we live. 

The creation of ancient structures in miniature, re- 
vitalizing antiquity, the eternal joy of creating with 
one's own hands, the molding in sand and clay, the 
drawing with paint and water, are such powerful 
teaching aids that scarcely a school in all the world 
does not utilize at least one or more of these methods 
to assist the teachers and text books in their cultural 

The thousands of mutations made in photography, 
which germinated in the brains of later-day scientists, 
captured countless moments of world life for the edi- 
fication of mankind in general. Vet, man was not 

Page 40 

The Educational Screen 

satisfied, for after all the still-picture explanation be- 
fore him stood for but a single segment of events 
which were preceded and followed by many others 
— germane to the portion he possessed. How to ani- 
mate the static scenes and figures which he had cap- 
tured on plate and film was the problem. 

Monuments to man's genius are seldom erected by 
a single hand, and the discovery of the motion picture 
is no exception to this general statement. As far back 
as 1864, a visionary Frenchman named Ducros pat- 
ented a photograph theory which took advantage of 
the retentiveness of the retina of the human eye to 
give the illusion of moving pictures. Later inventors 
christened their brain-children "Phenakistoscopes," 
"Zoogryoscopes", "Zoetropes" with all the enthusiasm 
of discoveries in the field of animating the inanimate. 

The sporting proclivities of a pioneer Californian. 
Senator Leland Stanford, coupled with a serious con- 
viction that a trotting horse at one point in its gait 
left the ground completely, were behind one of the 
first serious attempts at motion picture photograph v. 
To the enrichment of the senator's purse and to the 
eternal glory of Edward Muybridge, this fact was 
proved to the satisfaction of even the most skeptical 
rail-birds. Muybridge placed a number of cameras. 
equidistant from each other along the straightaway. 
Delicate threads connected with the shutter mechan- 
ism were stretched across the track so that as the 
body of the horse came in contact with the threads 
an exposure of the plate was automatically made. 
When the series had been developed, the movement 
of the animal could be reconstructed in its entirety. 

Xo brief history of the motion picture could be 
made without mentioning the name of Thomas Edison 
whose inventive genius gave the world the first prac- 
tical motion picture camera. The highly sensitized 
fine grained emulsion on film produced by the experts 
from the Eastman laboratories played an important 
role in this development. Scattered installations of 
this equipment were made with the result that the 
public took this new form of visual entertainment to 
its collective heart and the Nickelodeons of the land 
echoed with the audible enthusiasm of the patrons. 

During the last decade, educational institutions 
throughout the world have taken an increasing interest 
in the application of technical and scientific discover- 
ies to their methods and curricula. The antiquated 
"red school house" is rapidly being replaced by archi- 
tectural triumphs in steel and stone, with the finest fit- 
tings and modern equipment. Coincident with the 
change of the physical appearance of the school, was 
an evolution in the classroom which would have star- 
tled educators of the last century. The inanity of 

learning by rote has been replaced by the individual 
treatment of a student, which has made vital and 
alive the subjects occupying his time and attention. 
To do this, every resource at the command of the 
modern educator has been brought into play — highly 
trained teachers, modernized school books, scientific 
equipment and countless emanations from the re 
search laboratory. 

Xo longer does tlie harassed teacher or profr 
need to visualize for the student the perception he 
should gain from the subject itself. The mechanical 
if the printing press. lithograph, stereopticon and 
the motion picture makes it possible for the student 
to form his own perception. 

The total amount spent by city and state bureaus for 
visual education in the United State- during the last 
seven years ran well over five million dollars. In 
large cities such as Pittsburgh. Los Angeles, Detroit, 
St. Louis, sums ranging from sixty to one hundred ten 
thousand dollars are annually expended. 

Teacher training classes for visual education are 
now available in seventy-one Normal Schools, State 
Colleges and Universities. Although the brunt of 
popularizing and supplying visual aids was borne by 
State and City bureaus, there is a trend toward the 
organization of units which independently service 
smaller cities and towns. 

The advent of "sound" injected grave complication 
into the progress of visual education. A great quanti- 
ty of educational silent film had been produced, both 
on standard 35 mm. and also 16 mm. Much of this 
film was the product of large foundations and vari- 
ous departments of the U. S. government. N'aturally 
with so many producing forces and with so many self- 
appointed authorities on the proper presentation of 
educational material in films, there was a wide diver- 
gence in the quality. Production of educational films 
largely ceased as technical forces strove mightily to 
iron out the difficulties coincident with this new 
development. Educators cautiously refrained from 
indiscriminate approval until it had been proven to 
their satisfaction that the addition of sound to the mo- 
tion picture was not a transient novelty, but a real 
force which required serious consideration on their 

The burden of development rests jointly on the 
shoulders of commercial film producing companies 
and institutions especially endowed and equipped for 
research. The former, though motivated by less al- 
truistic aims, are alive to the possibilities which the 
school field presents. The latter are prepared to devote 
time and money to effect the full florescence of this 
potent educational force. 

February, J 93 2 

Page 41 

Another powerful factor which presented a serious 
obstacle to the rapid utilization of sound in the school 
was the sound reproducing equipment itself. During 
the early days when the whole art was surrounded 
with a species of mumbo-jumbo which made the mys- 
teries of the Black Mass pale into insignificance com- 
pared to it. tile sum- demanded and received for the 
installation of sound reproducing equipment in the- 
atres would have awed any educator into a state of 
insensibility. Manufacturers -ire now marketing 
equipment at a more moderate figure which is well 
within the financial means of a large percentage of 
the educational institutions on this continent. 

As a change from generalities, examine the follow- 
ing figures. There exist at this time close on to four 
hundred sound films produced solely for the consump- 
tion of the educational market. They run the gamut 
of subjects from Astronomy to Zoology. The ma- 
jority of these films were directly supervised by im- 
portant figures in the field of education and have been 
generally accepted as being valuable pedagogic con- 
tributions. The United States Government is also 
actively engaged in the production of educational 
sound films which will cover the many phases of de- 
partmental activity. 

The limited number of installations of sound re- 
producing equipment in schools has hitherto precluded 
the possibility of making any exhaustive and compre- 
hensive tests, embracing large numbers of students 
from widely divergent localities. However during the 
past year interesting tests were made both in England 
and in the United States. 

I fader the patronage of the president of the United 
States, the governors of the forty-eight states were 
invited to participate in a comprehensive test of the 
educational values of the sound film in public school 
education. The Fox Film Corporation, through whose 
courtesy these figures are quoted, arranged for the 
test to be held at George Washington University. 
From each state, including the District of Columbia, 
a hoy and girl of grammar school age was selected. 
Since several alternates were included in the boys' 
section, their number amounts to fifty, whereas only 
forty-seven girls participated as one of the representa- 
tives did not attend all the tests. 
The following films were shown: 

1. One-reel picture. Toads, by Dr. Clyde Fisher, Cur- 
ator of University, College and Adult Education, 
The American Museum of Natural History. 

This picture presented Dr. Fisher in a three 
or four-minute lecture in which he introduced the 
subject. This was followed by a series of pictures 
showing the development of toads through their 

life history, the pictures being accompanied by a 
running comment by Dr. Fisher. 

2. < >ne-reel picture. Monarch Butterflies, by Dr. 
Clyde Fisher. 

This picture was similar to the one on toads in 
that the subject was introduced in a preliminary 
lecture and the life history of a monarch buttertly 
was then shown through a series of pictures, the 
comments and explanations by Dr. Fisher contin- 
uing throughout the film. 

3. Three-reel picture, Volcanoes, by Dr. Atwood, 
President of Clark University. 

4. Three-reel picture. Glaciers, by Dr. Atwood. 

5. Four-reel picture, River Valleys, by Dr. Atwood. 

These three pictures by Dr. Atwood show him 

giving blackboard demonstrations of his subject 

with now and then inserts of illustrative material 

concerning famous glaciers, volcanoes, and river 

valleys. These pictures are thus a combination of 

lecture and illustrative material. 

The demonstration period extended over a period of 

four days. On the first day an initial test was given 

covering these subjects. On the three following days 

the children saw the five sound films — two the second 

day, two the third day and one the fourth day — and 

immediately following the showing of the films the 

tests were repeated. 

The following results were tabulated. 

1. The boys had considerable higher scores on the 
initial tests than the girls: the girls' final scores sur- 
passed the boys in one of the tests. (Volcanoes) 

2. Boys and girls made about the same average 
gain in three of the tests: the girls made somewhat 
higher in two tests. 

3. On final tests after seeing the pictures, the 
boys and girls made an average gain of about 19 
points on each test. Since there were 50 questions in 
each test, this is a gain of 38 percent. 

4. The percent of gain made in the five tests 
ranged from about 42 percent on the test on Glaciers 
to about 607 percent on the test on Monarch Butter- 
flies, with a total gain of about 115 percent on all five 
tests after seeing the films. 

To give some indication of the ability of the group 
they were given Form A of the Terman Group Test 
of Mental Ability. The range of l.Q.'s for the boys 
was 94 to 158. for the girls, 87 to 137. The average 
gains for the five tests were computed for the lowest 
and the highest fourth and for the middle half of the 
group in order to show the amount of immediate 

(Concluded on page 60) 

Page 42 

The Educational Screen 

Units of Instruction (or Teacher 
Training Courses (No. 2) 

How are "Still" Projectors Used? 


Bucknell University, Lewisburg, Penna. 

(A) How are glass slide projectors used? 

There are two kinds of glass slide projectors: 
(1) the usual horizontal projectors, and (2) the verti- 
cal, or overhead projectors. The former may also be 
used for "daylight" pictures, with translucent screens. 
The following discussion deals primarily with the ordi- 
nary, horizontal projection on opaque screens, from 
glass slides used in projectors placed in the rear of the 

Glass slide projectors, also known as lantern slide 
projectors or stereopticons, and by various trade 
names, are among the simplest projectors to operate. 
Such a projector 

(1) should be portable; 

(2) should be equipped with a 500 watt, 110-115 
volt Mazda lamp, for ordinary classroom 
purposes ; 

(3) should have a double slide carrier, so that a 
slide can be inserted while another is being 
shown ; 

(4) should have a projection lens of about 10 or 
12 inches E.F. (equivalent focal length) for 
opaque screen, and 

(5) should produce a picture 6 or 7 feet wide, 
when projector is placed about 25 feet from 
the screen. 

Author's Note: This is No. 2 of a series of units of 
instruction, for training teachers in the use of projec- 
tion equipment. No. 1 appeared in the last issue of 
The Educational Screen. The units are selected from 
mimeographed material which has been in use in several 
colleges, in their visual instruction courses. The at- 
tempt has been made to bring together instructional 
material for such courses, which has been widely scat- 
tered, and to put the courses on a laboratory basis. 
Stress is placed on individual practice, by student 
teachers, in use of projection equipment. Comment is 
invited by the author of this series, on possibilities for 
fuller development of such a laboratory course, for 
teacher-training institutions. No. 3 of the series, next 
month, will be on the problem : "How Are Lenses Used 
in Projection?" 

(B) How arc glass slides handled and cared for? 
Glass slides, as well as film slides and motion pic- 
ture films, are placed in projectors up-side down and 
reversed ; that is, so that lettering reads from right to 
left. This is for projection on an opaque screen. A 
few simple rules should suffice, for the handling and 
care of glass slides : 

( 1 ) Every slide should have a thumb-mark in 
what is the upper right-hand corner, when 
the slide is in correct position in the carrier. 

(2) The operator faces the screen, from behind 
the projector, holds the slide with the right 
thumb on this mark, and places the slide in 
the carrier. 

(3) He moves the carrier into place, so that all 
of the picture appears on the screen, and 
then places the next slide in the other frame 
of the carrier. 

(4) A slide should not be left in the projector 
too long, since the heat from the Mazda 
Lamp may cause the glass to crack, or the 
picture to "run." 

(5) A slide should be touched only along the 
edges, since finger marks are magnified on 
the screen. 

(6) Every slide should be cleaned occasionally 
with a damp, soft cloth. 

(7) Slides should be kept in partitioned boxes, 
or drawers of cabinets. 

(C) How arc film slide projectors and film slides 

Both film slide projectors, and film slide attach- 
ments for glass slide projectors are available. Since 
film slide frames are much smaller than glass slides, 
they cannot be used to project pictures having the 
same size and brilliancy as those from glass slides. 
("Stillnlms" are larger than film slides of the 35 mm. 
type, and produce larger pictures.) 

With a 500-watt lamp, and a 4-inch focus lens, a 
picture can be projected about 5j^ feet wide, at a dis- 
tance of 25 feet from an opaque screen, by use of 35 
mm. film slides. The film strip is placed in the upper 

February, 1912 

Page 43 

container, the gate is pulled open, the film is passed 

between the |>Iates of glass, is guided so that the 

sprocket holes engage with the -.proeket roller, is in- 
serted in the lower container, if any, the picture is 
properly "framed," and then the gate is snapped back 
into place. A turn of a button or knob moves the film 
so that successive pictures appear on the screen. Each 
picture may be kept on the screen as long as needed, 
in properly equipped projectors, and pictures may he 
shown in reverse order merely by turning the knob in 
the opposite direction. "Stilltilms" are inserted hori- 
zontally, in a carrier made for use with any stereop- 

(D) Hvw arc opaque projectors used? 

These are constructed to show pictures from opaque 
objects inserted either horizontally or vertically. Book 

Combination glass slide, film slide, and microscope slide 
projector. The filmslide attachment is shown in place. 
The bellows at the side are interchangeable, and when 
used instead of the film slide equipment, make a glass 
slide projector of the instrument 

(Courtesy. Spencer Lent Co.) 

pages, solid objects, mechanisms, maps, etc., may be 
shown on the screen. Since much light is lost, due to 
double reflection, the picture on the screen is not as 
brilliant, with some strength of light, as a picture from 
a glass slide. A room must be well darkened for good 
results, ordinarily. Opaque projectors are on the 

market however, which are intended for "daylight" 
use with translucent screens. The mirrors in opaque 
projectors must be protected very carefully. 

(E) How arc "daylight" projectors used? 

When projectors are used back of translucent 
screens, short focus lenses are used. Slides are in- 
serted in projectors inverted, but with lettering from 
left to right. (See later unit No. 5 in this series: 
"How Are Classrooms Prepared for Projection?") 

Verbal Aids for Teaching This Unit 

Instructions for operating different types of "still" 
projectors, (from companies supplying projection 

Visual Aids for Teaching This Unit 

All types of "still" projectors, in use. 

Glass slides projected on screen, ( from set of slides 
on construction of stereopticons, Spencer Lens Co., 
Buffalo, N. Y.). 

Individual Practice 

Demonstration lessons, given before the class, on 
construction of "still" projectors, using glass slides 
listed above. 

All types of "still" projectors, operated by members of 
the class. 

Measurements made of widths of images from vari- 
ous types of projectors, with opaque screen and with 
translucent "daylight" screen, distance between 
projectors and screens remaining constant, for each 
kind of screen. (Results below.) 


Written Summary 

(O) Distance from opaque screen, for dark room projection : feet. 

(T) Distance from translucent screen, for "daylight" projection : feet. 

Type of Projector Width of Image Focal Length Lens 

1. Glass slides (O) 


2. Film slides, 35 mm (O) 


3. "Stillfilms" (O) 


4. ( rpaque objects (O) 


Page 44 

The Educational Screen 


The aim of this new department is to keep the educational field intimately acquainted with the 
increasing number of film productions especially suitable for use in the school and church field. 

Motion Picture Advertises San 
Francisco Region 

The San Mateo County Chamber of Commerce, con- 
vinced of the effectiveness of motion pictures in com- 
munity advertising, are distributing, through the 
Frank K. Church Films, a two-reel scenic film depict- 
ing the charms and advantages of California's Pic- 
turesque Peninsula. The film, prepared under the di- 
rection of Roscoe D. Wyatt, manager of the county 
chamber of commerce, contains such scenes as the 
Home of President Hoover, the two great Universi- 
ties of Stanford and California, historic missions, 
giant Redwoods, beaches, Tanforan races, polo, high 
diving and scenic points in the county. 

The use of community films was first made effective- 
ly by the San Jose Chamber of Commerce in 1920. In- 
stead of printing the usual report of a chamber of 
commerce, its annual report that year was in the form 
of a motion picture. Constantly increasing requests 
for this film prompted the making of another in 1921. 
showing living, business and recreational conditions 
in the Santa Barbara valley. 

Little difficulty was met at that time in releasing 
this film through approximately 2500 theatres, the 
same films going later to schools, churches, lodges and 
community meetings. Besides domestic circulation, 
this film was shown in the best theatres in New Zea- 
land, Australia and the British Isles. Before many 
years passed however, this free and valuable distribu- 
tion throughout the theatrical field became impossible 
or prohibitive as to cost, but in the meantime the dis- 
tribution for informative and enlightening films was 
greatly developed by visual education departments in 
leading universities, colleges and schools, and agencies 
catering to the non-theatrical field. 

To this non-theatrical field San Mateo County has 
gone with its two reel film, California's Picturesque 
Peninsula. Ten agencies in the various states were 
selected to distribute the production. These ten prints 
of two reels each were seen by more than 90,000 peo- 
ple during the first nine months, according to reports 
from visual education departments and non-theatrical 
agencies. With some changes in the states they are 
beginning their second year of service and an addi- 
tional five prints has just been made for distribution 

in five more states, a total of fifteen prints now show- 
ing in as many states. More than 150,000 people will 
enjoy a half hour visit to the San Francisco Peninsula. 
even before reaching California. Another single print 
of the same film, placed in the projection room of the 
California State Building in Exposition Park, Los 
Angeles, is shown to approximately 800 persons each 
week at no expense other than production. The en- 
tire cost of showings seen by the 90.000 persons in the 
middle western states has been less than one-half cent 
per person per reel. 

Arrangements have now been made to convert this 
San Mateo County film into a one reel sound film for 
theatrical distribution, by substituting talking titles 
and synchronizing with sound effects at appropriate 
points. Distribution has already been assured for this 
sound reel which-dias been named A Ramble Round- 
about the Hoover Howe and the initial edition of it 
will consist of ten prints for outstanding population 
centers in the middle west and eastern states. 

New Firm Specializes in Expedition 

Raspin Productions has been formed, with head- 
quarters in New York City, to specialize exclusively 
in the creation of exploration films. The company, 
which plans to send out expeditions to all parts of 
the world, has released its first picture, Explorers of 
the World. This production embraces the expeditions 
of six prominent explorers to different spots, with 
their own dialogue. 

Harold McCracken tells of his Siberian-Arctic Ex- 
pedition and what he saw in Alaska, the Bering Sea 
and Straits and in the Arctic. Gene Lamb and his 
Photo- Scientific Expedition to Tibet deliver the sec- 
ond chapter, which also includes scenes of India, Bali 
and Borneo. Third is James L. Clark and his African 
Expedition, and fourth is Lieutenant-Commander J. 
R. Stenhouse, who headed the Imperial Trans- Ant- 
Arctic Expedition. Dr. Laurence M. Gould, second 
in command of the Byrd Expedition to the South 
Pole, talks on the food problem in connectio'n with 
that Expedition but no motion pictures are shown 
since Paramount held exclusive rights. Last is Har- 
old Noice. who takes the story thread from the South 
Pole to the headwaters of the Amazon River, show- 

February, 19)2 

Page 45 

ing some interesting shots of various animals and 

This production should have real value for instruc- 
tive purposes. 

Film Tells Story of Wool 

Wool-Marketing and Manufacture is the title of a 
new motion picture sponsored by the Bureau of Agri- 
cultural Economics and produced and distributed by 

the < tfhec of Motion Pictures. Extension Service. U. 

S. Department of Agriculture. This is a three reel 

silent film, showing essential steps in the proper han- 
dling of wool from Hock to market and covering the 
whole process of manufacture. It is of special interest 
to wool growers, but the general puhlic will learn much 
from it. 

The film story follows the fleece on its long journey 
to cloth. It begins in Wyoming where the film shows 
theep being sheared by highly skilled professional 
theep shearers. We learn that the fiocks of the United 
States produce ahout 400.000.000 pounds of wool an- 
nually and follow some of these millions of pounds 
as they journey through the mill, where they pass 
through many processes before the wool hecomes yarn. 
The yarn is woven into cloth and different textures are 
achieved. The closing scenes show the goal of all of 
this endeavor — some of the many uses of wool. 

Making of Safety Glass Filmed 

A new and interesting educational film is a sound 
motion picture just released and shown at the Chi- 
cago Automobile Show by the Libbey-Owens-Ford 
( ilass Company. It displays the manufacture of safe- 
ty glass for automobiles. 

The motion picture, which is accompanied by de- 
scriptive dialogue, shows how the thin, polished plate 
glass is cut to size as per specified orders from manu- 
facturers. These thin sheets of plate glass are then 
bonded to a sheet of pyroxylin plastic, forming a 
sandwich. It is this bonding agent, which holds the 
glass to the plastic, that prevents pieces of broken 
glass from flying and causing injury and damage. 

The picture follows the cutting and inspection of the 
glass, inspections of the plastic, and then application 
of heat and pressure on the sandwich, which forms 
the completed unit of three pieces. 

U. S. C. -Notre Dame Football Feature 

A motion picture of the University of Southern 
California- Notre Dame game, which has been referred 
to by experts as "the greatest game in foothall his- 

tory." and the -one in which Notre Dame received its 
lirst set-hack in three years has been made under the 
auspices of the Knute Rockne Memorial Association, 
and will he nationally distrihuted by Sono Art-World 
Wide Pictures. Inc. 

Directed by Heartley Anderson and Howard Jones, 
coaches of Notre Dame and U. S. C, respectively, 
the film purports not only to show this gridiron classic 
which will go down in foothall history, but to explain. 
by the use of slow motion and enlightening talk, how 
and why the plays were made. 

A complete crew of motion picture cameramen were 
hrought right into the stadium at South Bend, Ind.. 
where the game was played, and because of the close- 
up shots of the fine plays, the game on the screen 
proves as exciting as it could have been to the actual 

Functions of a City Department 

(Concluded from page, 38) 

department should prepare typical and suggestive les- 
son plans using visual aids. Such plans may vary from 
a simple outline using but a single aid, to an elaborate 
project lesson using many aids. At least one typical 
lesson plan should he prepared for each grade and 

The department can render valuable assistance in 
preparing local material for school use. Frequently 
local material is neglected because it is not in a con- 
venient form. The department can collect samples of 
local products, as well as prepare photographs, slides, 
and films of local industries, historical places and local 
government activities. 

A photographic section is considered by many to be 
an indispensable part of the department for making 
pictorial material of local interest. Such a section is 
res)x>nsible for duplicating any material which can be 
reproduced by a photographic process including, phot- 
ographs and slides of charts, models, pictures, and 
similar material which is not copyrighted. An educa- 
tional museum is also a desirable section for the de- 
partment to establish, to present in an effective man- 
ner such material as cannot be conveniently sent to the 

Although the functions which have been briefly 
described are by no means all of the functions of a 
well organized department, they will serve to show tin- 
many and varied activities of the department. There 
is perhaps no other d epartm ent, except possibly the 
superintendent's office, which makes contact with as 
many branches of the educational system nor which 
has as main and varied functions. 

Page 46 

The Educational Screen 





Report on Sound Film Experiment 

A brief note appeared in the last issue of The Edu- 
cational Screen on the experiment being conducted 
by Harvard Graduate School of Education and the 
University Film Foundation to determine the efficacy 
of sound motion pictures as a teaching aid in general 

Mr. Abraham Krasker, of the Quincy Public 
Schools, Massachusetts, has sent us a detailed report 
on the work, which we are glad to pass on to our 

Three parallel groups are employed, equated on the 
basis of chronological age, mental age score, and gen- 
eral science information. The Terman Group Test of 
Mental Ability and the Ruch-Popenoe General Science 
Test were used for equating purposes. 

The experimental group, about 400 children, is re- 
ceiving instruction by means of a textbook supple- 
mented by sound motion pictures. The control group, 
about 1500 children, is receiving instruction by means 
of the same textbook, but with no motion pictures. 
The third group, called the "zero" group, contains 
about the same number of subjects as the experimental 
group and is equated with the other two groups at 
the beginning of the experimental instruction period, 
but receives no instruction in the experimental subject 
matter. The mean score which this group obtains on 
the end-tests will locate the zero point on those tests : 
the score which represents just no instructional effect. 

Knowing the end-score which subjects of the type 
used will get with no instruction, the two mean end- 
test scores for the instructed groups may be more 
meaningfully compared. Any final difference between 
these two groups may be compared with the amount by 
which either differs from the zero point. 

Besides the immediate end-tests, further tests will 
be administered to the instructed groups after an in- 
terval of several weeks, to determine the relative 
amounts of retention resulting from the two instruc- 
tional procedures. 

The experimental instructional material is embodied 
in a textbook written expressly for the experiment. 
Supplementing each of the eight chapters of the text- 
book is a reel of sound motion pictures. Six of the 
eight reels were produced by the University Film 

Foundation under the direction of Mr. John Haeseler. 
The other two were supplied for the experiment by 
the Western Electric Company. Although both the 
text and the film abstain throughout from mentioning 
each other, they were both produced from the same 
basic script. 

Bicentennial Slides for New York Schools 

The New York Visual Instruction Division is offer- 
ing to the schools of the state excellent collections of 
lantern slides covering the career of Washington. The 
material is designed to meet the needs of schools in 
connection with the George Washington Bicentennial 
programs which will be held throughout the year. 

The Division has organized its slides into the fol- 
lowing special groups, which provide for a progressive 
study of Washington's private and public life: An- 
cestral Home, Youth and Early Manhood, 20 titles ; 
Life at Mount Vernon, 33 titles ; Military and Civic 
Activities before the Revolutionary War, 15 titles; 
Washington in the Revolutionary War, 37 titles ; Post- 
War Period of Public Life, Notable Monuments to 
Washington, 32 titles. 

P. T. A. Sponsors Junior Matinees 

Finding that the possibilities of moving pictures for 
recreation and education are unlimited, the executive 
board of the Old Greenwich, Connecticut, Parent- 
Teacher Association has decided to submit to the mem- 
bers of the association a program of wholesome mo- 
tion picture entertainment. Accordingly, a commit- 
tee for better films has been formed for this purpose, 
of which Mrs. Theodore Veltfort is chairman. 

Through the courtesy of Rev. Allan I. Lorimer, the 
auditorium of the new June Binney Memorial parish 
house has been made available. This modern auditor- 
ium has a seating capacity of 360 and excellent facili- 
ties for the showing of pictures. 

The initial performance was given on Friday after- 
noon, January 8, and every available seat was taken. 
The feature selected for this program was Mr. and 
Mrs. Martin Johnson's animal film, Simba. A trav- 
elogue entitled, A Bit of High Life, showing Alpine 
climbers in the Canadian Rockies, and an animated 
cartoon telephone comedy completed the program. 

{Concluded on page 52) 

Ithiiiury, 19)2 

Page 47 


IN the January issue of Visual instruction News, 
published by the Extension Division of the Univer- 
sity <>f Kansas, onr valued friend and fellow-editor, 
Ellsworth C Dent, also the markedly efficient secretary 
of the National Academy of Visual Instruction, said 
with regard to the two national organizations now in 
the visual field . . . "The activities of each parallel 
those of the other. One is giving first consideration 
to the problem of teacher-training; the other is con- 
sidering teacher-training problems. Neither has done 
much more than to convene once each year for a brief 
series of pleasant meetings, luncheons, etc. Neither 
has the recognition or standing that it should have." 

From the beginning the guiding principle seems to 
have been somewhat as follows: Let there be at all 
times two organizations — each to accomplish practi- 
callv nothing save to countermine the efforts of the 
other — instead of one single organisation — which would 
eliminate the problem of choice by potential members, 
hence enlist readily the total support available from the 
budding field, and inevitably show vastly greater ac- 
complishment by this year of our Lord 1932. 

For such faint archaeological interest as it may af- 
ford, we summarize the procedure of the last twelve 
years. In 1919 were formed, a few months apart and 
each duly documented, "The National Academy for 
Visual Instruction" and "The National Academy of 
Visual Instruction", quite independent of each other 
but with purposes differing only by the preposition. 
When the former died from doing nothing. The Na- 
tional Academy of Visual Instruction was supplied 
with a new partner-opponent by the formation of "The 
Visual Instruction Association of America". After a 
few years of friendly and feeble sparring by these two, 
by a process of painless absorption The National 
Academy of Visual Instruction emerged victor and 
was promptly paired with the newly formed "Depart- 
ment of Visual Instruction of the National Education 
Association", which is the present situation. 

The Educational Screen has been in fairly intimate 
and sympathetic touch with these goings-on from the 
beginning. It holds, buried some ten years deep in its 
files, the original documents of "The National Aca- 
demy for Visual Instruction", birth certificates of the 
still-born pioneer. From January '23 to June '24, we 
had the honor of being official organ for the N. A. V. I., 
carrying a special department of which the contents 

were to be furnished each month by the organization. 
After the 16 issues no more contents were forthcoming. 
From December '22 to June '25 we were also official 
organ for the V. I. A. of A., carrying a similar depart- 
ment which ended similarly after 27 issues. The first 
president of the Department of Visual Instruction of 
the N. E. A. appointed us in similar capacity in March 
'24, but material from that source lasted for barely 3 
issues. We have since had a long vacation from offi- 
cial organing. 

THERE is immense vitality and potential strength 
in a field that has some 50,000 teachers "active" 
and at least another 100,000 "interested". Many 
of the 50,000 need to be helped beyond the fumbling 
stage by scientific assistance from an authoritative 
source. The 100,000 need merely judicious provoca- 
tion and respected leadership to swell the ranks of the 
50,000. To accomplish all that the above suggests is 
a task indisputably colossal. 

There is only one hope for the gradual achievement of 
such a task, namely, to establish a single national or- 
ganization that shall combine every possible element of 
strength available from the present field. It should 
aim to enroll every educational leader of recognized 
influence and authority on visual work, every teacher 
seriously interested and active in teaching with visual 
aids; and it should ally itself intimately with every 
commercial interest that is qualified to contribute to 
real progress in visual education. Then, with a single 
medium for complete inter-communication in the form 
of a national magazine that can permeate the field to 
its remotest corners at minimum expense, such an or- 
ganization can proceed confidently to correlate re- 
search, unify aims, coordinate effort and harmonize 
practice everywhere. 

Such an organization can be established now, with- 
in the 48 hours of February 23rd and 24th at Wash- 
ington, by the merger of The National Academy of 
Visual Instruction and the Department of Visual In- 
struction of the N. E. A., the oldest and the newest 
organizations. Such a move will put an end to twelve 
years of pottering, and inaugurate a future of un- 
limited possibilities. The power to make this mo- 
mentous decision will be in the hands of relatively few 
at Washington. It is a distinguished privilege which we 
are certain they appreciate. The Educational Screen 
expects the vote for the merger to be emphatic, en- 
thusiastic and unanimous. 

Nelson L. Greene 

Page 48 

The Educational Screen 

Twelfth Annual Meeting of 
The National Academy of Visual Instruction 

In session concurrently with the 

Department of Superintendence of the N. E. A. 

WASHINGTON, D. C, February 23 and 24, 1932 

Headquarters : The National Press Club. Formal 

Programs will be held in the Auditorium of the 

National Press Club, 14th and F St., N.W. 

Officers 1931-1932 

President — F. Dean McClusky, Director, Scarbor- 
ough School, Scarborough, New York. 

Secretary-Treasurer — Ellsworth C. Dent, Secretary 
of the Bureau of Visual Instruction, University of 
Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas. 

Executive Committee 

Daniel C. Knowlton — Professor of Education. New 
York University. 

Rupert Peters — Director of Visual Instruction, 
Public Schools, Kansas City, Missouri. 

A. G. Balcom — Assistant Superintendent of 
Schools, Newark, New Jersey. 

Charles Roach (deceased Nov. 6, 1931) — Director 
of Visual Instruction, City Schools, Los Angeles, Cali- 

John A. Hollinger — Director. Department of Sci- 
ence, City Schools, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

William H. Dudley — Editor, Yale Pageant of Amer- 
ica, Educational Lantern Slides, Chicago, Illinois. 

Eugene I. Way — Local Chairman on Arrangements, 
Chief, Industrial and Educational Section, Motion Pic- 
ture Division of the U. S. Department of Commerce. 


Executive Committee and Officers will meet Tuesday 
morning at 7:45 (breakfast). National Press Club. 


Tuesday, February 23rd. 10:00 A. M. to 12 M. 
Round Table Topic : The Administration of Teacher 
Training in Visual Instruction. 

1. Presentation of Agenda for the Round Table. 

2. Discussion. 

The following are to participate in the discussion 
of the Agenda. (The names are arranged alphabetical- 
ly, not in order of participation.) 

Naomi S. Anderson — Department of Visual Educa- 
tion, Chicago Public Schools, Chicago, Illinois. 
Arthur G. Balcom — Assistant Superintendent of 
Schools, Newark, N. J. 

C. Beverley Benson — Author, Living Geography. Yon- 
kers, New York. 

F. C. Borgeson — Associate Professor of Education, 
New York University. 

E, \\ inifred Crawford — Director of Visual Education. 
Montclair, New Jersey. 

Ellsworth C. Dent — Secretary-Treasurer National 
Academy of Visual Instruction, Secretary of the 
Bureau of Visual Instruction, University Extension 
Division, University of Kansas. 

William H. Dudley — Editor, Yale Pageant of America, 
Educational Lantern Slides, Chicago, Illinois. 

J. Elizabeth Dyer — Department of Visual Instruction. 
Washington, D. C. 

Frank N. Freeman — Professor of Education, Uni- 
versity of Chicago. 

John T. Garman — Special Assistant in the Division of 
Visual Education, Board of Public Education, Phil- 
adelphia, Pennsylvania. 

Rebecca J. Gray — Franklin School, Washington, I). C. 

W. M. Gregory — Director Educational Museum. 
Cleveland Public Schools, Cleveland, Ohio. 

George E. Hamilton — Director Department of Educa- 
tion, Keystone View Company, Meadville, Pa. 

f. E. Hansen — Chief Bureau Visual Instruction, Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin. 

C. F. Hoban — Director, The State Museum and Visual 
Education, Department of Public Instruction, liar- 
risburg, Pennsylvania. 

Rita Hochheimer — Assistant Director of Visual In- 
struction, Board of Education, New York City. 

John A. Hollinger — Director, Department of Science. 
Pittsburgh City Schools, Pittsburgh, Pa. 

John J. Jenkins — Director of Visual Education. 
Bronxville, New York Public Schools. 

Edwin W. Johnson — Director of Visual Education, 
Bridgeport, Connecticut. 

Fred E. Kelly — Professor of Education, Gettysburg 
College, Gettysburg. Pa. 

Newton Kerstetter — Director of Visual Instruction, 
State Teachers College, California, Pa. 

Daniel C. Knowlton — Professor of Education, New 
York University. 

Abraham Krasker — Director of Visual Instruction. 
Public Schools. Quincy, Mass. 

Sally B. Marks — Professor of Visual Education, Uni- 
versity of North Carolina. 

February, 19)2 

Page 49 

Morris Meister New York Training School for 
Teachers, New York City. 

I. Paul Miller Central High School. Scranton. IVnn- 
ij Ivania. 

Grace Fisher Ramsey — Secretary Treasurer of the 
Department of Visual Instruction. N, E. A.. Asso 
ciate Curator American Museum of Natural Hi- 
tory, New York t ity. 

Prank Reh — Principal. Public School 212. Brooklyn. 
New York. 

[rving Ritter— Principal, Public School 139, Queens, 
New York City. 

Martha Scott Professor in Biology, Southern Illinois 
Normal University, Carbondale, Illinois. 

Mortimer L. Simpson — Principal. Lexington School, 
New York City. 

Charles A. Tonsor — Principal, Grover Oeveland High 
School. New York City. 

Ralph E. Wager — Director of the Department of Edu- 
cation, Emory University, Georgia. 

II. S. Walsh New York Training School for Teach- 
er-. New York (.'ity. 

Eugene I. Way- thief. Industrial and Educational 
Section. Motion Picture Division of the U. S. De- 
partment of Commerce, Washington, D. C. 

W. W. Whittinghill— President Department of Visual 
Instruction. N. E. A.. Assistant Director of Visual 
Instruction. Detroit Public Schools. 

Pen D. Wood — Professor of Education, Teachers 
College, Columbia University. 

Tuesday. February 23rd, at 2:30 P. M. 
Round Table Topic: The Administration of Teacher 
Training in Visual Instruction (Continued from the 
First Session ). 

1. Presentation of Agenda for the Round 'Table. 

2. Discussion .(Continued from the First Session) 

Wednesday, February 24th. at 7 :4S V M. 
Round Table Topic: Progress in Visual Education for 

1. Music — William H. Dudley. Chicago. 111., in 

Reports from the Field 

2. Claire Zyve — Principal Fox Meadow Elementary 
School. Scarsdale. New York : "Experiments with 
Film Strips in 'Teaching Arithmetic and Spelling.*' 

3. Marguerite E. Schwarzman— Director. 'The Chil- 
dren's Laboratories, New Rochelle. New York : 
"Visual Instruction in Science Teaching." 

4. George I. /ehrung— Director Y. M. C. A. Motion 
Picture Bureau, New York City: "The Outlook 
for 1932-33." 

5. Arno \ iehoever — Director of Biological Research 

Department. Philadelphia College of Pharmacy 
and Science: "Harnessing the Moving Picture to 
Instruction in Biology." 

6. James ( \. Sigman — Director of Visual Instruction, 
Public Schools. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: "Vis- 
ual Instruction in Philadelphia." 

7. Reports from Delegates representing Industry. 

Wednesday. February 24th. at 10:00 A. M. 
Round 'Table 'Topic: Summary of Conference Dis- 
cussions on the . {administration of Teacher Training 
in I 'isual Instruction. 
Leader— Dr. Daniel C. Knowlton, Chairman of the 
Committee on Teacher Training. 

(Open to members only) 

1. Re]K>rt on the Research Committee — F. Dean Mc- 

2. Report on the Committee on Standards — John A. 
1 lollinger. 

3. Report on Progress from the Massachusetts 
Branch of the National Academy of Visual In- 
struction — Abraham Krasker. 

4. Report on Progress from the New York City 
Branch of the National Academy of Visual In- 
struction — Rita I lochheimer. 

5. Report of the Secretary - Treasurer — Ellsworth 
C Dent. 

6. Report of the Executive Committee — Arthur G. 

7. Report of the Committee on Merging with the 
Department of Visual Instruction of the National 
Education Association — F. Dean McCIusky rep- 
resenting the National Academy : W . M. Gregory, 
representing the Department of Visual Instruction. 

8. Election of Officers. 

Wednesday. February 24th, at 12:15 P. M. 
Greetings to the National Academy of Visual Instruc- 
tion — Dr. Florence Hale, President of the National 
Fducation Association. 
Address — Dr. P. J. Rulon. 'The Graduate School of 

Education. Harvard University. 
Address — Dr. Eugene A. Colligan, Associate Super- 
intendent of Schools, New York (.ity. 
Address — Dr. W. II. Pillsbury. Superintendent of 
Schools. Schenectady. New York. President New 
York State Teachers Association. 
(Note: Much excellent work in Visual Instruction 
is being done in the public schools of Washington. 1 >. 
C. and vicinity. Members of the Academy and its 
friends have been cordially invited to view this work. 
Arrangements for visitation may be made at the in- 
formation desk. i 

Page 50 

The Educational Screen 


Being the Combined Judgments of a National Committee on Current Theatrical Films 

(The Film Estimates, in whole or in part, may be reprinted only by special arrangement with The Educational Screen) 

Titles of Films (Actors) (Producers) 

Big Shot. The (Eddie Quillan) 
(RKO-Pathe) Very engaging small- 
town boy, with big business ideas 
that mostly fail, finally promotes 
successfully a swampy auto-camp. 
Some cheap risque lines lugged in, 
some very amateurish acting, but 
mostly wholesome, human and thor- 
oughly amusing. 

Charlie Chan's Chance (Warner 
Oland) (Fox) Oland excellent as 
the shrewd and engaging Chinese 
detective who so.ves a murder that 
baffles both New York and London 
experts. Very complex plot and 
wordy dialog, but notably fine cast 
makes it one of best of kind. Not 

Cock of the Air (Billie Dove, 
Chester Morris) (United Artists) 
Artificial, mostly silly and absurd 
story exploiting seductive power of 
heroine who makes Paris "unsafe 
for officers on leave". Banished to 
Italy she meets hero, also supposed 
irresistible, and both succumb. 
Highly objectionable and ridiculous. 

Dance Team (Sally Eilers, James 
Dunn) (Fox) Human and appealing 
picture of vaudeville life, its brief 
triumphs and long heartaches, ex- 
cellently played by the two stars, 
with notable minor role by Harry 
Beresford. Wholesome and charm- 
ing, amusing and sobering. Far 
above average stage-life picture. 

Emma (Marie Dressier, Jean 

Hersholt) (Fox) Who.esome, human 
comedy of the best, great solo part 
for Marie Dressier as efficient, prac- 
tical, devoted foster-mother to five 
children, all of whom prove thank- 
less cads in time of stress, except 
Ronnie. Typical Dressier humor, 
antics and pathos. 

Forbidden (Barbara Stanwyck, 
Adolphe Menjou) (Columbia) Ma- 
ture problem play that avoids 
cheapness and vulgarity and achieves 
convincing though depressing 
reality. Lonely heroine meets lonely 
hero in gay Havana and liaison 
lasts till she learns hero was mar- 
ried man. Separation, child, tragic 
ending. Menjou good. 

Girl of the Rio (Dolores del Rio) 
Leo Carrillo)(RKO) Pale and feeble 

version of Holbrook Bl inn's virile, 
colorful play, "The Dove," with 
heroine chiefly a reciter of lines, 
and hero a mere bombastic foo! . 
Dramatic and character values lack- 
ing, climax weak. Nothing objec- 
tionable, but hollow and unconvinc- 

Hatchet Man, The (Edward G. 
Robinson) (First National) Hectic 
melodrama of Chinese Tong feuds, 
with elaborate trappings and grim 
Oriental air of fatalism. Ideal sin- 
ister role for Robinson. Highly 
seasoned with infidelity and sudden 
death. Fantastic, thrilling, far- 
fetched and inprobable. 





Fine of 



(15 to 20) 





Good of 




(under 15) 








Only fair 

Better not 







Titles of Films (Actors) (Producers) 

Hell Divers (Wallace Beery, Clark 
Gable) ( M-G-M > Outstanding pic- 
ture of Navy life, with Beery do- 
ing his finest work to date as a 
crude, tough, hard-hitting Petty 
Officer, but utterly human under- 
neath and loyal unto death. Mag- 
nificent aviation stuff, U. S. Navy 
cooperating. Tense interest, whole- 
some thrill for all but over-sensi- 
tive children. 

Her Majesty Love (Marilyn Mil- 
ler, Ben Lyon ) ( First National > 
Forced and feeble effort at comedy 
about wealthy family whose rebel- 
lious son marries a cabaret girl. 
Comic bits by Fields, Errol and 
Sterling are its only merit. Mari- 
lyn's great dancing talent is hardly 
given a chance. 

High Pressure (William Powell | 
( Warner) Fast-moving, farce-com- 
edy, many funny spots, only objec- 
tion the utter unscrupulousness of 
crook-hero, skilfully played by 
Powell. Fake invention is pro- 
moted by such wildly exaggerated 
methods that the whole situation 
becomes merely preposterous. 

Local Boy Makes Good (Joe E. 
Brown) (First National) The cam- 
pus grind, in Botany, is finally in- 
spired to become track hero by 
feminine influence and a little al- 
cohol. Some slapstick and hokum. 
but Brown is excellent in a real 
character role. Dorothy Lee very 
inadequate, rest of cast good. 

Lovers Courageous (Madge Evans, 
Robert Montgomery) (M-G-M) 
Light, wholesome and charming 
love comedy, beautifully done by 
Madge Evans and Robert Mont- 
gomery in best role he has had U* 
date. Human and amusing through- 
out, in parts genuinely pathetic. 
Two notable minor roles. Excellent 
example to other producers. 

Maker of Men (Jack Holt, Rich- 
ard Cromwell) (Columbia) Stereo- 
typed, prosy football picture, very 
ordinary in acting, dialog, direction 
and backgrounds. More or less 
false and absurd, especially the 
incredible dumbness of the one-idea 
father's treatment of his sensitive 
son. Futile effort to glorify foot- 

Manhattan Parade (Winnie Light- 
ner, Charles Butterworth ) ( War- 
ner) Lively farce, all technicolor, 
burlesquing theatrical production on 
Broadway, stuffed with slang anil 
low comedy of bellowing-voice type 
which drowns all character inter- 
est. Dialog and action merely crude 
and common, not offensive. Many 
laughs, little humor. 

Mata Hari (Greta Garbo, Ramon 
Novarro) (M-G-M) Strong, thrill- 
ing melodrama of war-spy-intrigue. 
Super-sex role for Garbo as profes- 
sional spy and chronic seductress. 
Most extreme Garbo stuff to date. 
thorouKhly unwholesome for youth. 
Harrowing tragic ending supposed 
to make it "moral". 






Good of 



(15 to 20) 


Only fair 

Good but 

Very good 




See it 
and think 



Funny but 



(under 15) 

Fine but 



Very good 




February, 1932 

Page 51 

Titles of Films (Actors) (Producers) 

Menace. The ill B. Warner) (Co- 
lumbini An exceedingly well done 
little crook-detective drama, finely 
acted except for some silly fiOHlta 
relief, with interest and suspense 
held throughout. Tr» 
crooks try to steal o d English es- 
but hero defeats them, m< *tly 

Murders in the Hue Morgue (Btfln 
Sidney Fox) (Universal i 
Another of the epidemic horror- 
fllmi pretentious! clumsy screen- 
ing of Toe's great tale. Plot and 
drama are huried by sombre light- 
ing, hen vy sets, vague cha racters. 
poor acting, and general over- 
straining after murder thril's. Klab- 
orate. inefTective. typically naive. 

No One Man (Paul Lukas, Carol 
Lombard) (Paramount) Cheap story 
about rich, vacuous heroine, with 
jovial father and ridiculous mother, 
lending life of social frittering. 
Marries play-hoy rake, whose mis- 
tresses drive her back to former 
fiance, finely p'ayed by l.ukas who 
is murtvd in such a Aim. 

Panama Flo ( Helen Twelvetrees. 
Blckford) (RKO) Cheaply 
sensational, sexy stuff about virtuous 
heroine who is cabaret-dancer in 
low sea-front dive in tropica. 
Smooth U. S. aviator is the villain, 
and a tough, roughneck American 
prospector in wilds of South Amer- 
ica is the hero. Mostly preposterous 
and waste of good acting*. 

Safe in Hell (Dorothy Mackailli 
i Pint National i Sensational, pre- 
posterous yarn about scarlet heroine 
reformed by true love left by hus- 
band on tropic isle among ruffians — 
waits faithfully finally walks de- 
liberate^' to gallows to keep faith 
Hectic, absurd, heroism badly over- 

Sea Ghost. The (Laura LaPlante) 
(Peerless) Third-rate sea story, ut- 
terly banal in plot, acting, dialog 
and direction. Slow, confused, dull. 

Speckled Band (P^iglish produc- 
tion* (1st Division) Interesting 
Sherlock Holmes story, fairly good 
technique, fine dramatic value and 
atmosphere. Slow tempo of rea 
life and very natural acting mak. 
it very convincing. Unusual por- 
trayal of Holmes. All cast good 
except Dr. Watson. 

Stepping Sisters (Louise Dresser) 
(Fox) Labored farce-comedy, most- 
ly absurd, with Louise Dresser 
wasted on ridiculous role. Three 
burlesque queens, meeting- again 
after many years, make hash of an 
elaborate social function. Poor, 
crude, and much inferior acting. 

Taxi (James Cagney, Loretta 
Young) (Warner) Thrilling taxi- 
feud story, with Cagney perfect as 
tough, insolent, smart-aleck, quick- 
fist ed, girl-bullying hero, made 
wholly admirable. Lively, fast, 
amusing, no sex exploitation, but 
glorifies the swaggering tough guy 
and a low type of living. 

This Reckless Age (Richard Ben- 
nett, Frances Starr, Charles Rug- 
gles, Frances Dee) (Paramount) 
Splendid domestic comedy, thor- 
oughly human, appealing and beau- 
tifully acted. Rich in character 
interest, free of cheap sensation. An 
intelligent picture that will please 
everyone. Belated, but most wel- 
come "imitation'* of "The Goose 
Hangs High." 



(...Mil Of 







(15 to 20) 

Very good 



By no 






(icMld Of 






Good of 


(under 15) 







Good If not 
too strong 




Titles of Films (Actors) (Producers) 

Three Wise Girls (Jean Harlow > 
(Columbia) Trashy story, good cast. 
Married men chase working gir •, 
give them fine apartments, then let 
them commit suicide or get out of 
it as best they can. 

Tomorrow and Tomorrow ( Ruth 
Chatterton, Paul Lukas ) ( Para- 
mount) Mature problem play, done 
with distinction, dignity and con- 
vincingness. Love-starved wife, 
genial but non-understanding hus- 
band, charming doctor from Vienna, 
illegitimate child, final loyalty of 
wife to her marriage. Wordy, but 
deftly and de'icately done, save for 
heroine's marked mannerisms. 

Two Kinds of Women (Miriam 
Hopkins) (Paramount) Country- 
bred daughter of Dakota senator 
wins rich play-boy. who will reform 
and marry her. Shows New York 
life merely as continuous woman- 
chase by men, with lavish apart- 
ments, glorified speakeasies and 
very drunken women as chief fea- 
tures. Some fine acting. 

I nder Eighteen (Marian Marsh. 
Regis Toomeyi (Warner) Ordinary 
picture about working-girl heroine, 
her grocer-clerk fiance, and the 
pain of being poor. She turns 
against marriage when sister's 
marriage goes on the rocks. Very 
unwholesome experiences at pent- 
house party of rich philanderer 
send her back to fiance. 

Unexpected Father. Th« (Slim 
Summerville) (Universal) Newly 
rich, dumb bachelor accidently be- 
comes "daddy" to tiny orphan girl 
and hires dumb nurse. Situation 
spoils his planned marriage into a 
gold-seeking family, so he marriet 
the nurse. Elementary humor, naive 

Union Depot (Doug Fairbanks 
Jr.) (First National) Very clever 
skilfully directed and played story 
of day in great railroad station. 
From teeming life and movement 
emerge gradually individuals tang- 
led in a romantic, melodramatic 
situation. One quite objectionable 
sex scene, but total effect probablv 


Way Back Home (Phillip Lord 
as "Seth Parker") (RKO) Realistic 
old-fashioned country life and char- 
acter, good melodramatic story, 
good singing, typical country an- 
tics. Acting and sets good, atmos- 
phere genuine, and very little exag- 
geration for those who know life 
as lived in the rural hinterland. 

Woman from Monte Carlo, The 

(Lil Dagover. Walter Huston) 
( Warner ) Heroine with notorious 
past has married fine French naval 
captain. Her previous lovers make 
possible various sensational com- 
plications and cheap situations. 
Melodrama on the standard sex 
formula, with some really good act- 
ing wasted in it. 

X Marks the Spot (Lew Cody. 
Sally Blane) (Tiffany) Newspaper 
gangster thriller, with little dis- 
tinction in its acting, slangy dialog 
that is breezy but without spark. 
Villain's hold on hero prevents solu- 
tion of crime until melodramatic 
and improbable ending. On the 
whole unobjectionable. 




Good of 









(15 to 20) 




Better not 



Very good 




(under 15) 












Page 52 

The Educational Screen 

News and Notes 

(Concluded from page 46) 

For the present, only silent pictures can be shown. 
The committee is confident, however, that these initial 
programs will be so enthusiastically supported that the 
funds will soon be available to enable them to provide 
sound films. 

A Microscopical Slide Loan Service 

The Buffalo Society of Natural Sciences announces 
the inauguration of a new service this year, that is, 
the loaning of its splendid collections of microscopical 
slides which have been presented to the Society in re- 
cent years. 

Among the outstanding series at present in the col- 
lection may be mentioned that of fresh- water sponges 
by the late Henry Mills and the Dr. E. G. Love Col- 
lection of insect preparations. There are also series of 
protozoa, animal and plant histology, and rock sec- 
tions, as well as many miscellaneous objects. 

These slides should be of valuable assistance to sci- 
entists, teachers, and students in the several fields 

Courses in Visual Education 

Professor L. Paul Miller is offering a three credit 
evening course in Visual Education this semester at 
St. Thomas College, Scranton, Pa. 

The course includes : classification and study of the 
main types of aids ; handling of projection equipment ; 
a treatment of present and future problems in visual 
education ; a survey of such fields as teacher train- 
ing, administration, and research ; a listing of visual 
aids for use in own major field. 
♦ ♦ 

During this past year New Paltz Normal School of 
New Paltz, New York, which is rapidly becoming 
recognized as one of the most progressive schools in 
the country, has presented a series of lectures dealing 
with Visual Education by such leaders as Dr. Daniel 
C. Knowlton, Dr. Edwin Reeder, Mr. Alfred W. 
Abrams, Mr. L. Paul Miller, and Dr. Dean F. Mc- 

These lectures have been followed with interest by 
educators throughout the state and recently Dr. Van 
Den Berg, President of the School, stated that a course 
in Visual Education will be offered during the sum- 
mer session. This course will be given by Mr. John 
J. Jenkins, Chairman of Visual Instruction at the 
Bronxville Public Schools. This course is the first 

of its kind to be given in a Normal School of New 
York State and represents untiring efforts by its spon- 
sors, Dr. Van Den Berg, Dr. F. Dean McClusky, and 
Mr. Jenkins. 

Dr. Van Den Berg also announced a demonstration 
of sound equipment and educational films to be given 
at the School on March 10th, 1932, at 7:30 P. M. by 
Electrical Research Products of the Western Electric 
Company, Bell & Howell, The Ampro Corporation. 
The Fox Film Company, and Victor Animatograph 
Corporation. The latest sound education films in the 
fields of Science. Literature, Teacher Training, and 
the Social Studies will be shown. All interested are 
cordially invited to attend. 

Movie Supplants School Year Book 

The traditional school yearbook is giving signs of 
"going modern." The boys and girls attending the 
St. Paul Academy are making a movie this year in- 

School activities, sports, and "close-ups" of pupils 
and faculty will be recorded on film by a staff of school 
"cameramen." The making of football movies is al- 
ready in full swing. 

Instead of receiving, at the end of the term, books 
containing group pictures and "wise cracks," the pu- 
pils will be able to obtain copies of the motion picture 
to recall the life and events of their school year. 

Visual Education Bureau in Australia 

The report of the Visual Education Committee of 
Victoria recommends a visual education bureau, main- 
tained by the Commonwealth Government with funds 
derived from film import duties. Appointed by the 
Government of Victoria in 1930 to investigate the 
possibilities of motion pictures as an adjunct to State 
school education, the committee has carried out a num- 
ber of experiments in schools in Victoria. A Common- 
wealth bureau is the ideal of the committee, but, 
pending the establishment of this, the committee urges 
the immediate formation of a State bureau for the 
collection of films, photographs, slides, and other visual 
aids, and circulating them among schools. 

Sound Installation 

Contracts have been signed for the installation of 
sound equipment in the new Samuel Gompers Indus- 
trial High School for boys, in the Bronx section of 
Xew York, as the first step in the city's test of the po- 
tentialities of sound pictures in teaching. 

February, 19)2 

Page 53 



Educational Research Bulletin (November 11) 

"Books Which Children Like to See Pictured", by 
Edgar Dale, presents an invaluable and suggestive 

survey of it^ subject. 

The hordes of children who daily attend motion-picture 
theater! have Led parents, educators, social workers, and oth- 
ers to become disturbed regarding the experiences to which 
children are being accustomed by viewing the films. The com- 
mon opinion among tlii> group of persons is that the themes 
of current motion pictures are too mature to be of greatest 
benefit to children When these same parents and teachers, 
how e ver, are ashed to specify the types of content that should 
go into motion pictures for children, they are at a loss for 
answers. They have a feeling, however, that a major source 
of themes for such motion pictures would be the better books 
read by children. 

The major difficulty involved in such a procedure lies in the 
possibility that the motion-picture interests and reading in- 
k-rests of children are highly diverse. Children may, for 
i xaniple, rate Treason Islam! high as a reading book, but 
express no interest whatsoever in seeing it pictured. It be 
comes necessary, therefore, to determine whether books which 
children like to read are books which they express a desire 
to see on the screen. If we find a high degree of agreement 
between the two, then motion picture producers who wish to 
make motion pictures for children can make intensive use of 
all studies of children's interests in the field of literature. 

The experiment to this end, conducted by the Fed- 
eration of Mothers Clubs of Cincinnati and vicinity. 
Using the public schools of that city, is described in 

detail in the article. 

Fortunately, a measuring stick was available by which to 
compare first the interest value of books read by Cincinnati 
liovs and girls with the interest values of books read by boys 
and girls throughout the rest of the United States, and we 
have available as well the judgments of a group of children's 
librarians as to the worth-whileness of these books. This 
measuring stick of interest and worth-whilencss is the Win- 
netka Graded Hook List. The list was formulated by asking 
36,750 elementary-school pupils in a number of cities and vil- 
lages throughout the United States to ballot on the interest 
value of the books which they read during a period of several 
months. The list of books which these children found inter- 
esting was then submitted to a group of specially chosen chil- 
dren's librarians who eliminated from this list those books 
which were believed to be trashy and of little value to chil- 
dren. The Winnetka Graded Beiok List, therefore, represents 
hooks approved by librarians which have been found to have 
high interest value for children. 

The resulting list of books, selected by the children, 
presented these |>ercentages. 

Fifty-four, or 71 per cent, of the 76 books selected are on 
the Winnetka list. Twenty-two books named were not in- 
cluded in the Winnetka list. As a matter of fact, a goe>d 

many of these 22 books would have the approval of both par- 
ents and teachers. Coselte, for example, is an excerpt from 
Ltt Wise' rubles. Several other books appear commonly in 
school libraries, and are approved by teachers, but may not 
receive the approval of children's librarians. 

Space does not permit further quotation regarding 
the high school list, hut the above comments on the 
elementary list will give our readers a clear concep- 
tion of this experiment. 

New York State Education (January) In his artien. 
on "Equipment for Use of Screen Pictures", Mr. Al- 
fred \\ '. Abrams states briefly certain conclusions that 
have been reached from the activities of the New 
York Visual Instruction Division extending over ~ 
peroiod of years. He emphasizes the importance oi 
classroom equipment which permits of the use of pic- 
tures at the time when they are needed. 

The standard classroom equipment requirements for 
schools in New York who desire the use of state slides 
under the longer period of loan, include a projector, 
a convenient electric outlet, a suitable screen, some 
means of darkening the room adequately, and a special 
stand for supporting the lantern. 

Projection Engineering (January) The value of the 
motion picture in the medical field has been recog- 
nized but it has not taken the strides which were pre- 
dicted for it. Mr. Gordon S. Mitchell gives some rea- 
sons for the status of "Motion Pictures in Medical 
and Surgical Practices", presenting the photographic 
problems that must be met. The account contains 
some practical information on equipment and film 
stock. As to the value of the voice synchronized to 
the picture, Mr. Mitchell believes it may increase the 
utility of certain types of medical film. However, as 
few words as possible should be used so as not to dis- 
tract attention from the photographed subject. 

Federal Council Bulletin ( December) "The Church 
and Motion Pictures" states that, 

In motion pictures, developing rapidly from the silent pic- 
ture to the talkie and now to television, humanity has achieved 
one of its most fascinating and powerful instruments for edu- 
cation and relaxation. 

The motion picture uses the great art of dramatic presen- 
tation, the universal appeal to the eye which needs no language 
to be understood, and the tenacity of visual memory. It can 
be and is being used for both good and evil : for the happiness 
of the people, the broadening of their horizons, the cultivation 

Page 54 

The Educational Screen 

of manners, and as a welcome relief from .he strain and bore- 
dom of modern life; but also for breaking down social 
standards, spreading false ideals of life, stimulating sensuality 
and weakening the constructive forces of civilization. There 
is no doubt that it is being used for unworthy purposes by 
powerful men. On the other hand, pictures of great signific- 
ance and beauty are being produced in increasing numbers and 
receive gratifying patronage. The movie is both our despair 
and inspiration. 

The author, Worth M. Tippy, then follows this in- 
telligent and fair-minded resume of an old and irri- 
tating sorrow with his ideas concerning the value of 
this medium to the church. 

The great thing for the Church to do is to master the tech- 
nique of the movie and to use this new instrument of power 
for the purposes of religion. This is something the Protes- 
tant churches have not done. There has been collaboration in 
the production of a few religious films like The King of 
Kings, and there have been efforts to produce films for the 
use of churches, but the latter have usually lacked either tech- 
nique or financial resources, or both. 

What is needed is something immeasurably greater — the 
production of films which portray the forces of religion at 
work dramatically and powerfully in innumerable social and 
life situations. 

The Voice of Authority 
in the Field of Visual Education 

The Educational Screen 

A few valued opinions: 

"After reading the current issue of The Educational 
Sckeen I am further convinced of the magazine's ines- 
timable value to all who are interested in the problems 
of visual material use." . . . Paul C. Reed, Board of 
Education, Rochester, N. Y. 

"I am pleased with the forward-looking notions ex- 
pressed in your editorials. . . . Your Film Production 
Activities are another step in the right directon." . . . 
W. M. Gregory, Educational Museum, Cleveland, Ohio. 
"Its general worth becomes more and more indispen- 
sable. With its aid I am able to keep abreast of the 
times." . . . E. A. Hyldoft, Dept. of Biology, High 
School, Huntington, West Va. 

"We consider Tnn Educational Screen the most 
important visual aid we have. Only with such work 
as this can we stride along more rapidly in the visual 
field." . . . Vernett E. Peterson, Principal, Junior High 
School, Eau Claire, Wis. 

Subscribers are entitled to a copy of the famous "1000 and 
One Blue Book of Non-Theatrical Films" for 25c. This an- 
nual publication, the standard reference work for film users, 
lists several thousand films for education and entertainment, 
classified and arranged in 136 numbered subject groups, with 
full information given on every film — title, number of reels, 
brief summary of contents and sources distributing the film. 
Includes 35 mm. and 16 mm. silent and sound films. 

64 East Lake St., Chicago. 

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In any case, as Professor Markovin, of the University of 
Southern California, has said: "When the Church produces 
a better film of its own for its own purposes than the pro- 
ducers are able to produce — more dramatic, more appealing, 
more searching — it will begin really to influence the industry." 

Movie Makers (December) Mr. Louis M. Bailey 
reports, in his department concerning educational 
films, that the Director of Visual Education in the 
New York City Public Schools wishes to use all pos- 
sible amateur film material on health, science, indus- 
try, nature, travel and other subjects, as such material 
will be a valuable supplement to professional material. 

New York Times Magazine (November 29 and 
December 6) Anne O'Hare McCormick writes two 
articles on the film capitol, Hollywood. These prove 
to be interesting and fair-minded discussions. The 
author feels that she could not imagine Hollywood's 
happening in any other country than in the United 
States, nor in any other state than that of California. 
She says that the most expert director, had he chosen 
an ideal location for the film capitol, could have se- 
lected no better spot. Of the many comments appear- 
ing on the cinema center, Miss McCormick's articles 
are among the best. 

School and Home (November) Luella N. C. Whit- 

aker describes in detail a project carried on by a third 
grade on "Our Desert Indians," which was stimulated 
by the showing of a moving picture on "Homes of the 
World." A great deal of illustrative material was 
gathered by the pupils and several films pertaining to 
the topic exhibited. Excursions to the Natural His- 
tory Museum and slides greatly enriched the work in 
giving a closer acquaintance with the country, the peo- 
ple and their activities. 

The Saturday Evening Post (November 21) "No 
Means No !", by Geraldine Farrar, is an interview 
concerning the author's intelligent resume of certain 
outstanding facts of her career and her leave taking 
of that career. To many of our readers who know 
Miss Farrar, not in operatic roles, but in those too 
few screen roles of her brief cinematic experience, 
this article should be delightful reading. It is not too 
much, we think, to say that few great artists of that 
day when the combination of genius and hard work 
produced many tremendous personalities behind the 
footlights have had the cool and objective helming of 
their careers that marks Miss Farrar's guiding of her 
life as it has slipped from phase to phase of a brilliant 
and gifted experience. The sanity and the clean sin- 
cerity that shine through the words of this interview 
offer a challenge, as well as a fund of sound and com- 
mon-sense philosophy, to our readers. 

February, 19)2 

Page 5 5 



Methodists Organize to Produce 
Religious Talkies 

Production of talking pictures of a religious nature 
designed for use in Protestant churches throughout 
the country, is the aim of a newly organized society 
called The John Wesley Picture Foundation, officers 
of which were elected Wednesday, January 27. 

Rev. Chester C. Marshall, I >.!)., assistant director 
of the Methodist Episcopal Hospital of Brooklyn, is 
named president. The other officers are Rev. Ralph 
W. Sockman, D.I)., pastor of the Madison Avenue 
Methodist Episcopal Church, New York City, vice- 
president: Rev. Christian F. Reianer, I). IX, pastor of 
the Broadway Temple, New York City, second vice- 
president ; Rev. George G. Vogel, D.D., South Orange 
Methodist Episcopal Church, South Orange, N. J., 
treasurer; and Rev. James K. Shields, D.D., Newark, 
N. J., secretary. Eighteen other ministers, prominent 
in the Methodist Episcopal Church throughout the 
country, are named on the advisory board. The Foun- 
dation will he strictly non-commercial and plans to use 
the entire income from the distribution of all pictures 
for the purpose of further production of religious 

The first picture to be produced by the Foundation, 
which was incorporated in New Jersey on January 7, 
will be The Lift of John Wesley and will contain a 
musical score of songs and hymns written by Charles 
Wesley, brother of the great religious leader. The 
author of the scenario is Rev. James K. Shields, D.D., 
of Newark. N. J., well known for his numerous con- 
tributions in the field of religious motion pictures. 
( >ne of his silent motion pictures called The Stream 
of Life has been shown in more than 3,500 churches 
in this country. After writing the Wesley scenario, 
Dr. Shields submitted it for criticism, both as to the 
question of human interest and historical correctness, 
to the leading scholars of Methodism, and has re- 
ceived from them their stamp of approval. The pro- 
duction of The Lift of John Wesley will be made this 

Following the production of The Life of John Wes- 
ley, it is planned to produce a picture on the life of 
Francis Asbury. Pictures to follow this will be a 
large number of short subjects based on great texts 
of the Scriptures. Further plans call for the record- 
ing in talking pictures of sermons given by outstanding 

leaders in church life and the production of films on 
missionary work both in the home and foreign field. 
All pictures produced by The John Wesley Picture 
Foundation will be approved by the advisory commit- 
tee composed of outstanding leaders in the Methodist 
Episcopal Church. 

The board of trustees of the Foundation is com- 
posed of the following outstanding leaders in the 
Methodist Episcopal Church : Rev. Chester C. Mar- 
shall, Brooklyn, N. Y. ; Rev. George G. Vogel, South 
Orange, N. J. ; Rev. J. S. Ladd Thomas, Germantown, 
Pa. : Rev. George W. Henson, Philadelphia, Pa. ; Rev. 
Fred Brown Harris, Washington, D. C. ; Rev. Fred 
\\ inslow Adams, Boston, Mass. ; Rev. Ralph W. Sock- 
man, New York, N. Y. ; Rev. Ernest F. Tittle, Evans- 
ton, 111. ; Rev. Christian F. Reisner, New York, N. Y. ; 
Rev. Edward L. Watson, Baltimore, Md. ; Rev. James 
K. Shields, Newark, N. J. 

How Dark Must the Auditorium Be? 

A clergyman from Iowa writes in to inquire wheth- 
er it is necessary to have the church entirely darkened 
in order to run 16 mm. motion pictures. He states that 
there are large windows down two sides, with well- 
made, though not absolutely light-tight shades, and 
that audiences of 300 to 400 are to be accommodated. 

The answer is that the brilliance of the screen image 
depends upon the inter-relationship of quite a number 
of factors. One of these, already mentioned by our 
Iowa friend, is the degree of darkness obtainable in 
the room where the pictures are to be shown. With 
modern projection equipment, such as the 400-watt 
Filmo, for example, this clergyman would experience 
no difficulty whatever. Here the situation is analogous 
to the classroom in the school that cannot be made 
absolutely dark. In fact, educators have found that 
it is not altogether desirable, from the point of view 
of class discipline, to make the room pitch-dark. Sub- 
stantially similar conditions prevail in the Sunday 

The chief factor, however, is the illumination power 
of the projector. .The size and "speed" of the projec- 
tion lens is likewise important, newer projectors offer- 
ing oversized lenses that pass considerably more light 
than previous types. The design of the lamp used also 
constitutes a factor not to be overlooked, a very late 
type consisting of a double row of filaments staggered 

Page 56 

The Educational Screen 


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in such a way that the light from the second row fills 
in the dark spaces inevitably separating the filaments 
in the front row. 

The distance that the projector is removed from 
the screen affects both the size and brilliance of the 
picture. The quality of the screen is also important, 
a beaded screen being preferred especially in extra 
wide halls where part of the audience must sit at a 
considerable angle to the screen. The density of the 
film to be shown is still another factor, amateur film 
quite often being rather dense, due to partial under- 

Projectors generally have 2-inch lenses as standard 
equipment. At 32 feet this would mean the filling of a 
6 foot screen, an all-'round satisfactory combination. 
Clergymen all over the country are welcoming the 
recent 16 mm. projector improvements. Rev. H. G. 
Conger, of the M. E. World Service, wrote of one 
machine. "It gave a satisfactory 10-foot picture. I 
was also impressed with its steadiness. A stereopticon 
could not have projected a slide steadier." 

Baptists List Mission Films 

The Northern Baptist Convention Board of Mis- 
sionary Cooperation, 152 Madison Ave., New York, 
has issued a 40 page catalog of the missionary litera- 
ture and visual aids distributed by that organization. 
Twenty-nine motion picture subjects are listed, rang- 
ing from one to five reels in length. For 35 mm. films 
there is a rental charge of $2 plus express both ways. 
For 16 mm. films there is no charge except for the 
express. Burma, Cliina, Africa, India, Japan, and 
Soldiers of the Cross are some of the interesting sub- 

Seven of the 16 mm. films were taken in the for- 
eign mission field with her own amateur movie camera 
by Mrs. H. E. Goodman. 

Another of the 16 mm. pictures, a two-reeler en- 
titled University of Shanghai, is especially interesting 
at this time. It came from Dr. Herman Liu, presi- 
dent of the University. 

Quoting from a recent French school survey the 
following statement is made in the catalog with re- 
gard to motion pictures : "The cinema is one of the 
best means at our disposal of appealing to the adoles- 
cent and adult imagination. What we see with the 
eye supplements what we read in books and hear with 
our ears." 

Another strong endorsement states : "Every church 
should own a stereopticon and motion picture pro- 
jector . . . The picture has no competitor as a 
method of presenting truth when coupled with proper 

F e b ruary, 19U 

Page 57 






Director, Scarborough 


Scarborough-on-Hudson, N. Y. 

Pupils Make Own Visual Aids 

An account of visual edu i the Wilbur 

'it Junior Ili^h School in l levcland in a recent 

number of School Topics, the official ma if the 

. should estive 

in the l'i 
The equipmi d In the school of ;i 

35 mm, p for both silent and talking pictures, 

.1 16 i projector, a delineascope, a projector for 

ides, and two -. all arra 

itorium, where their visual 
are rent' 

All departments of the school use the equipment, 
but the Department of English bad fewer bookings 
for the semester than those for social science and gen 
e. due to the dearth of material for English 
work. To meet this need, William M. Gregory, Di 
of the Cleveland Educational Museum, advised 
the department to make some slides, which suggestion 
acted upon. 

Their first venture was a set of .^5 slides of Tl 
ure Ulaud which were made by photographing and 

ing book illustrations. The Treasure Island 
problem was easily solved but they found very few 

3 of literature published with enough illustrations, 
or good enough illustrations, to use for visual aids. 
They derided, therefore, to create their own settings 
and photograph them, choosing four of James Whit- 
comb Riley's poems as subjects. 

After the pupils in an English class studied tin 

turning and makeup necessary to assume the roles as- 

1 them, they scoured the surrounding country 

for proper settings and merely transported characters 

to the chosen location, where they lived again the 

es they depicted so that they may be permanently 
irded by the eye of the movie camera or kodak. 

Another advantage which this project offers is the 
opportunity which the teacher has to interest the so- 
called dull or low I. Q. pupil in literature. In a stage 
ntation only the bright pupils, possessing some 
degree of histrionic ability can appear in the cast. As 
members of the cast for this photographic work, teach- 
ers selected some slower pupils from the Z sections, 
thus giving them an opportunity to "be somebody." 

ides these advantages there is the permanent con- 
tribution of the slides which will help the other pupils 
(and grown-ups, too) to visualize their reading. 

The benefits derived by the English Department 
from making these sets of slides were so obvious that 

'her departments began to prepare visual ed 
tion aids, which would help them to solve some of 
their teaching problems, As a result, the mechanical 
drawing, mathematics. French, and physical education 
departments all have projects under way. 

Eighth Annual Motion 
Picture Conference 

Interest in more specialized forms of the motion 
picture is perceptibly growing, as is evidenced by this 
year's meeting of the National Board of Review of 
Motion Pictures held Januan 21 and 11 in New York 

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Page 58 

The Educational Screen 

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City at the Hotel Pennslyvania. 

The general topic of the conference was "Special 
Functions of the Motion Picture in Recreation and 
Education." A wider application of motion pictures 
in education and in vocational training was urged by 
Dr. Louis I. Harris, former Health Commissioner of 
New York City and a member of the executive com- 
mittee of the National Board of Review. Speakers 
on the program of the first day*s session were : 

Dr. Wallace W. Atwood, President, Clark Univer- 
sity : "How the Specialized Motion Picture is Being 

Miss E. Winifred Crawford, Instructor, Visual 
Education, State Teachers College, Montclair, N. J. : 
"What the Motion Picture Means to Visual Educa- 

Mrs. Marguerite E. Schwarzman, Director, Chil- 
dren's Laboratories and Instructor, New York Uni- 
versity Institute of Education : "Vitalized Learning 
in Science." 

Miss Rita Hochheimer, Acting Director of Visual 
Instruction, New York City Board of Education : 
"The Motion Picture as a Teaching Device in the New 
York Public Schools." 

Leaders of Progressive Education are realizing the 
value of the motion picture, according to Mrs. Mar- 
guerite E. Schwarzman, who told the delegates assem- 
bled that "the grade school teacher need no longer 
flounder helplessly in the intricate maze of facts." 
She made a plea for this teacher who has been called 
upon in the past to be a human encyclopedia. "If fac- 
tual materials and techniques could be organized and 
simplified for the teacher," she said, "her wild grop- 
ings be over and her teaching would become a joyous 

Mrs. Schwarzman stated that motion pictures can 
play a large part in the interpretation of complicated 
facts to the young child. The schools realize the 
power of the educational film and the producers real- 
ize the demands of the schools. It remains to bring 
these two together. Mrs. Schwarzman's strong plea 
was, first, that more scientific data on the relative 
value of silent versus sound projection for classroom 
use be made available through research, — second, that 
teachers generally be instructed in the simple tech- 
nicalities of projection apparatus, — and third, that 
available films be compiled and classified according to 
subject matter and the present needs of the school 
curriculum. Such a list might be supplemented 
monthly much as the latest in literature is made avail- 
able in such compilations as the Cumulative Index and 
the Readers' Guide to Periodical Literature. With 

February, 19 }2 

Page 59 

educators on their toes, the motion picture can play 
a big part in providing materials for "Vitalized Learn- 

In the evening there was a demonstration at the Fox 
Private Theatre of specialized films for teaching, with 

Grace Allen Banga presiding and Glenn Griswold 
among the speakers. 

Next morning. Professor Mather, of Harvard L'ni- 
rersity, told of "Testing Responses to Experimental 
Specialized Films" and his conviction that such tests 

would demonstrate sound films to he a hitter aid to 
instruction than any other method of teaching. Tin 
Eessor Mather's address was followed by Mrs. Eva B. 
rlansl, Associate Editor, Parents' Magazine, on "The 
Motion Picture and Parent Education"; Mr. F. S. 
Mathewson. Supt. of Recreation, Union Co. (N. J.) 
Park Commission, on "The Specialized Use of Motion 
Pictures in Public Recreation*'; and Mrs. Helen F. 
MacPherson, Chief Juvenile Probation Officer, Hart- 
ford. Conn., who advocated, in her talk on "Children 
and the Motion Picture," that parents see pictures 
he fore their children witness them, as "a great many 
modern pictures plunge children directly into adult 
life.'' She declared motion pictures have a greater 
attraction for children than any other moral force in 
the community. 

Electrical Research Products conducted a demon- 
stration of educational talking motion pictures in the 
afternoon, with W. A. Bach presiding. 

Massachusetts State Visual Groups Meet 

The annual convention of the Massachusetts hranch 
of the National Academy of Visual Instruction and 
the State Wide Committee on Visual Education was 
held February 6 at Quincy, under the direction of 
Abraham Krasker, head of Visual Education in the 
Quincy schools. 

Dr. Howard Lesourd. professor of religious educa- 
tion at Roston University, spoke on "Motion Pictures 
in Character Education": Mr. James Collins of Quin- 
cy. on "The Use of the Radio and the Public Address 
System"; and Superintendent James N. Muir, also 
of Quincy, explained "The Quincy System of Visual 

Dr. P. J. Rulon, of the Harvard Graduate school 
of education, gave an explanation and demonstration 
of the Harvard University experiment in testing 
the value of sound motion pictures. Another out- 
standing demonstration was conducted by Dr. George 
Rommert of the Biologisches Laboratorium. Munich, 
Germany, on the "Wonders of an Unseen World." 

Sessions in the afternoon featured the ten one-hour 
dasses in various subjects being taught by visual aids 

civics, geography, general science and biology, art, 

Wlodern leaching Methods 
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the method itself. These tools are Balopticons. 

In this select line of Bausch & Lomb instructive in- 
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are Simplicity. Sturdiness, Even Illumination and Porta- 
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To one familiar with visual instruction problems these 
are real advantages. The BDT is a product of B & L 
skill and precision in every optical and mechanical part. 
Long life is thus assured . . and economical operation. 

The adjustable tilting base allows the Balopticon to be 
conveniently operated from any handy support, while the 
projected image remains symmetrical, clear and bright 
even though the Balopticon be perched at an angle. It 
can be used with equal effectiveness in the classroom, 
lecture hall or small auditorium. 

The instrument projects lantern slides, or with proper 
attachments, films or mounted microscopic specimens. 

Because the modern school needs Balopticons we sug- 
gest that you write today for complete information. 
Bausch & Lomb Optical Company, 688 St. Paul St., 
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Page 60 

The Educational Screen 



TION of more than 100.000 
subjects, authentically assembled 
by leading educaters in the fol- 
lowing fields: 

Prehistoric Relics, Art of All 
Ages and Epochs, History, Ge- 
ography, Sciences, Technics and 
Technology, Religion, Litera- 
ture and Music, Fairy Tales and 
Fables, etc. 
125 catalogs with 
photographic illus- 
trations, are avail- 
able for loan to 
responsible parties 
for use in selecting 
slides for purchase. 
Write for catalog 
listsand information 



literature, foreign language and four elementary school 

The convention closed with the inspection of ex- 
hihits, which included the display of helpful aids in 
the classroom such as pictures, models, maps, exhibits. 
and sand tables; literature on the subject of visual edu- 
cation ; and a typical visual education office. 

The Sound Film in Education 

(Concluded from page 41) 

learning evidenced by the different groups. The re- 
sults were as follows : 

Average gain made 
By the low- By the By the high- 
est fourth middle group est fourth 

Boys (50) 77.3 

Girls (47) 85.7 



When a dispassionate survey is made of the bene- 
fits accruing to education in genera! by the use of the 
sound film, the following points become apparent: 

The sound film broadens the field of study by mak- 
ing possible the presentation of material which other- 
wise would not be available. 

The student is aide to employ both eve and ear. No 
subtitles or other interruptions divorce his attention 
from the subject material. 

I he standardization of study offered is of infinite 
benefit to the schools of the nation, by assuring edu- 
cators that quality of content is present in the prod- 
uct used. 

The subject is presented in a graphic manner which 
challenges the interest of the student. 

The use of sound film is advocated in connect 

with highly specialized subjects Mich as Medicine and 
Science since it does not demand the stocking or pur- 
chase of expensive and seldom used apparatus. Furth- 
ermore, it assures the student of the highest qualit) 
of instruction in the particular branch of learning 
which he is studying. 

Sound film, in no way, minimizes the importance 
of the teacher to the student, rather it emphasizes the 
necessity for mature guidance. The problems and 
material covered in the sound film become a topic oi 
conversation which is covered by class routine. The 
sound film stimulates the student and inspires him to 
further research along the lines covered by the sub- 
ject he has just seen and it is a teacher who will and 
must supervise these efforts and answer such questions 
as will be brought up. Nor does sound film over-reach 

the prescribed boundaries of the text 1 k field, rather 

let us assume that the sound film acts only as an ad- 
junct to the material covered by the text. The film 
provides a background against which the text book 
and teacher will form a living foreground, the recol 
lection of which deeply etch themselves into the per- 
ceptive senses of the student. Unlike the radio, sound 
film may be run and re-run until the last iota of peda- 
gogical assistance has been extracted. 

Inanimate pieces of metal and reels of celluloid of- 
fer such potentialities that the educator of the day 
cannot afford to overlook them. The fear that the 
machine era in which we live will stifle the creative 
and cultural tendencies of modern youth is to be 
branded as utterly false for as the distinguished head 
of Horace Mann School, Dean Rollo G. Reynolds said 
in his annual report, "A good school will hand on to 
its children control over machines in order that these 
soulless machines may free the human soul to build 
for itself a better world in which to live." 

h'ci'iitiiry, J 9.5 2 

Page 61 


Where the commercial firms — whose activities have an important hearing on progress in the visual field — 
are free to tell their story in their own words. The Educational Screen is glad to reprint here, within nec- 
essary space limitations, such material as seems to have most informational and news value to our readers. 

Several New Stereopticons 
with Heat Control 


Q PEN< l.k Lens Company have recently introduced 
** a new series oi s t e reo pti cons, known as their 
Color Plate and Auditorium Delineascopes. 

They have eliminated the water cell with its objec- 
tionable features and tlie lieat absorbing glass which 
breaks and which destroys color values, and also ab- 
sorbs light. 

A motor driven blower is placed in the lamphouse 

and a blast of cold air is conducted to the condenser 
Chamber and to the slide. This protects both condens- 
ers and slide from breakage and color plates from 
damage b) excessive heat. Natural color plates— such 
as ^gfa may he projected any reasonable length of 
time with perfect safety. 

One particular advantage of this method of cooling 
is the fact that the illumination is not cut down, as is 
done b) other methods, therefore they give exception- 

UodelJ Av- 
al brilliancy on the screen. This is particularly valu- 
able in the projection of natural color plates because 
of their density and of hand colored plates because 
of the expense of coloring. 

Another advantage is the accommodation of various 

size- of plates from 4.5 x 6 cm. to 5 x 7 inches, in- 
cluding standard lantern slide sizes. Because of the 
of natural color plates, many users resort to 
small sizes a- a matter of economy. Many make their 
color plates as large as 5x7 inches and still want to 
project them. These new instruments take care of 
these conditions. This is done by the aid of a special 
slide carrier, accommodating adapter- or kits of vari- 

ous These adapters may be put in the carrier 
so that the long dimension of the plate may be hori- 
zontal or vertical. 

Three different models are offered. Model DK has 
a 500-Watt lamp, Riving the illumination of the stand- 
ard classroom models, with the cooling device added 
and adapters provided to accommodate plates from 
4.5 x 6 cm. to 3 4 x 4% inches. 

Model JK. herewith illustrated, has a 1000-W att 
lamp. 6" diameter condensers, cooling device and 
adapters accommodating plates from 4.5 x 6 cm. to 
4x5 inches. Model LK has a 1000- Watt lamp, 8 inch 
condensers and adapters accommodating plates from 
3^4 x 4 inches to 5 x 7 inches. Both of these large 
models are excellent instruments for large auditoriums 
where a long throw is necessary and a brilliant picture 
is desired. 

They will satisfy many needs, not heretofore taken 
care of. You can now protect your valuable natural 
color or hand colored slides from excessive heat and 
project them with perfect safety and because of the 
fact that we have used a heat control that does not 
cut down the light or change its tone in any way, you 
can reproduce pictures in their exact natural colors. 
And they are not large unwieldy instruments. While 
sturdily built, they are very compact and can be easily 
transported. This i- of especial importance to the 
travelling lecturer. 

An attractive circular, giving more descriptions of 
these new color plate Delineascopes. may be had by 
writing to Spencer Lens Company, Buffalo, X. Y. 

Victor Offers New Complete 
Series of Projectors 

Victor Ammatograph Corporation, Davenport, 
Iowa, announces that the Xew Model 7 Victor Cine 
Projector is now available in a complete series which 
embraces the following equipments: Model 7 Regu- 
lar, which is equipped with 300 Watt "No Resistance" 
lamp (100-120 Volt) ; Model 7G with 50-60 cycle A. C 
Transformer built into base to permit use of high in- 
tensity 250 Watt-20V. lamp; Model TR with No. 11 
variable resistance lamp rheostat mounted with swivel 
post on projector base. This Model has a wide range 

{Concluded on page 64) 

Page 62 

The Educational Screen 


A Trade Directory for the Visual Field 


Bray Pictures Corporation (3, 6) 

729 Seventh Ave., New York City. 

Carlyle Ellis (1, 4) 

S3 Hamilton Terrace, New York City 
Producer of Social Service Films 

Columbia Pictures Corp. (3, 6) 

729 Seventh Ave., New York City 

(See advertisement on page 58) 

Eastman Kodak Co. (4) 

Rochester, N. Y. 
(See advertisement on outside back cover) 

Eastman Teaching Films, Inc. (1, 4) 
Rochester, N. Y. 

Edited Pictures System, Inc. (1, 4) 

130 W. 46th St., New York City 

Ideal Pictures Corp. (1, 4) 

26 E. Eighth St., Chicago, 111. 

Mac Callum, Inc. (3, 6) 

132 S. 15th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Modern Woodmen of America (1, 4) 
Rock Island, III. 

Pinkney Film Service Co. (1, 4) 

1028 Forbes St., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Ray-Bell Films, Inc. (3, 6) 

817 University Ave., St. Paul, Minn. 

Society for Visual Education (1, 4) 

327 S. LaSalle St., Chicago, 111. 

(See advertisement on inside back cover) 

United Projector and Films Corp. (1, 4) 
228 Franklin St., Buffalo, N. Y. 

Universal Pictures Corp. (3) 

730 Fifth Ave., New York City 

(See advertisement on page 34) 

Williams, Brown and Earle, Inc. (3, 6) 
918 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Y. M. C. A. Motion Picture Bureau (1, 4) 
347 Madison Ave., New York City 
300 W. Adams Bldg., Chicago, 111. 

School Presentations 

Bookings arranged either on a rental or 
percentage basis. Complete talking pic- 
ture equipment and suitable film sub- 
jects supplied. Write for details. 

666 Lake Shore Drive, Chicago 


Bell & Howell Co. (6) 

1815 Larchmont Ave., Chicago, 111. 

(See advertisement on inside front cover) 

Eastman Kodak Co. (4) 

Rochester, N. Y. 

(See advertisement on outside back cover) 

Edited Pictures System, Inc. (1) 

130 W. 46th St., New York City 

Ideal Pictures Corp. (1, 4) 

26 E. Eighth St, Chicago, 111. 

Mac Callum, Inc. (3, 6) 

132 S. 15th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Regina Photo Supply Ltd. (3, 6) 

1924 Rose St, Regina, Sask. 

Talking Picture Products Co. (2) 

666 Lake Shore Drive, Chicago. 

United Projector and Film Corp. (1, 4) 
228 Franklin St., Buffalo, N. Y. 

Victor Animatograph Corp. (6) 

Davenport, la. 

(See advertisement on page 34) 

Williams, Brown and Earle, Inc. (3, 6) 
918 Chestnut St, Philadelphia, Pa. 


Williams, Brown and Earle, Inc. 
918 Chestnut St, Philadelphia, Pa. 


Eastman Educational Slides 
Iowa City, la. 

Edited Pictures System, Inc. 
130 W. 46th St, New York City 

Ideal Pictures Corp. 

26 E. Eighth St, Chicago, 111. 

International Artprints 
64 E. Lake St, Chicago, 111. 

(See advertisement on page 60) 

Keystone View Co. 
Meadville, Pa. 

(See advertisement on page 57) 

James C. Muir & Co. 

10 S. 18th St, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Society for Visual Education 
327 S. LaSalle St, Chicago, 111. 

(See advertisement on inside back cover) 

Spencer Lens Co. 
19 Doat St, Buffalo, N. Y. 

(See advertisement on page 35 J 

Stillfilm Inc. 
1052 Cahuenga Ave, Hollywood, Cal. 

(See advertisement on page 58) 

University Museum Extension 
Lecture Bureau 
10 S. 18th St, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Williams, Brown and Earle, Inc. 
918 Chestnut St, Philadelphia, Pa. 


Keystone View Co. 
Meadville, Pa. 

(See advertisement on page 57) 


Bausch and Lomb Optical Co. 
Rochester, N. Y. 

(See advertisement on page 59) 

E. Leitz, Inc. 
60 E. 10th St., New York City 

James C. Muir & Co. 

10 S. 18th St, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Regina Photo Supply Ltd. (3, 6) 

1924 Rose St, Regina, Sask. 

Society for Visual Education 
327 S. LaSalle St, Chicago, 111. 

(See advertisement on inside back cover) 

Spencer Lens Co. 

19 Doat St, Buffalo, N. Y. 

(See advertisement on page 35) 

Stillfilm Inc. 

1052 Cahuenga Ave, Hollywood, Calif. 

(See advertisement on page 58) 

Williams, Brown and Earle Inc. 
918 Chestnut St, Philadelphia, Pa. 



indicates firm supplies 35 



indicates firm supplies 35 



indicates firm supplies 35 
sound and silent. 



indicates firm supplies 16 



indicates firm supplies 16 



indicates firm supplies 16 
sound and silent. 


February, 19)2 

Page 63 


THE EDUCATIONAL SCREEN offers on this page a helpful service. Informa- 
tion on sources of supply for the items listed below will be furnished our readers on 
request. Fill out the coupon and mail. 

(Vote that aourcei for Home of the equipment listed are given in the Trade Directory on the opposite pace.) 

Accoustical installations 

Adapters, mazda 

Advertising projectors 


Arc lamps, reflecting 

Arc regulators 


Booths, projection 
Bulletin boards, changeable 





Cases, film shipping 

Cement, film 


Chairs, theatre 


Controls, Volume 

Dynamic Speakers 

Electrip power generating plants 

Film cleaning machines 

Film rewinders 

Film slides 

Film splicing machines 

Film strips 

Films, Educational 

Films, Religious 

Films, Entertainment 

Films, Sound 


Fire extinguishers 

Fireproof curtains 

Gummed Labels 



Ink, pencils for slides 

Lamps, incandescent projection 
Lamps, high intensity 
Lamps, reflecting arc 
Lights, spot 
Loud Speakers 


Map slides 

Mazda projection adapters 

Mazda regulators 


Microphone attachments 


Micro projectors 

Motors, electric 

Motor generators 

Motors, phonograph 

Motion picture cable 


Needles, phonograph 

Opaque projectors 

Phonograph turntables 
Photo-electric cells 

Pictures, Prints 

Projectors, lantern slide 
Projectors, motion picture 
Projectors, opaque 
Projectors, portable, (16 mm.) 
Projectors, portable, (35 mm.) 
Public Address Systems 



Record cabinets 

Recording, electrical 


Regulators, mazda 


Reel end signals 


Screen paint 


Slides, lantern (glass) 

Slides, film 

Slide making outfits 

Slide mats 


Shutters, metal fire 

Speakers, dynamic 


Stage lighting equipment 

Stage lighting systems 

Stage rigging 

Stage scenery 





Talking equipment (35 mm.) 

Talking equipment (16 mm.) 

Title Writers 

Tone Arms 


Turntables, phonographs 

Date . 

SERVICE BUREAU, The Educational Screen, 
64 East Lake St., Chicago, 111. 

Gentlemen : I should like to receive reliable information on sources of supply for the following items : 


Name Business or Profession. 

City State 

Page 64 

The Educational Screen 

Among the Producers 

(Concluded from page 61) 

of lamp interchangeabilitv as it accommodates (on 
either Alternating or Direct Current) the 25OW.-50V. 
375W.-75V. and 165W.-30Y. high intensity lamps, 
as well as the regular 100-120 Volt 200 Watt and 300 
Watt lamps. 

Outstanding among the new features offered in the 
Model 7 Series is an improved optical system which 
affords much better illumination, regardless of the type 
of lamp used. A wicler speed range and more quiet 
operation are other improvements. 

The Model 7 Regular and the Model 7G are 
equipped with the attractive rectangular base which 
previously was supplied only on the Model 3G. The 
Model 7R has the pedestal base to permit swinging 
the rheostat in under the projector body when plac- 
ing the machine in its carrying case. 

The well known and desirable Victor features such 
as the adjustment shutter which is a constant safe- 
guard against "jumpy" pictures, the automatic film 
strip which affords protection against film damage 
and other equally important refinements are all em- 
bodied in the Series. 

Wholesale distribution of Victor Projectors is 
through the Wholesale Division of National Theatre 
Supply Companv which has factory service sales 
branches in all principal cities of the U. S. A. 

RCA Announces 16mm Sound Projector 

RCA Photophone has just introduced its new 
16 mm. sound-on-film projector, developed in associa- 
tion with the RCA Victor Company. A recent dem- 
onstration of the machine showed it to be a compact 
equipment especially suited to the requirements of the 
industrial field, schools, colleges, clubs and churches. 
The appearance of this Junior Portable projector, so- 
called to distinguish it from the 35 mm. portable which 
has been on the market for more than a year, makes 
possible the presentation of sound pictures in places 
that would be inaccessible to 35 mm. apparatus. 

""he equipment, consisting of a projector-amplifier 
unit and a small loudspeaker unit, is operated from 
any 1 10-volt, 50 or 60-cycle A. C. lighting circuit. 
The projector-amplifier unit is 14' A inches long. 13J4 
inches high. 8*4 inches wide and weighs 43 pounds. 
The equipment is not removed from its case during 
operation, the interior mechanism being accessible for 
adjustments, replacement of radiotrons, lamps and 

The projector is equipped with an optical system 
which projects pictures varying in size from 22 inches 

wide to 16 inches high at a distance of 10 feet to 67 
inches wide by 50 inches high at a distance of 30 feet. 
The picture size recommended by RCA for good il- 
lumination is 52 inches wide by 39 inches high, which 
is obtained at a projection distance of 23 feet. 

The loudspeaker is mounted in an individual carry- 
ing case which is 19 inches long. 16 inches high, 9j/> 
inches wide and weighing 21 pounds exclusive of film 
cases, reels and film. Space is provided in the case for 
the storage of eight film cans for 400-foot film reels. 
This loudspeaker is of the flat baffle type, with the dy- 
namic speaker unit mounted behind the screened open- 
ing in the front of its carrying case. A sufficient vol- 
ume of sound is available to meet the requirements of 
rooms having a cubic content up to 10,000 feet. The 
16 mm. film employed for reproduction contains 
sprocket holes on one side only instead of both sides 
as are required on 35 mm. film. When threaded in 
the projector, the sprocket holes are on the right side 
of the film. The sound track, barely discernible to 
normal sight, is at the left. 

Movies Record Earthquake Vibrations 

Mow a Filmo movie camera was employed in the 
Philippines for making a motion picture record of the. 
needle movements of an instrument constructed for 
measuring earthquake vibrations, is interestingly told 
by I. A. Terry of the engineering department of the 
General Electric Company. 

"We made an instrument, the vibration mechanism 
of which was a Starrett dial test indicator held rigidly 
to the frame. The dial was covered with a dull fin- 
ished black paper, and the needle was given a high 
polish on the tip. The glass was replaced by a deeply 
blackened metal sheet, with a small slit in it, covering 
an arc of about 20 scale divisions (mils. ) A beam of 
light was focused on the slit from a motion picture 
projector, with the light beam cut down by means of 
an aperture in a wooden block between the source of 
light and the dial test indicator. By this means the 
slit only of the indicator was illuminated. 

"The Filmo moving picture camera was used for 
recording the needle motion, the indicator being ad- 
justed to such an angle that a perfect reflection of 
light to the camera from the needle was obtained, with 
the needle in the center of the slit. The camera was 
modified to give a continuous, instead of an inter- 
mittent, film motion. The plane of the camera was 
set so that the plunges of the needle would traverse the 
width of the film." 

The camera, states Mr. Terry, was timed during 
several test runs and found to measure up to the re- 
quired standard of accuracy. The resultant movies 
are highly valuable for seismic study. 

^••ffKwH Llbrtry 



193 2 


Merger of Organizations and Magazines 
Administration of a City Department of Visual Aids 
Cinematography at the University of South Dakota 
Units of Instruction for Teacher Training Courses 
The Use of Color in Slide-Making 

Single Copies 25c 
• S2.00 a Year • 

Finest results at the lowest cost 
per projection year 

FILMO gives you most per dol- 
lar in projection years. For 
no filmo Projector has ever 
worn out. The one that you buy 
now will still be serving when 
your present pupils are grown-up, 
married, and sending their children 
to school. 

The new Filmo Model JL Projector 
solves every projection problem of 
school visual education. In the 
largest auditorium, it throws thea- 
ter--:lear, theater brilliant, flicker- 
less pictures up to 12 feet and 
more in width, and its length of 
throw has been as great as 185 
feet. It eliminates need for any 
unsightly, cumbersome, space-steal- 
ing projection booth. Its powerful illuminating sys- 
tem cuts through residual light and minimizes the 
need for expensive room-darkening equipment. 

When the auditorium program is finished, pick up the 
Filmo Projector in one hand and carry it to the class 

The new Filmo Model JL Projector, 
complete i^it/i cose, is priced at $298. 
Other Filmo Projectors as low as $150. 

room, for showing films correlated 
to lesson subjects. 

So simple is Filmo to run that, in 
many schools, children are the 
operators. While its results are 
equal to those of the finest profes- 
sional projector, the cost is far 
lower than that of an expensive, 
complicated 3 5 mm. outfit whose 
usefulness is confined to the audi- 
torium and an experienced opera- 

Let us prove to you that the Filmo 
Model JL Projector is the one in 
which to invest . . . for fine 
results, for versatility, for prac- 
ticability, and for economy. Mail 
the coupon below. 



Made by Bell & Howell, the world's leading manufacturers of finest 
quality professional and personal movie equipment. 

% Talkies for schools are made altogether 
practical,, easy, and satisfactory by the 
new Bell & Howell Model 117-C Filmophone. 
Complete in its two easily carried cases, it 
is quick and easy to set up and put into use. 
The first of the two cases contains the pro- 
jector in sound-proof blimp, and the turn 
table. The second case contains the ampli- 
fier and double loud speaker units, and also 
compartments for reels and disc records. Any 
Filmo Projector may be used as the projec- 
tion unit of the Filmophone. Thus you can 
equip for sound movies at any time, using: 
the Filmo silent Projectors that you buy 
now. A twin Filmophone is also now avail- 
able for continuous, uninterrupted per- 


1817 Larchmont Avenue, Chicago, Illinois 

Gentlemen: Please send me: G Descriptive 
literature on the new Filmo Model JL Pro- 
jector for School Auditoriums. □ A copy of 
"Filmo Motion Pictures in Visual Educa- 
tion.'' The length of our auditorium from 
back (or booth) to screen is feet. 

Name Position 



City State 


March, 19)2 

Page 65 

Educational Screen 

MARCH, 1932 





Herbert E. Slaught, Prei. 
Frederick J. Lane. Trees. 
Nslton I. Greene. Editor 
Evelyn J. Baker 
Joiephine Hoffman 
Otto M. Forkert 
Dwight Furness 

Stanley R. Greene 
Joseph J. Weber 
William R. Duffey 
R. F. H. Johnson 
Marion F. Lanphier 
F. Dean McClusky 
Stella Evelyn Myers 


Editorial 66 

The Administration of a City Department of Visual Aids 

Arnold W. Reitze 68 

Cinematography at the University of South Dakota 

R. V. Newcomb 70 

Units of Instruction for Teacher Training Courses (No. 3) 

L Paul Miller ... 72 

Film Production Activities 74 

News and Notes. Conducted by Josephine Hoffman 77 

Among the Magazines and Books. 

Conducted by Marion F. Lanphier 80 

The Film Estimates 82 

The Church Field. Conducted by R. F. H. Johnson 83 

School Department. Conducted by Dr. F. Dean McClusky 85 

Among the Producers 92 

Here They Are! A Trade Directory for the Visual Field 94 

The Educational Screen Service Bureau 95 

Contents of previous issues listed in Education Index. 

General and Editorial Offices, 64 East Lake St., Chicago, Illinois. Office 
of Publication, Morton, Illinois. Entered at the Post Office at Morton, 
Illinois, as Second Class Matter. Copyright, March, 1932, by the Edu- 
cational Screen, Inc. Published every month eicept July and August. 
$2.00 a Year (Canada, $2.75; Foreign, $3.00) Single Copies, 25 cts. 

Page 66 

The Educational Screen 


THE recent meeting of the National Academy of 
Visual Instruction, held concurrently with the De- 
partment of Superintendence of the National Edu- 
cation Association at Washington, was the most suc- 
cessful meeting of the Academy's twelve years of 
existence. The addresses, demonstrations and discus- 
sions, by eminent speakers who know 
Merger of what it is all about, proved that the 
National visual movement has graduated at last 
Organizations from its elemental period when its 
written and spoken literature consisted 
chiefly of truisms and platitudes, endlessly repeated. 
We propose for burial such classics as "seeing is be- 
lieving" and "the eye is the shortest path to the brain". 

Further, at Washington was taken what should 
prove the greatest step forward to date in the advance 
of the visual movement. By wise and unanimous ac- 
tion, the two national organizations previously occupy- 
ing the visual field were merged into one, and it a per- 
manent department of the National Education Associa- 
tion. We are pleased to present below a full account 
of those two significant days, written by Ellsworth C. 
Dent, formerly Secretary of the National Academy of 
Visual Instruction and now Secretary of the newly 
formed Department of Visual Instruction of the Na- 
tional Education Association. 


Enow take immense satisfaction in announc- 
ing another merger — of the two magazines 
which have been serving this field with more 
or less duplication of effort. Such a move was men- 
tioned at Washington as a possibility ; detailed ar- 
rangements have been rapidly completed since. 

Beginning with the next (April) issue, The Educa- 
tional Screen (monthly) and Visual Instruction 
News (bi-monthly) will be combined into 
Merger of a single monthly magazine, to cover an 
the Two even larger total field than was previously 
Magazines covered by the two magazines together 
and to serve that field more effectively. 
For a time at least, the magazine will continue to ap- 
pear as The Educational Screen, combined with 
Visual Instruction News. All current subscriptions 
to either magazine will of course be fulfilled by the 
combined publication. 

This combination is not a matter of mere nomencla- 
ture. It means economy in printing costs and overhead 
which will permit more expenditure toward steady 

improvement of the magazine. It means an increased 
producing staff which will ensure greater working 
efficiency. It means a perfected advertising medium, 
a perfected medium of exchange of ideas and informa- 
tion, which will be invaluable to all sides of the visual 
field — commercial, educational, social, ecclesiastic. 

Besides numerous plans for expansion and improve- 
ment in contents and appearance, the new arrangement 
adds at once to the staff Mr. Ellsworth C. Dent, well- 
known founder and editor of Visual Instruction 
News, as Manager of the new magazine; and an Edi- 
torial Board to be selected from the newly formed 
Department of Visual Instruction of the National Edu- 
cation Association. We are confident that this move, 
following immediately upon the significant merging of 
the national organizations, creates a situation greatly 
to be desired — a single magazine for a unified visual 

Nelson L. Greene 

The Washington Meeting 

THE January issue carried an announcement of 
plans for the meeting of the National Academy 
of Visual Instruction which was held in Wash- 
ington, D. C, on February 23-24, 1932. The pro- 
gram as announced was followed closely and the 
meeting was generally accorded to be the most 
successful in the history of the Academy. 

The majority of the discussions presented were cen- 
tered around the theme of teacher training for visual 
instruction and many suggestions were given by those 
who took part in the discussions. The general discus- 
sions of teacher training were preceded by the presen- 
tation of an agenda which presented various problems 
and invited discussion. These discussions were car- 
ried throughout the meetings on Tuesday, February 23 
and were reviewed briefly by Dr. Daniel C. Knowlton 
at the fourth session, Wednesday morning. February 

The breakfast meeting on Wednesday morning in- 
cluded some unusually interesting reports of develop- 
ments during the past year with some prediction of 
possible future trends. 

The business meeting was started Wednesday moni- 
mg at 11 :00 o'clock but it was necessary to postpone 

March, 19)2 

Page 67 

the election of officers and other parts of the meeting 
until after the luncheon meeting. The majority of 
those who attended the luncheon meeting remained for 
the business session. 

The most important outcome of the business session 
was the final approval of the plan for merging the 
National Academy of Visual Instruction with the De- 
partment of Visual Instruction of the National Educa- 
tion Association. The two organizations have been 
working parallel to each other since 1923 and the very 
existence of the two smaller organizations has caused 
general confusion among those who might have been 
interested in joining one or the other. It ha> !•■ 
found that many maintained membership in both orga- 
nizations and that the majority of these have been 
wondering why the two organizations existed. It is 
not necessary to consider the history of the organiza 
tions in order to determine the origin of the two foi 
that is of no great importance to us at present. It is 
important that there is now but one outstanding visual 
instruction organization in the United States and thai 
organization is the result of the merger of the two 
which existed formerly. 

The new organization shall be known as the Visual 
Instruction Department of the National Education As- 
sociation combined with the National Academy of Vis- 
ual Instruction. It is quite probable that rather lengthy 
name will be shortened at sometime in the future but 
it was considered advisable to have both names appear 
until the identity of the individual groups becomes of 
very little or no value. Perhaps the name is rather 
unimportant after all and the test of the merger will be 
the activities attempted and carried through by the 
new organization. 


Membership in the combined Department and Acad- 
emy will be open to anyone who may be interested in 
the use of visual aids to instruction in schools, indus- 
trial organizations, churches, or other non-theatrical 
groups. The cost of individual membership is but 
$2.00 for the year and this includes the publications of 
the Department and the Academy as they have been 
offered in the past. This is really a reduction of one- 
half in the cost of membership in as much as the 
former cost of membership in the Academy has been 
$3.00 and the membership fee to the Department has 
been $1.00. It is understood, of course, that all those 
who apply for membership in the merged organization 
shall become members of its National Education 
Association, which is the parent organization. 

It is planned that a special membership, including 

three copies of each of the publications shall be offered 
to schools at an annual fee of $3.00. One copy of 
these publications could go to the superintendent or 
principal, one copy to the person in charge of the visual 
instruction program, and the third copy to the school 
or teachers' library for reference. 

Institutional, contiibuting and life membership shall 
remain the same as for the Academy in the past. Insti- 
tutional membership embraces those organizations 
which are interested in the distribution of visual aids 
among schools, such as University Extension Divi- 
sions, State Departments of Education. Museums, and 
the like. The annual fee for such membership is $15.00. 

Contributing membership is offered to afford an 
opportunity for commercial organizations, individuals 
and others to assist the Department of Visual Instruc- 
tion financially. The suggested contribution is $25.00 
annually and in exchange for this contribution, special 
rates are quoted on advertising space in the various 
publications of the Department. The saving in the 
cost of advertising will more than offset the contribut- 
ing membership fee if space is used in each of the 

Life membership shall be offered at a fee of $50.00 
and life members will be entitled to the same priv- 
ileges as those extended to active members. Special 
rates for life membership will be made to those who 
maintain membership in the Academy or in the De- 
partment over a period of ten years or more. The in- 
come from life memberships will be placed in trust 
and the earnings only will be used to promote the work 
of the Department. It is expected that in this way a 
sizable endowment can be built in the future. 


In the past members of the Academy have re- 
ceived without charge the Educational Screen and 
Visual Instruction News, which are monthly and 
bi-monthly publications. In addition they have re- 
ceived the annual directory service, announcements 
of meetings, reports of research, etc., as they may 
have been available for distribution. Members of 
the Department of Visual Instruction have received 
very little due to the fact that the small income 
from members has not been sufficient to cover the 
cost of a regular publication. 

At the last session, on Wednesday afternoon, an- 
nouncement was made of the contemplated merging 
of the Educational Screen and Visual Instruc- 
tion News into a single magazine to serve the 

(Continued on page 84> 

Page 68 

The Educational Screen 

The Administration of a City Department 
of Visual Aids 


THE administration of a department of visual aids 
is concerned with the policies of the department, 
and in general with carrying out. according to 
the accepted plan of organization, the many and varied 
functions of the department. It is, also, concerned 
with the duties and qualifications of the various mem- 
bers of the personnel and with the rules and regula- 
tions governing the operation of the department. 

In order to administer effectively the department, 
the status of the department in relation to other de- 
partments in the school system should be clearly de- 
fined. This will prevent any mistaken ideas as to the 
purpose and place of a department of visual aids in 
the school system. The department of visual aids 
should be a separate division of the school system 
under the direct supervision of the superintendent of 
schools. The department should have the power to 
formulate and enforce such policies, rules, and regu- 
lations as are necessary for the efficient functioning 
of the department. Such policies, rules, and regula- 
tions, however, should be subject to the approval of 
the superintendent. The relation of the department 
to other departments in the school system should be 
one of wholehearted co-operation for the mutual bene- 
fit of all concerned with the educational system. The 
department should co-operate with any and all teach- 
ers, supervisors, directors, and others engaged in the 
advancement of education. The department should 
also co-operate with such organizations, outside the 
school system, who may be interested in furthering 
the cause of education or in the progress of the public 
school system. 

The duties and qualifications of the various members 
of the personnel is another important phase of ad- 
ministration. The personnel of a department varies 
both in the number of members and in the duties of 
the members, depending upon the size of the depart- 
ment. It is obvious that the duties of certain mem- 
bers of the staff will overlap each other in different 
departments. It is necessary for one person to as- 
sume responsibility for several positions in the small- 

Editor's Note: This article is the third and final in the 
series based on a master's thesis entitled "The Organiza- 
tion, Functions, and Administration of a City Depart- 
ment of Visual Aids." The first and second articles ap- 
peared in the January and February issues. 

er departments which are separate positions in the 
larger departments. The title of director is usually 
given to the person in charge of the department. The 
director is head of the department and under him all 
the other members of the staff perform their duties. 
He is usually directly responsible to the superinten- 
dent for the organization, functions, and administra- 
tion of the department. The duties of the director 
are many and varied, but, like other executives, he 
delegates the actual performance of the minor or 
highly technical duties to his subordinates. For this 
reason, only the duties of the director are discussed 
in detail. Mr. Frederick Dean McClusky in the Jun- 
ior-Senior High School Clearing House for Decem- 
ber 1930 has given a rather comprehensive list of the 
duties of a director. His list is as follows: 

( 1 ) He must keep in touch with the sources of new 

( 2 ) He must wisely select, construct, or reconstruct 
material with reference to its place in the cur- 
riculum and arrange for its classification and 
entry into a catalogue. 

( 3 ) He must interview teachers, principals, and 
others who wish to consult him with respect 
to visual aids. 

( 4 ) He must administer the routine of his depart- 
ment, making certain that orders are filled with 
dispatch and smoothness, that records are kept, 
and that materials are sent out in good condi- 

( 5 ) He must follow up breakage and delays in 

( 6 ) He must supervise the use that is being made 
of the material. 

( 7 ) He must help teachers and others plan special 

( 8 ) He must make tabular studies of the extent of 

( 9 ) He must arrange for the proper advertisement 
of available material in terms of catalogues, 
lists, and the like. 

(10) He must prepare carefully worded rules and 
regulations covering the use of materials which 
will conform to local ordinances, school-board 
regulations, and other laws affecting their use. 

March, 19)2 

Page 69 

(11) He must prepare or arrange for the prepara- 
tion of lesson plans, digests, lectures, and other 

teaching helps to accompany the exhibits, slides, 
pictures, films, and other visual aids. 
(12i He must render a report at stated intervals 
to his su]>eriors. 
While this list is by no means an exhaustive one. 
it does show clearly the many and varied duties of a 
director. Other members of the staff of a department 
of visual aids are: assistant director, secretary, book- 
ing clerk, projectionist, shipping clerk, tile clerk, film 
repairman, slide custodian, photographer, laboratory 
assistant, model builder, and delivery man. Some or 
all of these persons are desirable, depending upon the 
size of the department. 

The enumeration of the many duties of a director 
of a department of visual aids should serve to call 
attention to the training and qualifications of the per- 
son selected for this position. In the article of Mr 
Met lusky previously quoted there is also a list of 
the qualifications and training desirable for a director. 
This list is as follows : 

(1) Thorough experience and training in the tech- 
nique of teaching. 
1 2 1 Experience and training in educational admin- 
istration and supervision, 
i 3 ! Training in the art and science of photography 
and training in making slides, charts, and posters 
in order to judge more intelligently the quality 
of the material proposed for collections. 
(4) Training in the preparation and care of museum 

Knowledge in handling projection apparatus and 
other mechanical appliances commonly used in 
visual education. 
(6) Training in handling people. 
( 7 ) Training and experience in preparing catalogues, 
reports, etc., in which the work of the depart- 
ment is described. 
Another important phase of administration is the 
formulation of the necessary rules and regulations 
governing the operation of the department. In gen- 
eral, such rules and regulations should be inclusive 
and yet flexible enough to meet any situation which 
may arise. However, while the rules governing the 
department should be inclusive, the rules concerning 
the borrowing of visual aids by the teachers should 
be as simple and brief as possible. This is desirable 
in order to prevent teachers from becoming diseour- 
in borrowing material, due to an elaborate set of 
rules. The rules governing the department can only 
be formulated after a careful study of state laws and 
local ordinances concerning the use of visual material. 

If it is the policy of the department to loan certain 
of the material to outside organizations, it is well to 
draw up a separate set of rules for the use of material 
by such organizations. A suggested set of rules cover- 
ing the points which are common to most departments 
is presented in this article. This set of rules, how- 
ever, is only suggestive and it may be altered to meet 
any conditions of a given school system. 

Rules and Regulations of the Department 
of Visual Aids 


1. Material must be used only in apparatus or pro- 
jectors which have been placed in the school by 
the department or which have been approved by 
the department. 

2. Equipment belonging to the department shall not 
be removed from a building except by the depart- 
ment or upon a special order of the department. 

3. Material or equipment damaged through careless- 
ness will be charged to the school. 

4. Only films obtained through or from the depart- 
ment are to be used in projectors of the depart- 

5. Material may be seen and inspected at anytime 
during office hours at the visual aids center. 

6. Suggestions regarding the improvement of any 
phase of the work of the department are always 


1. Consult catalogs and lists on file with the principal. 

2. Consult the teacher in charge of visual aids in vour 
school for additional information. 

3. Place all orders on a regular requisition form. 

4. Order all material by exact catalog title and num- 

5. Use a separate requisition form for each date. 

6. Use a separate requisition form for each type of 

7. Material may be kept for one week only. It can 
be reordered at a later date. 

8. Requests for material are filled in order of re- 
ceipt. Place your orders well in advance. Ma- 
terial may be ordered for a full term. 

9. Material not delivered is temporarily not on hand. 
If wanted later it should be reordered. 

1. All material will be delivered on a certain dav each 
week. The previous week's material will be col- 
lected at the same time. If a delivery day comes 
on a holiday, the truck will call one day earlier. 

{Concluded on page 76 > 

Page 70 

Cinematography at the University 
of South Dakota 

The Educational Screen 


Director, Motion Picture Activities 

ON ENGINEER'S Day, spring of 1929, a Pathe 
News cameraman was obtained to take news 
pictures of famous aviators present at Ver- 
million, activities at the airport, also pictures of a 
class of girls dancing in the outdoor theatre. These 
pictures were shown nationally by the Pathe News 
Release and various favorable comments were re- 
ceived by the executive head of the University, and 
by the writer in capacity of Chairman of the commit- 
tee on aeronautics at the University. 

During the early spring of 1930 the writer started 
taking motion pictures of various campus activities 
at the University with his personally owned Filmo 70 
camera. The pictures thus taken were shown to vari- 
ous University executives with the idea in mind of 
proving to them the possibilities of 16 mm. motion pic- 
tures in connection with the training of athletes, record 
of events, record of campus activities and personalities, 
visual education, and last but not least, good publicity 
and advertising for the University. 

Enough enthusiasm was aroused by these initial ef- 
forts to get the executives to allow enough money for 
the local recording of our 1930 Engineer's Day airport 
activities on standard film. We are indebted to the 
unselfish and efficient co-operation of Lynn's Photo 
Finishing, Inc., of Sioux City for the success of that 
venture which resulted in a most interesting picture 
of not only airport activities, girl's glider event, etc., 
but also of the annual inspection of the University 
R. O. T. C. Corps, visiting high school groups, and 
important individual guests. 

For the initial showing of this picture a dinner was 
arranged to which the executives of the University, 
executives of the various University departments, ath- 
letic directors and coaches were invited. The outcome 
of that dinner and premier showing was the purchase 
of a camera with a complete set of lenses, Kodacolor 
attachment, projector, screen, and minor accessories. 

With the arrival of this equipment, the writer en- 
thusiastically devoted himself to the job of co-operat- 
ing with all departments in the taking of various pic- 
tures which could be used by the Alumni Secretary 
on his summer visits to various groups over the state. 

The success of these first pictures, taken as a pub- 

licity measure, was very marked. The following fall 
was a most busy one for the self-appointed director 
of motion picture activities at the University. Con- 
tinual calls came from the athletic department for the 
taking of slow motion pictures for football training 
— in tackling, blocking, running and scrimmage. Pic- 
tures at speed of 32 frames per second were taken of 
all the football games played and then projected before 
the football men and coaches. When the coach pointed 
out errors made by various players, there was no 
argument. The player at fault could himself see both 
cause and remedy. 

Pictures were taken in the various Schools and Col- 
leges of the University depicting subject matter and 
advantages of courses offered. The so-called director 
of motion picture activities was besieged with requests 
for co-operation and the matter of his obtaining suf- 
ficient sleep soon became an acute problem. The call 
for inside pictures developed incandescent lighting 
troubles which were first met by the director's per- 
sonally owned battery of three one-thousand watt unit, 
incandescent lights, and 150 feet of No. 8 stage cable. 

With the winter came basket ball, boxing and swim- 
ming. Slow motion pictures were made and used in 
the training for these sports. In the spring came track 
and the usual interesting campus events and activities. 
Titles were made by the use of a standard titling out- 
fit (white metal letters) and a large specially con- 
structed blackboard with surface finish of cork. 

By this time the students had become interested in 
"movies". At every event they would see the camera- 
man taking these moving pictures, and were most 
anxious to see the pictures projected ; perhaps mainly 
because they wanted to see themselves in the movies. 
They became interested in motion picture technique 
and besieged the self-appointed director with questions 
concerning equipment, costs, exposure, angles, etc. 
To bed at 2 :30 A. M„ up at 7 :00 A. M., civil engineer- 
ing classes all morning, then after lunch out with the 
camera until dinner, perhaps some inside shots in the 
evening, then editing and making titles until 2 :30 A. 
M. Such was the daily program and something had to 
be done about it. The happy idea then occurred. Why 
not combine the need for technical help with the desire 

March, 1932 

Page 71 

on the part of numerous students to learn about mo- 
tion pictures? 

A plan was carried to the President whereby a 
course in cinematography might be offered at the Uni- 
versity. The course as originally outlined w. 
follows : 

Cinematography. Lecture 1 hour, laboratory 
three hours as assigned. No prerequisite. Labo- 
ratory fee $5.00 per credit hour. Two semestei 
credit hours each semester. 

Topical ' hitline 

i 1 ) Motion Picture Machinery 
( 1 ) Taking the Picture 


( 5 ) Cutting. Editing, Splicing 
i 6 > Lighting and Exposure 
i 7 ) Composition 

f 8 ) < )ptical Science 

I listory of Motion Pictures 

i In i Evolution of Film 

(11) Processing 

(12) The Story 

(13) Location and Sets 

(14) Motion Picture Make-up 
i 15 i Color Rendition 

( P>) Sound in Motion Pictures 

(17) Trick Work 

i 18) Motion Pictures as an Educational Medium 

(19) Motion Picture-; as an Advertising Medium 

The writer believed that the course as outlined be- 
longed in the Engineering College because of mechan- 
ics involved, lighting problems, sound, color, etc. 
However our Dean objected to such a course in the 
Engineering College so the College of Arts and Sci- 
ence immediately grabbed on and placed it under the 
Journalism department. 

This idea of a Course in Cinematography was passed 
upon Favorably by the Board of Regents and accord- 
ingly advertised in the University Catalog under the 
department of Journalism. 

During the summer the writer was engaged by the 
South Dakota State Game and Fish Commission to 
take motion pictures of South Dakota Wild Fowl. 
especially showing their nesting habits. The under- 
lying theme of these pictures was conservation of vir- 
gin nesting grounds for birds. 

Our initial registration in cinematography last fall 
was ten. ( >ne of this number. Mr. G. Leslie Cooper, 
had had previous experience with Universal and we 
found his ability and enthusiasm to be most helpful 
in putting across the course. 

The early part of the semester was devoted to the 
mechanics of motion pictures, the different types and 

make- of equipment. This was followed by lectures 
on lenses and proper exposure. < hir laboratory system 
consisted of requiring so many feet of exposed him 
|kt week from each student. Results would then be 
criticised with regard to exposure, angle and composi- 
tion. To begin with, greatest stress was placed Upon 
pn>]>er exposure, then when the student began to get 
the idea, camera angles were explained, then composi- 

During these early weeks we were also working on 
the development of lighting equipment for use in 
taking inside pictures. We stuck to our 1000 watt in- 
candescent units and built six such units with 15-inch 
white enameled reflectors and adjustable height stands. 
Two 100-foot cables No. 6, were made with 60 ampere 
clips on one end and removable 6 gang box on the 
other. These cables were also arranged so that they 
could be plugged together and one long cable of 200 
feet formed. It was soon found that spot lights were 
necessary for high lighting effects so two incandescent 
spots were added to the equipment. 

With this equipment we could now take almost anv 
sort of an inside shot so instruction was started on 
artificial lighting. General lighting, molding light. 
high lights, depth by lighting, lighting key, etc., were 
discussed and tried out by actual picture taking. 

About this time the proprietor of the "Varsity," 
who runs a large soda fountain where the students 
gather on date nights to eat ice cream and to dance, 
suggested that he might pay for all costs if we would 
write, cast and shoot an advertising picture for him. 
the purpose of which would be to bring him in more 

A continuity was immediately prepared entitled 
'Date Night" and which was accepted. It was first 
necessary to make various screen tests of numerous 
actors and actresses. We found out something about 
screen tests. Screen tests are a most admirable way 
to interest potential fans in the movie game. Screen 
tests also furnish excellent laboratory experience to 
student directors, cameramen, electricians and actors. 
Regardless whether we are working on a production 
or not we now carry on screen tests at regular stated 
periods each week, and we never lack for new material. 

It might be mentioned here that all films used by 
the student- are paid for by the laboratory fees col- 
lected in the course. All pictures taken on this film 
is proj>ertv of the University so that the University 
now obtains its pictures for record and publicity with- 
out cost. 

The picture "Date Night" is now completed) 400 ft. > 
and we are proud of it. The shooting of this picture 

{Concluded on page 91) 

Page 72 

The Educational Screen 

Units of Instruction (or Teacher 
Training Courses (No. 3) 

How are Lenses Used in Projection? 


Bucknell University, Lewisburg Penna. 

(A) To what extent is knowledge of different kinds 
of lenses useful in understanding the operation 
of projectors? 

The subject of projection of light rays through 
lenses was introduced in a preceding unit. We found 
that focal length of a lens or combination of lenses 
determines the size of the image on the screen. Since 
many teachers who use projectors have not majored 
in physical science, it hardly seems necessary to go 
too far into the mathematics of formulas for lenses. 
A working knowledge of the principal parts of a ster- 
eopticon is essential however, if teachers are to use 
projectors intelligently. We shall study the construc- 
tion of the stereopticon, and then make a few simple 
measurements of focal lengths, and object and image 

(B) How can visual aids be used in the study of this 

A class in visual education, to be consistent and 
practice what it is advocating, will make liberal use 
of visual aids, with every lesson. The subject of 
lenses can best be studied by use of (a) lenses, pre- 
ferably combinations of lenses taken from projectors, 
(b) the Spencer set of glass slides on construction 
and use of the stereopticon, and (c) the motion pic- 
ture films, Eyes of Science and Lenses. (See "Visual 
Aids.'" for this unit.) The following discussion is 
intended to accompany the Spencer slides. Nos. 1 1 to 
20 inclusive, and is a condensation of the directions 
issued with the slides. 

Author's Note: Many useful suggestions are being 
received concerning Units 1 and 2 of this series, which 
appeared in the January and February issues of The 
Educational Screen. It is hoped that publication of 
these specimen units will provide a basis for discus- 
sion as to what we should include in our teacher-train- 
ing courses in visual education. Copies of the complete 
list of topics of forty-five units, now in use in several 
Pennsylvania colleges, are being sent to those who 
request them. The units on projection, only, are being 
published in this series. No. 4 of the series, next 
month, will be on the problem : "What Facts About 
Electricity Arc Important in Projection?" 

(O What are convex and concave lenses? 

Double convex lenses bring the light rays passing 
through them to a point, while double concave lenses 
diverge the rays. (Slide 11.) 

(D) What are condenser lenses.' 

Large glass condensers, placed a short distance in 
front of the light bulb, gather the light rays and bring 
them to a focus on the glass slide, film slide, or opaque 
object to be projected. (Slide 12.) 

(E) What are objective lenses.' 

Objective lenses are combinations of lenses, smaller 
in diameter than the condenser lenses, which are placed 
at the point of focus, in front of the glass slide or 
film slide, for the purpose of increasing definition. 
(Slide 13.) 

(F) Where is the slide placed, with reference to the 

The slide is placed just in front of the condensers, 
so that all of the light will pass through it. After 
passing through the slide, the light rays pass through 
the objective lenses, the upper rays going to the lower 
part of the screen, and the lower rays to the upper 
part. Since the slide is always placed in the stereopti- 





Slide is placed directluj in front 
of condensers and imacje resulting 
is inverted. 

(Courtesy. Spencer Lens Co.) 

con inverted, the image on the screen will be right side 
up. The image is as many times as large as the slide, 
as the distance from the objective lenses to the screen 
is times the distance from slide to lenses. (Slide 14.) 
(G) What is the purpose of the concave mirror.' 

The concave mirror, behind the lamp, reflects ad- 
ditional ravs of light through the condensers. ( Slide 

March, 19)2 

Page 73 

lili What <;)(• the essential parts of a stereopticon? 

Record, in the written summary, the essential parts 
of a stereoptkon, From the back of the machine to 
the front. (Slide 16.) 

A=Concave Mirror. D= Slide. 

B = Light Source. E = Objective. 

C = Condensers . 

(Courtesy, Spencer Lena Co.) 

( I ) What is the construction of an opaque projector:' 
In the glass slide and film slide projectors, as well 
as in motion picture projectors which we shall study 
titer, the lij^ht passes through the object to be pro- 
jected on the screen. In the projector for opaque ob- 
ject.*, such a* post-cards, photographs, etc., it is neces- 
sary to reflect the light from the object, and then send 
die light rays through objective lenses to the screen. 
The lamp and concave mirror are placed at the side 
of the object, at an angle, and the rays of light from 
(he object strike a mirror placed at a 45 degree angle. 
and are then reflected through the lenses, which pro- 
ject them on the screen. (Slide 18.) 

Verbal Aids 

Eolow, E. K.. "Optics of the Projector," The Educa- 
tional Screen, Y:453-456. October, 1926. 

"About Lenses", Eastman Kodak Co., Rochester, N.Y. 

"Directions for Using Spencer Slides for Teaching the 
i i instruction and Use of the Stereopticon", Spen- 
cer Lens Co., Buffalo, N. Y. 

Teachers' Manual, accompanying the film, "Lenses", 
Eastman Teaching Films, Rochester, N. Y, 

Elementary physics text-books. 


Visual Aids 

Lenses taken from projectors used in class. 

( ilass slides on construction and use of stereopticon, 
slides 1 1 to 20 inclusive, Spencer Lens Co., Buffalo, 
X. Y. 

Motion picture film, Eyes of Science (Free) Bausch 
and Lomb Optical Co., Rochester, N. Y. 

Motion picture film, Lenses (Sale) Eastman Teaching 
Films, Rochester, N. Y. The Eastman film, Opti- 
cal Instruments, may also be used here. It is listed 
again as a visual aid, in a later unit. 


Individual Practice 

Constructing a homemade opaque projector. 

Finding focal lengths of objective lenses taken from 
projectors. Measure the distance from the lens, 
or approximate center of a combination of lenses, 
to a white card on which a distinct image appears 
of a distant object. Record result below. 


Optical Essentials 
for Opaque Projection. 




(Courte»y, Spencer Len« Co.) 

Written Summary 
Principal parts of a stereopticon, from the back of the machine to the front, are 

Focal length of objective lens: (f) inches. 

Distance from glass slide to lens, in projector : (Do) inches. 

Distance from lens to screen, when image is sharp : (Di) inches. 

To find the reciprocals of (f) focal length, (Do) distance of object from lens, and (Di) distance of image 
from lens, divide each of the three numbers into 1. The reciprocal of (f) has what relation to the reciprocals of 
(Do) and (Di)? 


Page 74 

The Educational Screen 


The aim of this new department is to keep the educational field intimately acquainted with the 
increasing number of film productions especially suitable for use in the school and church field. 

Farm Bureau Film Activities 

Largest purveyor of rural motion picture entertain- 
ment in America is the latest claim of the Motion Pic- 
ture Division of the American Farm Bureau Federa- 
tion, based on the fact that 1,435 county Farm Bureaus 
representing every section of the country during 1931 
made regular use of Official Farm Bureau photoplays. 
Even greater circulation is assured for this year with 
the announcement that from now on all the Bureau's 
motion pictures can be obtained absolutely free by 
county Farm Bureaus. Groups outside the Farm Bu- 
reau organization are required to pay actual transpor- 
tation costs. 

During 1931, in 5,898 showings, more than 541,648 
persons saw Farm Bureau films at community meet- 
ings held in rural schools, town halls, country churches, 
private homes, outdoor natural theatres and in other 
rural gathering places. In addition, countless hun- 
dreds of others saw them in vocational agriculture 
classes, women's meetings, country churches and 4-H 
Club meetings. In some instances, they were used by 
rural ministers as the texts for Sunday evening ser- 

Farm Bureau movies are made by the Farm Bureau 
for farm folks. Years have been spent by motion 
picture experts in developing just the right sort of 
stories and casts, guaranteed to please farm people. 
Real actors and actresses are employed because it is 
felt that professional artists can act more like farmers 
before the camera than farmers can themselves. Sce- 
narios are prepared by experienced motion picture dra- 
matists and directed by professional directors, famous 
for their ability to create interesting and entertaining 
educational films, with a "farm slant." In some in- 
stances, it is necessary to have a real farm character 
play a part. 

Most of the scenes for the Farm Bureau films are 
"shot" in Oak Park, 111., where the Atlas Educational 
Film Co. has its studio. Often, however, it is neces- 
sary to find a location in a typical Farm Bureau coun- 
ty. Still other times, especially in the winter months, 
when exteriors are difficult, cast and crew are moved 
to a southern state. Long-distance "location trips" 
have been made to Washington, D. C, New York City, 
Menominee Indian Reservation near Shawano, Wis., 

Kansas wheat fields and other points. On the studio 
floor, African jungle scenes, world war battle fields 
and difficult foreign locations have been duplicated. 

All official A. F. B. F. Motion Pictures are produced 
with the primary objective of selling new Farm Bu- 
reau memberships and heightening the interest of 
members in the Farm Bureau. At the same time, they 
present educational and entertaining features for 
farmers which are generally not obtainable in the reg- 
ular theatrical releases. They are decidedly not the 
lecture type. Each tells a real dramatic story, packed 
with romance, comedy and other necessary attributes 
to a good photoplay. In each picture is demonstrated 
some Farm Bureau project, ranging from sewing and 
cooking for farm women to a picturization of the or- 
ganization of a live stock shipping association and 
other kindred subjects. 

In several instances, radio versions of Farm Bureau 
films have been broadcast over the entire National 
Broadcasting Co. network so that countless thousands 
who have never seen a Farm Bureau movie are never- 
theless familiar with the stories told in them, and ac- 
quainted with actors who appear in them. 

With the present vogue in the theatrical world of 
featuring newspaper stories, the Farm Bureau was not 
to be outdone and has just released a photoplay under 
the title Deadline, in which the heroine is a girl re- 
porter on a country weekly. Through her efforts, cou- 
pled with the county Farm Bureau's activity, city pro- 
moters are foiled in their attempt to force an expens- 
ive highway through the county in preference to ade- 
quate secondary roads for the farmers. 

Co-operating with the American Farm Bureau Fed- 
eration in the production of motion pictures are many 
outstanding commercial and industrial firms and in- 

At present eleven Farm Bureau photoplays are in 
circulation. In the past, all of them have been printed 
on standard size 35 mm. film, but with the increased 
use of 16 mm. projectors, all of the newer productions 
are also available in the smaller size film. All of the 
stories are two reels long so that they take only one- 
half hour to project, which is said to be just about the 
right length for a community meeting entertainment 

March, 19)2 

Page 75 

Baseball Short Features 

Universal Pictures baa decided to release its new 
c liristy Walsh AD-America Sport Reels, featuring 
Babe Ruth, unmediatelj instead of waiting for the 
baseball season proper. In this series of five, the King 
of Baseball is shown in a character that he likes best 
of all— the idol of young America. He plays ball 
with the "kids" of the neighborhood and teaches them. 
IIOl only something of the fine art of hall playing, but 
the liner art of manliness and the ethics of good 

The first picture in the series. Slide, Babe, Slide, 
shows Ruth dropping off a transcontinental train dur- 
ing a slop to play hall with two teams of kids. He 
gives them a couple of pointers on the pastime, then 
knocks a home run and races for his train. 

In tlie second. Just Pals, the famous batter visits 
an orphan asylum to umpire a game between a visit- 
ing team and the orphans. This feature has more of 
pathos, and a more thoughtful pointing out of the 
ethics of sports. Perfect Control is another demon- 
stration of expert baseball to the orphan asylum chil- 

Ruth coaches a girl's team in Fancy Curves and puts 
them through the fine points of the game, as he shows 
them how to wind up, how to hold the ball, batting 
position, catching without losing balance, and how to 
tag a runner at second base. Over the Fence com- 
pletes the group of five. 

This series should appeal particularly to the juvenile 
element and should prove ideal material for Junior 
Shows and Children's Matinees. They should also be 
of interest to baseball fans, for their demonstration 
of the science of baseball in all of its departments, and 
the general public, who will find them novel and en- 

Vitaphone Issues "Oberammergau" 

A short subject which is of particularly timely in- 
terest during Lent, has been released by Vitaphone. 
It is called Oberammergau, and is one of the E. M. 
Newman series of "Travel Talks." The entire reel 
is devoted to the "Passion Play." which is staged every 
ten years in the little town of Oberammergau in South- 
ern ( iermany. In the film are shown the natives who 
have played the various roles in the past in "The Pas- 
sion Play." Mr. Newman, in his dialogue, reveals the 
very interesting fact that all inhabitants of Oberam- 
mergau have but one ambition in life, and that is to 
be selected for a role in the play that the village has 
staged every decade for the past 300 years. Boys and 
permit their hair to grow in order to be ready 

when the call for candidates comes. Here in this little 
village, the men wear their hair and beards as in the 
biblical days. All waiting and hoping for a part in the 
"Passion Play." 

University Plans Film Production 

The development of Montezuma's Daughter, a mo- 
tion picture based on early Mexican history, will be 
one of the Spring projects of the newly-organized 
cinema laboratory at the University of Southern Cali- 
fornia. The filming will be under the direction of Dr. 
Boris V. Morkovin. a member of the advisory board 
of the National Committee for the Study of Social 
Values in Motion Pictures established by the Payne 

Foundation of New York. 

Dr. Morkovin, who has been lecturing on the social 
and psychological aspects of the motion pictures at 
the university for two years, believes that educational 
institutions cannot afford to remain aloof from such 
a powerful instrument of social control as the photo- 
play, which, he asserts, shapes the minds of adults and 
children everywhere as possibly nothing else in the 
history of civilization has. He has enlisted the as- 
sistance of several Hollywood studios, of professors 
of history, architecture, English, physical education, 
music and anthropolgy, and of Mr. Francisco Guate, 
an Aztec Indian, in the filming of Montezuma's 
Daughter. t 

Kelvinator Produces Sound Moving Picture 

Every Kelvinator distributor, dealer and salesman 
throughout the United States will be taken on a trip 
through the company's Detroit and Grand Rapids 
plants. %nd be shown the many manufacturing, assem- 
bly and inspection operations in the building of an 
electric refrigerator, by means of a four-reel sound 
motion picture recently completed by the Metropolitan 
Motion Picture Company of Detroit. The film is con- 
sidered valuable from an educational standpoint in 
depicting the methods used in building electric refrig- 

The Kelvinator Corporation, in preparing for a 1932 
increase in business, consider this use of a sound mo- 
tion picture as the most effective method of carrying 
out the phase of their promotional activity which has 
to do with educating the distributor, dealer and sales- 
man as to Kelvinator quality and manufacturing 
methods. The picture is now being shown at distribu- 
tor and dealer meetings conducted by factory officials 
and field men in various parts of the country. 

At its beginning. H. \Y. Burritt, Vice-President in 
charge of sales, introduces G. M. Evans. Vice-Presi- 
dent in charge of manufacturing. Mr. Evans turns 

Page 76 

The Educational Screen 

the audience over to a guide whose off-screen voice 
describes the various operations in the building of 
cabinets in the Grand Rapids plant. This follows with 
a trip through the Detroit plant, also described by the 
off-screen voice of the guide, and carries the spectator 
through from the very beginning of the machining 
operations of parts of the refrigerating units, to their 
assembly and installation within the cabinet. At the 
conclusion of the trip, Mr. Burritt introduces George 
W. Mason, chairman of the board, president and gen- 
eral manager, whose short talk concludes the picture. 

Movie Teaches Safety in Rural Schools 

Under the direction of W. J. Berichon, county traf- 
fic officer, a movie has been completed by Muskegon 
County in Michigan, with the children themselves as 
actors showing the usual rural hazards and the meth- 
ods of combating them. The picture, which is entitled 
Safety Education, is now being shown in many of the 
85 rural schools of the county and the children are 
seeing themselves on the screen, doing the things they 
should and should not do to avoid accidents. 

The movie was Mr. Berichon's idea. During re- 
cent years he had visited every rural school in the 
county many times, giving safety talks and advice. 
When his talks began to grow stale and he noted a lack 
of interest on the part of the children, he began seek- 
ing some different way in which to impress hazards 
on the minds of the pupils. He looked about for a 
suitable movie and, finding none, decided to make one 
for himself. He wrote the scenario, searched about 
for the talent, and did a good share of the acting him- 
self. He visited all the rural schools in the county 
and took one or two scenes at each school. 'I*he pic- 
ture consists of 500 feet of film, requiring 20 to 25 
minutes to exhibit. It reveals the wrong and right 
way to walk on the highway, to alight from cars, to 
leave the school grounds, to ride bicycles to and from 
schools, and other important lessons. 

Mr. Berichon expects later to produce other films 
which will have equal value in his safety education 
work in the rural schools of Muskegon County. 

Convention Film 

A four-reel sound motion picture of the Los An- 
geles convention of the National Education Associa- 
tion was made during the meeting through the cour- 
tesy of the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors 
of America, Inc. This four-reel picture, America's 
Teachers at Work, is now available for use at con- 
ventions of state, district and local education associa- 
tions and other educational meetings without cost ex- 

cept for transportation charges on the film from and 
to New York City. It is also appropriate for exhibit 
to students and faculty members in educational insti- 
tutions which prepare teachers. 

I wo Tree 



The film The Battle of Baltimore, mentioned in our 
December issue, should be listed as Defender's Day 
in Baltimore in that it actually shows all the cere- 
monies in connection with the re-construction exer- 
cises at Fort McHenry and an official pilgrimage over 
the sacred and historical ground covered by the in- 
vading British in 1814, including scenes at the place 
where the last battle fought on .American soil took 

A Day With Esskay is the title of a two-reel film 
( 16 mm. or 35 mm.) available to schools east of the 
Mississippi. It describes the highlights of the story 
of a meat-packing plant from the scenes on the plains 
to the finished product on the plate. Stark Films, 
Baltimore, offer both of these subjects free of charge. 

Administration of a City Department 

(Concluded from page 69) 

Know your delivery day and have the material 
ready when the truck calls. 

2. All material will be delivered to the principal's of- 
fice or other place designated by the principal. It 
will be collected from the same place. 

3. Report any damage or shortage immediately. 

1. All reports enclosed with the material should be 
properly filled out and returned with the material. 

Outside Organizations 

1. Use only projection equipment which is in first 
class condition. 

2. Have projector operated by an experienced and 
qualified person. 

3. Assume responsibility for damaged material. 

4. Agree not to use department material for financial 

In conclusion, probably the most important point 
to be considered in the establishment and administra- 
tion of a department of visual aids, is the director. 
As the director is responsible for the organization, 
functions, and administration of the department, very 
careful attention should be given to his selection. 
The whole success or failure of the department may 
be determined by the type of person selected as the 
director and therefore too much emphasis cannot be 
placed on this particular point. 

March, 19)2 

Page 77 





Los Angeles Appoints Director of 
Visual Education 

I lara Clark Swaim, Assistant Director of the Los 
Angeles Visual Education Division, has been appointed 
acting director of the division to till the position made 
vacant by the death of Charles Roach. 

Mrs. Swaim came to the Division in 1929 with wide 
professional and administrative experience, having 
d for three years as assistant to the superintend- 
ent of Burbank City Schools. A* Assistant Director 
of the Visual Education Division, Mrs. Swaim served 
also on the Superintendent's Safet) Council and the 
Committee on World Friendship. She acted as chair- 
man of the Accident Prevention Committee of the 
A. during 1929. 

While at Burbank, Mrs. Swaim was in charge of 
curriculum construction, safety, visual education, tests 
and measurements, and thrift. She has her A. B. from 
< Accidental, and lias done graduate work at Occidental. 
I'. C. L. A. and fj. S. ('., with extensive travel in 

Field Museum Spring Movie Program 

The James Nelson and Anna Louise Raymond 
foundation for public school and children's lectures 
announces its annual Spring series of ten free motion 
picture entertainments for children. These programs 
are given on successive Saturday mornings, in the 
James Simpson Theatre at the Field Museum of Nat- 
ural History. Chicago. 

In all, twenty-six films will be shown in this series, 
covering a wide variety of subjects, including life 
among the \merican Indians, important events in 
American history, exploration in the arctic, wild and 
domestic animals and birds, flowers, travel and adven- 
ture in far parts of the world, and many other topics. 

Each program will he given twice, at 10 and 11, thus 
making possible the accommodation of several thou- 
sand children each week. Stephen C. Simms, direc- 
tor of the museum, invites children from all parts of 
Chicago and suburbs to attend. They may come alone, 
in groups from schools or other centers, or with their 
parents, teachers or other adults. No tickets are neces- 
sary for admission. 

The museum has also announced a program of nine 

free lectures on travel and science, beginning on Sat- 
urday, March 5, and continuing each succeeding Sat- 
urday afternoon, admission to which is free. Eminent 
explorers and scientists have been engaged to give the 
lectures and all of the talks are to be illustrated with 
motion pictures or stereopticon slides. 

Government Report on School Use 
of Motion Pictures 

In 1929 the Office of Education, Department of the 
Interior, co-operated with Mr. E. I. Way, chief, In- 
dustrial and Education Section, Motion Picture Di- 
vision, Department of Commerce, Washington, D. C, 
in the preparation and distribution of questionnaires 
designed to collect information on the administration 
of film service in the public schools. The question- 
naires were sent to 3,226 superintendents of schools 
and to 22,491 principals and supervising principals in 
communities having a population of 2,500 or more. 
Returns were received from approximately 6,000 su- 
perintendents and principals, 2,000 of whom reported 
motion pictures were not used in their schools. The 
remaining 4,000 reported some use of films. Usable 
returns were received from 517 superintendents and 
principals. A supplementary questionnaire on diffi- 
culties and objectives in the use of films for educa- 
tional purposes was sent to the teachers. From the 
latter inquiry 711 usable returns were received. 

The Department of Commerce arranged for the 
tabulation of the data in 1930 and issued a series of 
five circulars on this topic between January 10 and 
August 31, 1931. Summaries of several of these cir- 
culars were given in the February and June, 1931, is- 
sues of The Educational Screen. The circulars 
were intended to be of use primarily to the producers 
and distributors of motion-picture equipment and films. 
Another circular has just been prepared by Mr. J. O. 
Malott, Specialist in Commercial Education of the 
Office of Education, to make available to teachers and 
school administrators information regarding the use 
of motion pictures in the public elementarv and sec- 
ondary schools. Much of the material of the Depart- 
ment of Commerce circulars has been included in this 
circular and additional data have been collected from 
the questionnaires. 

The topics covered are: How visual instruction is 

Page 78 

The Educational Screen 

administered ; How schools have 'financed motion pic- 
tures ; Sources of films ; Length of time films are bor- 
rowed ; Uses of motion pictures and evaluation ; Use 
of teaching aids. 

Canada Museum Offers Free Lectures 

The National Museum of Canada, Ottawa, is spon- 
soring a Second Series of Free Public Lectures for 
adults on Wednesday evenings, and for children on 
Saturday mornings. These lectures are illustrated by 
lantern slides or specimens and supplemented by mo- 
tion pictures. They embrace natural history, the life 
of the aborigines, natural resources, industries, geog- 
raphy, travel, and related subjects, and each is given 
by a lecturer from his own experience. The Saturday 
lectures for children are supplementary to school work 
in geography and nature study. 

Chemistry Group Discuss Visual Aids 

The Chemistry Teachers' Club of New York, with 
the Physics Club of New York as guests, held a Vis- 
ual Education meeting at the High School of Com- 
merce in New York City on Friday evening, February 
the 26th. The speakers were Dr. F. Dean McClusky, 
President of the National Academy of .Visual Instruc- 
tion, whose topic was "The Place of Visual Education 
in Modern Science Teaching;" Miss Rita Hochheimer, 
Assistant Drector of Visual Instruction for the City 
of New York, whose topic was "The Assistance that 
the Bureau of Visual Instruction May Render to the 
Chemistry Teacher," and Dr. Edna Hamburger, whose 
talk was on "Two Years of Films at Franklin K. Lane 
High School." Several reels of films were also shown. 

S. M. P. E. Spring Meeting 

The Society of Motion Picture Engineers will hold 
its Spring Meeting in Washington, D. C, May 9-12, 
according to an announcement made by the Board of 
Governors of the Society. W. C. Runzmann, Chair- 
man of the Convention Committee, and O. M. Glunt, 
Chairman of the Papers Committee, will prepare the 
program of arrangements for the meeting which will 
be held during the height of the Washington Bicen- 
tennial activities. 

A number of changes have been tentatively planned 
for the meeting this year. There will be no business 
sessions on the opening morning of the convention, 
this being reserved for registration and organization 
work. On Monday afternoon attention will be given 
to the business of the Society and committee reports. 
The session of theatre operating practices will be held 

Tuesday afternoon. A session will be held Wednes- 
day morning at the Department of Commerce where 
a number of talks will be given by Government of- 
ficials. A visit to the White House is being planned 
for Wednesday afternoon. The Thursday morning 
session will be confined to the problems of release 
prints. The photographic session will be held Thurs- 
day afternoon. For the evening sessions, it is planned 
to show previews of motion pictures Monday and 
Tuesday evenings. 

The sub-committee of the Standards Committee of 
the Society of Motion Picture Engineers has reported 
its recommendations for 16 mm. film standards, to- 
gether with complete layouts for two types of 16 mm. 
film. These recommendations are now up for ap- 
proval and validation by the Standards Committee and 
the general Society. Before recommendations could 
be made it was necessary for the committee to make 
a thorough study of all problems in connection with 
16 mm. film. At present two types of 16 mm. film are 
under consideration by the industry — the first being 
a film with one row of perforations and a sound track 
on the other side of the film — the second being the 
present type, embodying two sets of sprocket perfora- 
tions. After detailed study of these two systems, the 
committee has drawn up standard for each type of film, 
but has also made its recommendations favoring one 

New Ideas for Publicity 

For several years the American Public Health As- 
sociation has maintained a Health Education Service 
which provides "ready-made" material for bulletins, 
newspaper articles, and the like. A recent addition to 
this service promises to be of real interest and value 
to those whose publicity funds are running low. A 
new photographic process has made possible the trans- 
fer of pictures and text to the fiber stencils which are 
used on duplicating machines. The reproduction of 
even complicated drawings is remarkable and provides 
an opportunity for the illustration of mimeographed 

The ready-to-use Plates are now going into numer- 
ous state, city and county health department publica- 
tions, also tuberculosis association bulletins, industrial 
house organs and school papers. These plates also 
serve as complete health columns in some newspapers, 
while the cartoons and pictures alone serve to illustrate 
local articles in others. 

A new process of making Stencils for duplicating 
machines has been adapted to the Bulletin service. 
Text and pictures can now be reproduced with re- 

March, 19)2 

Page 79 

markable success on the lowly "Mimeograph." En- 
largements are possible up to S'_>"xl4", opening up 
new possibilities for making small posters and for us- 
ing the children's pages in schools. 

While not especially designed for children, experi- 
ence has shown that in places where the Bulletin is 
issued, considerable demand for it has come from 
teachers of classes in hygiene, civics, biology and the 
like. The Bulletin, under its home name of "American 
Public Health News" is now being offered to schools 
and other organizations in any quantities, when and as 

Full information may be secured from the Ameri- 
can Public Health Association, 450 Seventh Avenue. 
New York, N. Y. 

How Talkies Helped Boost 
Piston Ring Sales 

An increase of --^ per cent in 1931 business over 
that of 1930 is reported by the Perfect Circle Com- 
pany, of Hagerstown, Ind., makers of automobile pis- 
ton rings. "There is no doubt that our motion picture 
advertising has done a great deal toward making this 
-ales record possible," says George W. Stout, adver- 
tising manager of the company. 

The Perfect Circle Company employs a talking motion 
picture called The Magic Circle, presented by portable 
talkie reproducer machines, and much interest has <lr 
reloped with regard to the methods used in making 
the picture, arranging the talkie showings, and in roll- 
ing up definite sales as a result of these showings. 

A monograph entitled "The Perfect Circle Plan, a 
I 'radical Application of Talking Motion Pictures to a 
Selling Problem" has been prepared and will be sent 
free on request to business executives who wish to in- 
form themselves as to how the Perfect Circle Com- 
pany carries out its picture program. The monograph 
should be of value to any company contemplating the 
Use of talking pictures in its sales or sales promotion 
work. It can be obtained by writing Industrial Di- 
vision, Bell & Howell Company, 1801 Larchmont Ave . 
I hicago. 

Ten Best Films for 1931 

The Tenth Annual Poll, conducted by The T'ihn 
Daily among the leading critics of the country to se- 
lect the ten best films for the past year, has resulted 
in the following list : Cimarron, Street Scene, Skippy, 
Bad Girl, Min and Bill, Front Page, Five Star Final. 
City Lights, A Free Soul, Sin of Madelon Claudet. 

English Institutions Adopt Talkies 

That sound films are playing an important role in 
London apart from their exhibition in the regular the- 
atres, is evidenced by their use in three widely dif- 
ferent institutions. 

The London School of Oriental Studies have pre- 
pared a language instruction film showing the secrets 
of English speech and the difficulties which hinder 
foreigners from mastering it. 

Jungle sounds, the click of the Kaffir, the lisp of 
the Indian, illustrate the basis of speech as it affects 
the English language. A committee of language teach- 
ers and expert phoneticians are examining the possi- 
bilities of its further development and application. 

At the Zoological Gardens talkies of the animals are 
proving a popular innovation. Many people found 
they could not manage to see everything in one day's 
visit but now they can plan their program to include 
everything — some in real life and the rest on the 

Finally a theater to accommodate 800 people has 
been included in the plans for the building of the new 
stores of the Royal Arsenal Co-operative Society at 

Oklahoma Education Conference 

Although the Oklahoma Education Association 
meeting, held February 4, 5 and 6, did not include a 
Visual Education Section, talking films contributed to 
the program of the Geography and Science Section. 
At the meeting of the Latin group, Professor John A. 
Moseley of Norman, spoke on "Visual Aids." 

Sound Installations 

Principal Ralph W. Hedges of Warren Harding 
High School, Bridgeport, Conn., reports on the use of 
their sound equipment. He says, "we frequently use 
it in school assemblies for the reproduction of educa- 
tional films, but never for mere entertainment. Friday 
evenings we use it purely for entertainment purposes, 
inviting all of the residents of the district which our 
school serves." 

Fourteen Massachusetts State institutions, including 
eleven hospitals and three juvenile schools, have con- 
tracted for installation of sound equipment. The con- 
tracts include the State hospitals at W'rcnthani. 
Worcester. Westboro, Taunton, Northampton, Med- 
field, Grafton, Gardner, Foxboro, Delivers and Boston, 
and the State schools at Belchertown. W'averly, and 
Palmer. The Norfolk County Hospital in Braintree. 
and the Pondville State Hospital in W'rentham have 
had sound equipment for some time. 

Page 80 

The Educational Screen 



Parents' Magazine (February) "Will the Talkies 
Revolutionize Schools?", by James Rorty, suggests 
that "from the beginning it was evident that the sound 
picture had immense educational potentialities : that 
it was not merely a greater educational medium than 
the silent screen, but one that opened up radically new 
vistas of educational opportunty." 

The point is that the "talkies" talk — and children can under- 
stand and learn from the spoken word long before they can 
begin to read at six, but are nine or ten before they can read 
sufficiently well to use reading as an instrument of learning. 
Yet these pre-literate years are crucial in the development of 
the child, for during them he learns more through his eyes, 
ears, and hands than during any equal period for the re- 
mainder of his life ! When this one fact, conceded by most 
modern educators, is properly weighed, the significance of the 
sound picture as' an instrument of education is at once apparent. 

The author then reviews the history of sound pic- 
tures, the problems of production (and by whom) of 
educational sound films for school and other uses. 
The experimentation has resulted in happy conclusions. 
There is, in fact, good reason to believe that in supplementing 
and stimulating modern educational practice from elementary 
school to college, sound pictures will be immensely valuable, 
possibly revolutionary ; that the chronic insufficiency of funds, of 
physical accommodations, of high-grade personnel from which 
education suffers despite our steadily mounting school bud- 
gets, may be in some degree relieved by the utilization of this 
new instrumentality, that considerable acceleration of progress 
in the pre-literate years may be achieved, especially in the 
teaching by sound pictures of such subjects as geography, his- 
tory, and the natural sciences ; that there is a real gain in 
multiplying the service of gifted teachers, and securing a more 
rapid disseminating of progressive ideas in pedagogical tech- 

The writer closes his reliable and challenging dis- 
cussion in this manner : 

Will the talkies revolutionize our schools? Few reputable 
educators can be found to risk any such categorical prediction, 
although there are today scores of eminent school men who 
are frankly enthusiastic about the possibilities inherent in the 
new medium. This much can be said : the introduction of the 
sound picture is almost certainly destined to affect profoundly 
the American education system from top to bottom. It will 
not displace teachers ; rather, it will strengthen their hands 
and accelerate progress in educational theory and practice. 

The New York Times Magazine (January) " 'Roxy' 
Talks of Shows arid Showmanship" is not of specific 
interest to those studying educational films, but it of- 
fers some highly suggestive speculation easily applic- 
able to the educational field. 

New York State Education (February) In his 
fourth article of the series appearing in this publica- 
tion, Mr. Alfred W. Abrams tells "How to Read Pic- 
tures." The first step, he declares, is to determine 
what the picture actually tells ; then, the mind tries 
to supply missing elements and thus round out the 
visualization. He selects a few pictures which are 
often used in schools to illustrate certain faults in their 
use, suggesting how their use might be made more 

Federal Council Bulletin (January) "Effects of Mo- 
tion Pictures on Children" is a report on a Master's 
Thesis, written by Rev. William Fay Butler at the 
University of California. "While on too limited a 
scale to be conclusive, it is a timely contribution to 
knowledge in this field of great importance to re- 

The thesis deals exclusively with Junior High School 
students and is an analysis of 535 answers to question- 
naires from pupils at Compton, 514 life history guides 
from Inglewood and 132 essays from Beverly Hills, 
all in Los Angeles. These were supplemented by per- 
sonal observations and interviews with groups in 
George Washington High School and Woodcrest 
Methodist Episcopal Church. 

The conclusion of the study is that the effect of the movie 
upon personality is subtle and indirect. A picture speaks the 
universal language of the mind and makes its impressions at 
once in the nerve cells of the brain. Later the impression 
made can be observed in changed attitudes and actions. If 
the personality is unified by wholesome ideals and balanced by 
many interests it will be safeguarded and will not be so deeply 

This study emphasizes the strong appeal which the movie 
makes to youth and the importance of its influence upon ideals 
and character. It reinforces the obligation of the church to 
exert its influence for more artistic and wholesome pictures. 

School Executives Magazine (February) Mr. Law- 
rence R. Winchell. of Rutgers University, covers a 
great many topics in his article, "What the Motion 
Picture Has Accomplished for the Schools," including 
a brief exposition of the mechanics of sound films, 
results of the Washington tests, objectives of film 
material, and effective methods of use. The greatest 
contribution that motion pictures are making to educa- 
tion, in the writer's opinion, is to offset the so-called 

March, 19)2 

Page 81 

Pennsylvania School Journal (January l "Psycho- 
logical Principles of Visual Education" by Charles A. 
Selzer, Instructor in Psychology, discusses a phase of 
visual learning which receives too little attention. 
Experiments have been conducted showing the relative 
advantage of visual presentation over auditory pre- 
sentation but "in many cases the visual method is used 
10 inefficiently thai only a small fraction of possible 
learning takes place To obtain the greatest degree 

of visual learning we need not (,I1 b' efficient visual 
receptor organs, l>ut these must be properly stimulated 
by objects and situations that are biologically adapted 
to elicit a response." 

International Review of Educational Cinematog- 
raphy (December) This number of this magazine is 
given over to general discusson of various phases of 
the cinematic field. Laura Dreyfus- Barney presents 
"Considerations on 'The International Conference of 
Cinema and Broadcasting' held by the International 
Council of Women'. "Cinema Theatres", "Projec- 
tors, Films, and Film Librares", "Tin- Meaning of the 
Cinema", "Cinema and Taxation", and other articles 
indicate the range of thinking presented by the De- 
cember isSUC 

Parents' Magazine (January) "How Our Town Got 
Better Movies", by Alice B. Browne, describes the 
plan worked out for Hinsdale. Illinois, by the Parent- 
Teacher Association and the Women's Club. This 
account should be of material aid to many of our 
readers in similar communities with similar oppor- 
tunity for bettering film offering in its theaters. 

Movie Makers (January) "How to Plan Indoor 
Sports Reds" may be of interest to our readers who 
teach in the physical education departments of our 
schools. Howard Esmond's "concise guide to achiev- 
ing films of interest and merit" is another article to 
be listed with our reviews. 

Book Review 

A History of the Movies, by Benjamin B. Hamp- 
ton. Covici-Friede. New York. 1931. 

At last we find a comprehensive, well organized, 
compactly put together history of the cinematic in- 
dustry, that amazing offspring of the arts, designated 
as a brat for so many years. It is doubtful if there 
i< to be found anywhere an individual of intelligence 
who so classifies the obstreperous industry any longer. 
One may see the gross conditions surrounding the 

movies and shout vociferously about their harm, their 
cheap appeals, their utter shame in the face of what 
they could mean, but no one pretends today that they 
could not and will not mean more than the farthest 
dream has yet indicated. One realizes this with cer- 
tainty as Mr. Hampton traces the history of the screen. 

The publishers have compiled the book beautifully. 
It is a volume that is comfortable to handle, clear and 
satisfying to the eye. The arrangement of Preface, 
nineteen vital chapters, Index, and last, the fascinating 
Appendix of pictures, presenting the development of 
the entertainment film visually, is splendid publishing 
execution. From that early l>eginning of "Living 
Pictures and Peep Shows" (Chapter One), the writer 
traces the history by means of its most important 
phases. "A New Form of Theatre" begins with the 
first dramatic efforts of motion photography, and from 
there on, the incredible tale unfolds. Of particular 
interest to many will be the astonishing story of Mrs. 
Smith and her daughters. The author hazards that 
never before, and probably never again, will an entire 
industry pivot about a single individual, male or fe- 
male, as the movie industry pivoted about Mary Pick- 
ford. And to Mrs. Smith, the mother, must go the 
credit for creating the "precedents that soon altered 
the entire industry ". Of all chapters in Mr. Hamp- 
ton's book, "The Pickford Revolution", Chapter Eight, 
is the most significant and dramatic. 

The author of this history has given his readers all 
the facts, historical and technical, for which they could 
ask from a scholarly view-point, but far and above all 
this invaluable information, he has presented flesh and 
blood figures whose glamorous and bitter struggles 
leap from the pages with a humanism that destroys 
prejudice, bigotry, and unfair and unobjective ap- 
praisal of the individuals and the industry which they 
built. "Sound and Fury" and "Today and Tomor- 
row" are the closing chapters, beautifully written, 
soundly logical in their summarizing and prognosticat- 
ing statements. 

The educational field is summarized briefly but 
fairly, quite in keeping, proportionately, with its pres- 
ent status in this great industry. Covici-Friede, as 
well as the author, Mr. Benjamin B. Hampton, are to 
be congratulated upon their presentation of this history. 

Relative Values 

"The press of America has 300 foreign cor- 
respondents writing news about 600,000.000 Eu- 
ropeans. Hollywood has 300 persons writing 
publicity about 150 movie stars." (Collier's) 

Page 82 

The Educational Screen 




Being the Combined Judgments of a National Committee on Current Theatrical Films 

(The Film Estimates, in whole or in party may be reprinted only by special arrangement with The Educational Screen) 

After Tomorrow (Marian Nixon, Charles 
Farrell) (Fox) Sentimental comedy of high 
merit, showing the struggle of romance and 
poverty. Humble characters made appealing 
and convincing by excellent acting. Marian 
Nixon's work notable. Realistic, charming and 
thoroughly human. 
A — Very good Y — Good C— Good but mature 

Estimates are given for 3 groups 
A — Intelligent Adult 
Y— Youth (15-20 years) 
C — Child (under IS years) 

Bold faced type means "recommended" 

Morals for Women (Bessie Love) (Tiffany) 
Country girl gets city job and elaborate love- 
nest from boss, but loves country sweetheart 
all the time, of course I He appears — compli- 
cations — finally marriage cleans elate. Hero- 
ine's drunken father furnishes comedy. Moral 
values utterly distorted. 
A — Worthless Y — By no means C— No 

Arrowsmith (Ronald Colman, Helen Hayes) 
(U. A.) Notable screening of strong Sinclair 
Lewis novel of devotion to medical science and 
human welfare. Directed with rare intelli- 
gence, brilliantly acted by choice cast. Con- 
vincing character drama that deserves support 
of whole intelligent public. 
A — Excellent Y — Very good C — Beyond them 

Arsene Lupin (John and Lionel Barrymore) 
(M-G-M) The famous French detective novel 
screened as smooth, sophisticated thriller. Fin- 
ished acting by the stars as criminal and 
sleuth, but too much Barrymore dialog, little 
Lupin action. Less interesting than the book. 
One judge calls it, "The Barrymore boys in 
A— Good Y— Doubtful C— Doubtful 

Beast of the City, The (Walter Huston) 
(M-G-M) Police vs. gangland picture, re- 
deemed only by Huston's splendid work as 
honest chief of police. Jean Harlow in usual 
role of cheap "woman in the case," fine Jean 
Hersholt absurdly used as big shot gangster. 
Ends with wholesome slaughter. 
A— Hardly Y— No C— No 

Behind the Mask (Jack Holt) (Columbia) 
Violent mystery story about the conflict be- 
tween the law and the dope-ring, using every 
standard device to get suspense and scare. 
Just another thriller with heavy villain and 
heavier hero. 
A— Waste of time Y— Hardly C— No 

Big Parade, The (John Gilbert, Renee Ador- 
ee) (M-G-M) The fine old war-story master- 
piece tricked out in sound. It helps some, but 
mere noise adds little to what were already 
perhaps the best war sequences ever screened. 
Such dialog as is attempted registers none too 
well with the original. 
A— As good as ever Y — Perhaps C — Hardly 

Broken Lullaby (Lionel Barrymore. Nancy 
C^-roIl, Phillips Holmes) (Paramount) Great 
picture, grippingly human, of aftermath of 
war. French boy in German family, where he 
had come to atone for son he thought he 
killed. Convincing in its love, truth, char- 
acter. Strongly anti-war. Very sad and ma- 
ture. Finest acting and direction. 
A — Excellent Y — Good but very sad C— Hardly 

Business and Pleasure (Will Rogers) (Foxt 
Thin, artificial farce-comedy plot, built merely 
to frame the typical Rogers humor. As for 
acting. Will does nothing but be himself. 
Certain spots over-burlesqued and hence less 
funny. Wholesome, elementary, amusing for 
Rogers admirers. 
A— Good of kind Y— Very good C— Good 

Cain (French production) (Talking Picture 
Epics) Serious effort to suggest advantages of 
Robinson Crusoe life over civilization, inter- 
estingly photographed on tropical island near 
Madagascar. Best intentions, but direction is 
naive, acting mediocre and motives and actions 
are frequently absurd. 
A— Poor Y— Poor C No 

Freaks (Wallace Ford, Olga Baclanova) 
(M-G-M) Another attempt at shocking, grew- 
some drama, exploiting human dwarfs and 
monstrosities as actors. Monumental example 
of hideous taste in subject-matter, plays up 
what is inherently repugnant to finer sensi- 
bilities. Industry should be ashamed. 
A — Offensive Y— By no means C — No 

Greeks Had a Name for Them, The (Ina 
Claire, Lowell Sherman) (U. A.) More cheap 
exploitation of the sophisticated gay life — 
through clever gold-diggers, "sugar daddies", 
smart-aleek dialog, incessant drinking. Glori- 
fies cheap ideals, without a wholesome motive 
in it until the "moral ending". Very amusing 
of its kind and well acted. 
A — Depends on taste Y — By no means C — No 

Hound of the Baskervilles (English produc- 
tion*) (British Ideal) Third Sherlock Holmes 
story to appear recently from England, with 
a third entirely new cast. Holmes good, Wat- 
son better than two preceding. Story vividly 
told, but the technique and direction are ordi- 
nary. Scenes of violet action clumsy and un- 
convincing. Interesting in many ways. 
A— Fairly good Y — Good C— Good but exciting 

House Divided, A (Walter Huston) (Univer- 
sal) Grim, realistic story of life in northwest 
coast salmon-fishing village, notably well- 
acted, striking backgrounds. Over-violent and 
sensational. Unrelieved hardness and brutality 
of crude father toward his own son and the 
heroine are depressing. 
A— Hardly Y— No C— No 

Lady with a Past (Constance Bennett I 
(RKO-Pathe) Sophisticated comedy about rich, 
vacuous people, to whum life is merely wom- 
an-chase. To succeed, be merely physical, not 
intellectual. Heroine supposed to have no 
sex-appeal until Ben Lyon, the playboy, skill- 
fully teaches her how to exert it. 
A— Thin Y— Better not C— No 

Ladies of the Jury (Edna May Oliver) 
(Radio) Mrs. Fiske's play made into mere 
laugh-producer, so nearly burlesque farce that 
satire and finer character values are largely 
lost. Unobjectionable, very laughable if one 
is not too critical, but gives little chance for 
Edna May Oliver's subtle comedy. 
A— Fair Y— Good C — Fairly good 

Lost Squadron, The (Richard Dix, Mary As- 
tor) ( RKO ) Three world-war fliers become 
$50-a-day stunters in Hollywood. Satirizes 
America's treatment of veterans. Aims merely 
at sensation — daredevil stuff, super villainy, 
blatant heroics. Elaborately over-done in most 
A— Hardly Y— Doubtful C— No 

Man Who Played God, The (George Ar- 
liss) (Warner) Beautiful work by Arliss in 
deliKhtful picture of real intellectual and spir- 
tual values. Fine rather than great, intensely 
human and appealing. Thoughtful comedy at 
its best. Industry can be very proud of this 
one. All should see it. 
A— Excellent Y— Excellent C— Probably good 

Passionate Plumber, The (Buster Keaton) 
i M-G-M) Slapstick comedy, stretched to fea- 
ture length, with Keaton doing his usual stuff 
in same way — sex twist achieved by having a 
gigolo in the cast. Mostly crude, elementary 
comedy ■ especially by Polly Moran and 
Schnozzle Durante. 
A— Hardly Y—Hardly C— No 

Polly of the Circus (Marion Davies, Clark 
Gable) (M-G-M) Melodramatic story of com- 
mon little circus girl and the near-tragic 
course of her love and marriage to young min- 
ister-reformer, pleasingly and convincingly 
played by Gable. Light, more or less improb- 
able but fairly interesting throughout. 
A — Fairly good Y — Probably good C — Hardly 

Road to Life, The (Russian production) (Am- 
kino) Propaganda film, but skillful, absorbing 
portrayal of Russia salvaging its hordes of 
wild children, pauperized orphans of great 
war. Fine natural acting, striking technique, 
original camera effects. Grim, convincing pic- 
ture of sordid reality. Much above ordinary. 
A — Unusual Y — Mature C — Unsuitable 

Shanghai Express (Marlene Dietrich, Clive 
Brook) (Paramount) Colorful, thrilling melo- 
drama of characters on a Chinese train trip 
in tangled relationships. Excellent acting by 
heroine of very sexy past, by hero, who was 
her former fiancee, by villainous chief of revo- 
lution. Sombre, tense atmosphere of intrigm- 
and violence. 
A— Good of kind Y— Doubtful C— No 

She Wanted a Millionaire (Joan Bennett) 
i Fox l Just another conventional movie. Poor 
girl wants rich husband and fine clothes — gets 
him but he proves horrible character — so back 
to the poor but honest hero, etc., etc. Nothing 
to distinguish it, but practically harmless. 
A — Mediocre Y — Fair C — Hardly 

Silent Witness, The (Lionel Atwill, Greta 
Nissen) ( Fox) Excellent British production, 
expertly screened from the stage play, and 
splendidly acted by notable cast. Intensely 
interesting from beginning to end. Human, 
appealing, convincing. One of the rare movies 
eminently worth seeing. Deserves support of 
whole intelligent public. 
A — Very good Y — Good C — Little interest 

Strangers in Love (Frederic March, Kay 
Francis i (Paramount) Another well-done dou- 
ble role by March. Thoroughly amusing situa- 
tions develop when good brother masquerades 
as criminal brother after latter's death. Deftly 
played by March and Francis with good sup- 
porting cast. 
A— Good Y— Good C— Little interest 

Woman Commands, A (Pola Negri, Roland 
Young) (RKO) Melodramatic royal romance, 
intrigue and revolution in mythical kingdom 
with comic king. Negri excellent in highly 
emotional, sensuous role, her voice notably 
fine. Good cast, typical comedy by Young. 
One of Pola's best pictures. 
A— Good of kind Y— Better not C— No 

March, /9iJ 

Page 83 



Movies Foster Scout Work 

Clergymen who are interested in fostering Boy 
Scout work in connection with their church activities 
will he pleased to learn of a novel plan carried out at 
Luther Memorial Church, Chicago, by Scoutmaster 
Louis J. Dehli of Scout Troup 860, for enlisting the 
interest of more of the men of the parish in scout 
work in general and in persuading certain of them to 
take over assistant scoutmaster positions, which are 
ordinarily open in any fair-sized troop. 

Mr. Dehli hit upon the idea of showing movie- of 
Boy Scout activities at a joint meeting of the troop 
and the men of the church. The movie showing was 
announced as a feature of a regular meeting of the 
troop, and every scout was Urged to attend bringing 
his father along as a guest. The idea was such an 
appealing one that 120 men and hoys were on hand 
for the meeting. 

The program began with the regular scout opening 
and (lag raising ceremony. This was followed by an 
exhihition of drum and hugle work by the boys. Then 
a three-reel 16 mm. Scout film was shown. This film. 
made by George Ahlander, scoutmaster of one of the 
other Chicago troops, presented interesting scenes of 
outdoor Scout activities, such as camping, and the like. 
and a Horded the men a much clearer and better vision 
of just what scouting means to the boys. 

After the showing of the pictures and the conclu- 
sion of the meeting, Mr. Dehli received the congratu- 
lations of a number of the men and an assurance of 
their active interest in advancing the welfare of the 
troop. Without the motion picture showing it is doubt- 
ful if these men would have become so quickly and so 
fully enthused over scout work. 

Riverside Church Acquires 
Sound Equipment 

Arrangements have been completed for the installa- 
tion of a sound film reproducing unit in the assembly 
hall of the Riverside Church, New York, of which 
Dr. Harry Emerson Fosdick is minister. Educational 
and entertainment films will be shown. 

How to Finance a Projector Purchase 

1 wonder if clergymen fully realize how practical it 
is for church organizations to finance the purchase of 
movie projectors by putting on movie entertainments 
to which a small admission charge is made. They 
should talk to their local movie equipment dealers and 
work out the details of such a plan. Some one or more 
friends of the parish can undoubtedly be secured to 
make an initial payment on the projector — to be re- 
paid later out of proceeds from the movie entertain- 
ments if such a repayment is desired. 

The above is only one of many ways in which a 
projector can be purchased for a church. Frequently 
a men's club or women's organization connected with 
a church will present a projector to the parish as. a 
memorial gift. Sunday Schools can follow a similar 
procedure in other churches. One of the equipment 
manufacturers has worked out several plans by which 
churches can finance projector purchases. This in- 
formation will be sent free on request to The Educa- 
tional Screen. 

News of a Church Movie Pioneer 

We were glad to hear the other day, even if indi- 
rectly, from Rev. Henry Stockton of Yucaipa, Calif. 
Mr. Stockton is a pioneer in church movie work, hav- 
ing rendered remarkable community service at New- 
port and Balboa, Calif., which was written up some 
time ago in Movie Makers and also noted in Filmo 
Topics. We understand that he has installed talkie 
equipment in his Yucaipa church. That's "going 
some" for a rural parish. 

New Low Price Projector Will be 
Welcomed by Churches 

Churches will lie interested to learn of the new low- 
price projector just announced by the Bell & Howell 
Co., notice of w-hich will be found in this magazine's 
department called "Among the Producers". This pro- 
jector employs a 300-watt, 110-volt lamp and is effec- 
tive for audiences running into the hundreds. 

Page 84 

The Educational Screen 

The Washington Meeting 

{Concluded from page 66) 

whole field. (Final announcement of this merger, 
if completed, to appear in the March issues of the 
two magazines.) In case this is brought about, 
there is little doubt but that the merged maga- 
zine will become the official publication of the Depart- 
ment of Visual Instruction combined with the Na- 
tional Academy of Visual Instruction. In any case, 
the official publication will go to all members of the 
Department regularly and without charge. 

Future Plans 

Several possible future developments as activi- 
ties of the merged Department and Academy have 
been and are being considered. In the first place, 
it is hoped that the new organization will become 
a clearing house of information, research, etc., 
among visual instruction workers, school execu- 
tives, and others who may be interested in the fur- 
ther and more intelligent use of visual and other 
sensory aids. The establishment of such a clearing 
house will require first of all the establishment of 
an endowment or some other source of perpetual 

Important Reminder! 

If your subscription has expired 


and make sure of getting the April issue 

the first to represent the new combination of 


Send the blank below NOW! 

The Educational Screen, 
64 E. Lake St., Chicago 

1 enclose check for which please renew my subscrip- 
tion as indicated. 

One year $2.00 □ Two years $3.00 □ 

(add 75c per year for Canadian, and $1.00 

per year for Foreign subscriptions) 

Name Street . 

City State 

income to cover administrative costs. If this can 
be arranged, there is no reason why the new orga- 
nization should not become one of the most influen- 
tial groups in the educational field, not only in the 
United States but also among foreign countries. 

For the present the office of the secretary-treas- 
urer will be maintained at Lawrence, Kansas, but 
it is only logical to suppose that it will be but a 
short time until the administrative offices of the 
new organization will be moved into the headquar- 
ters of the N.E.A. in Washington or to some other 
suitable central location. There is space available 
in the N.E.A. building in Washington which has 
been offered to the new department and plans are 
being considered which will make it possible for 
the Department to occupy and make suitable use 
of that space. 

It is expected that local branches of the new or- 
ganization will be established among the various 
states and larger cities throughout the United 
States. The Metropolitan New York Branch of the 
National Academy of Visual Instruction has be- 
come the Metropolitan New York Branch of the 
new organization. The Massachusetts Branch of 
the Academy is similarly a part of the new group. 
Plans are under way for the organization of other 
groups in Wisconsin, New Jersey, California and 
other points throughout the United States. These 
local groups are composed of members of the na- 
tional organization who desire to meet more often 
than twice each year and to give special considera- 
tion to local problems. Reports of the meetings of 
these groups will be available through the central 
clearing house and should be of interest to similar 
groups in all other parts of the country. 

This consolidation of the visual instruction forces 
would seem to aid much in the solution of many 
of the teacher training and research problems in the 
field today. There is every reason to believe that 
the merged organization will become a leader al- 
most at once and that it will, because of this lead- 
ership, receive the undivided support of both edu- 
cators and commercial organizations, which are 
interested in the production and distribution of 
visual aids. In fact, the future of the new orga- 
nization seems the brightest of any organization in 
the field since the early development of the use of 
visual aids as a definite part of classroom pro- 

Ellsworth C. Dent 
Secretary of the Department of Visual Instruction 
of the National Education Association. 

March, 19)2 

Page 85 






Director, Scarborough 


Scarborough-on-Hudson, N. Y. 

The Use of Color In Slide-Making 

Genevieve Ellis Estet 

Artist, Visual Education Division, Los Angeles City Schools 

C< IL< >k. it it readily conceded, is the essentia] eye- 
catcher, the bolder of attention. Wherever interest 
is to be aroused, or where the casual observer's in- 
terest is to be caught, we find color, — in the billboard, 
the magazine advertisement, the Sunday supplement. 
In the school, flat color is effective with very young 
children, appealing as it does to their emotions and 
increasing the span of attention. For the more mature 
student, color should be used to increase interest in 
uninteresting subject matter, or where color is in- 
herent, such as in slides of flowers and birds, as also 
with any subject in which appeal to the emotions is 
The materials needed for slide-making are : 
No. 00 Winsor and Newton Water Color Brush 
< iillott's Crowquille Pen and Holder 
Bottle Black India Ink 
White Porcelain Pallette or Dish 
Glass cut to slide size, Vx.^'i" 
Clear Cellophane 
For each slide, draw the illustration first on paper 
in order to perfect it, and then trace on glass or cello- 
phane in black India ink. 

There are a number of good inks and water colors 
on the market for coloring slides. The two simplest 
methods will be given first, which will produce good 
results for the average person. Those who are un- 
usually talented and wish to make very fine detailed 
slides may choose the more complicated methods. 
However, the latter method always runs the risk of 
so complete an absorption on the part of the student 
in the actual making of the slide, that he forgets the 
reason for which the work is being done. Care should 
be taken not to let undue attention to method in slide- 
making defeat its purpose. 

Method I 

The only ink so far perfected, as far as we have 
learned, which has body enough to stick to plain cover 
glass and which is both transparent and brilliant is 
David's (or Keystone) Slide Ink. This comes in red. 

blue, violet, green, and yellow. The last named color 
is very poor as it fades when subjected to the heat 
of the lantern. More colors can lie made, however, by 
mixing. Keystone Slide Ink is particularly good for 
large splashes of color, but rather clumsy for detailed 
work. Extra cover-glass for covering is not necessary. 
Method II 

Using colored India ink on cellophane is advantage- 
ous for three reasons. First, it is adapted to detailed 
work, and second, in case of the cover-glass being 
broken, the original cellophane drawing may be re- 
claimed by rebinding with new cover-glass. Third, 
cellophane is much thinner than glass for tracing. 
India ink comes in about a dozen colors, but there are 
no flesh tints unless mixed. The transparency and 
brilliancy are good. 

Other methods which use coated cover-glass, give 
excellent results but entail extra time and effort in 
coating the glass. However, by coating a number of 
pieces of glass at one time, considerable time is saved. 

Directions for Coating Cover-Glass 

1. With gelatin: Dissolve % teaspoon ful Knox 
Sparkling Gelatin in a cup of hot water. Dip the 
glass in the solution or coat with a soft brush. 

2. With glue: Dissolve 1 teaspoon glue in a cup of 
hot water. Dip the glass in the solution or coat with 
a soft brush. 

Use a medium amount of water in applying the col- 
or. If one is too sparing with the water, the color 
will spot. When painting on cellophane be careful in 
applying water. The cellophane wrinkles and if too 
wet, is hard to work upon. This also holds when using 
colored inks. Colored India ink can be used on glue 
coated glass, while water colors cannot. Use water, 
only, on the brush, when dipping from one color of 
ink to the other. Colored India ink is more brilliant 
on coated glass than on cellophane. Transparent wa- 
ter colors are successfully used on cellophane. 

The results of the various good transparent water 
colors and India inks are so nearly the same that it 

Page 86 

The Educational Screen 

becomes a matter of personal choice as to which me- 
dium and method should be used. 

Velox Water Color Stamps come in twelve colors 
and may be mixed to make more. They are clear and 

Nicholson's Japanese Transparent Water Colors 
come in fifteen colors and may be mixed to make more. 
They are apparently not as clear or brilliant as the 
Velox, but give a lovely soft effect on cellophane. 

The two water colors mentioned here are in book 
form and are practical and inexpensive for students. 
Pieces of each color may be cut from the leaves and 
pasted on cardboard, which makes possible a prolonged 
use and also avoids the leaves from curling when wa- 
ter is applied. The cards obviate the necessity of hav- 
ing many bottles of liquid around. 

There are many excellent transparent water colors 



TION of more than 100.000 
subjects, authentically assembled 
by leading educaters in the fol- 
lowing fields: 

Prehistoric Relics, Art of All 
Ages and Epochs, History, Ge- 
ography, Sciences, Technics and 
Technology, Religion, Litera- 
ture and Music, Fairy Tales and 
Fables, etc. 
125 catalogs with 
photographic illus- 
trations/ are avail- 
able for loan to 
responsible parties 
for use in selecting 
slides for purchase. 
Write for catalog 
listsand information 



which have not been mentioned, because of their cost 
or impracticability in other ways. 

Colored cellophane used for slide-making is beau- 
tifully transparent and brilliant, and very successful 
in simple compositions of one or two colors. Night 
scenes may be drawn in black India ink on blue cello- 
phane and a large moon may be cut out and either 
left for the lantern light to show through, while in map 
slides, also, the map may be drawn on colored cello- 
phane and the particular area to be emphasized, cut 
out and another color inserted. 

Simple cutouts of colored cellophane with a type- 
writer slide (when hand lettering is difficult or not 
wanted) is effective. 

Added colors can be made from cellophane by ap- 
liqueing one piece over the other. 

Slides can be made with colored pencils on ground 
glass very easily, but the color is not brilliant. Cellu- 
loid stillfilm strips, however, which may be procured 
already coated with an emulsion, will be found par- 
ticularly satisfactory for color work. The stillfilm 
strips are on non-inflammable stock, and when treated 
with color may be stored conveniently in the compact 
rolls where there is little chance for breakage as in 
the case with glass. Where the school does not pos- 
sess a stillfilm attachment, the celluloid roll may be 
cut into sections and mounted (by using staples) be- 
tween pasteboard mats with the opening cut as de- 
sired. This holder may then be dropped into the slide 
carrier like the usual lantern slide. This method of 
cutting up the stillfilm roll into sections has the ad- 
vantage, in addition, of permitting a larger number 
of children to participate than is the case when one 
roll of stillfilm is given to a child for his exclusive use. 

Outline of Course in "Methods of Visual 
Instruction" as Given at Hunter College, 
New York City 

Session 1. Preliminary considerations 

Definition of Terms 

Visual Instruction in the Teaching Process 
Session 2. Visual Instruction in the History of Educa- 
Session 3. Demonstration Lesson 
Session 4. Class discussion of demonstration lesson 

Psychology of Visual Instruction 
Session 5. Criteria in judging visual aids 

The Poster 
Session 6. Demonstration lesson — Discussion of 

Session 7. Lantern Slides 

Session 8. Method in special subjects (depending on 
personnel of class) 

March, 19} 2 

Page 87 

Session 9. Strip Film 
Session 10. Demonstration Lesson 
Session 11. Organization of visual instruction in va- 
rious types of schools — school visit 
■inn 12. The motion picture as a visual aid 
Session 13. A working philosophy of visual aids 

Advantages and disadvantages, benefits 
and drawbacks 
Session 14. Auxiliary agencies of visual instruction 

Washington's Birth Celebrated by 
Training School 

The children in the Training School of the Indiana 
State Teachers College at Indiana, Pa., are doing a 
number of interesting and worthwhile things to cele- 
brate the Plicentennia] of Washington's birth. 

First grade became acquainted with Washington as 
a little boy, and heard the story of the making of the 
first flag. The children brought many Washington 
pictures to school and became very familiar with the 
best pictures of Washington, especially the Stuart por- 

Second grade had a birthday party Friday at which 
they celebrated many February birthdays. These in- 
cluded Thomas A. Edison, Charles Dickens, Susan B. 
Anthony, James Russell Lowell and Henry Wadsworth 
Longfellow, as well as George Washington and Abra- 
ham Lincoln. One of the features of the party was 
a puppet show depicting scenes from the life of Martha 
Washington. The children themselves made the pup- 
pet - and planned the play. They also gave a play 
about Abraham Lincoln. 

Fourth < Srade saw the Washington film which the 
school bought, gave a Washington Play in History 
< la>s and had picture study of Washington in their 
Art Class. Each pupil made a book of pictures of 
W ashington, and reading and language lessons were 
based on Washington material during February. 

Fifth grade collected an interesting display of 
models of Colonial costumes, furniture, utensils, and 
architecture. 'This was done as a history project, the 
children making many of the models themselves. This 
grade also gave a Washington play in language class. 

Sixth grade centered much of its reading about 
ge Washington, and on Friday, February 26, the 
children dressed in (. olonial costumes, and the room 
was arranged as a Colonial home. 

Seventh grade held a Washington party Friday, 
February 19. Some of the children dressed in Co- 
lonial Costumes ; the Assembly Room was decorated 
with the national colors; and the games and amuse- 
ments all had a Washington "turn." A grand march 
was one of the main features of the party. The critic 


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Page 88 

The Educational Screen 


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Projector — including: case — $22.50 

(3) DeVry automatics — as new — $60.00 

STARK-FILMS 21 £Z m °rT*t 

teachers and the student teachers were guests of the 
Seventh grade. 

The Seventh grade History Class presented in the 
Junior High Assembly Friday, February 26, a series 
of tableaus showing scenes from the life of Wash- 
ington. The home-rooms in the Junior High School 
each saw the Washington moving picture sometime 
during February. 

Art Appreciation Applied to 
Civic Planning 

One of the required courses in the second term of 
the Samuel J. Tilden High School of Brooklyn, N. Y., 
is art appreciation. 

Each student in the grade designed on paper and 
translated into soap an original conception of a sky- 
scraper. The students' perceptions were sharpened 

The New 

Historical Chart of 
Spanish Literature 

has just been added to the series of "Histor- 
ical Charts of the Literatures" — in use by 
schools and colleges for the past 19 years. 

50 cents each. Discounts on quantities. Free 

circular on request, carrying photographic 

miniatures of every chart — 

English, American, French, German, Spanish. 



and their imaginations augmented by photographs and 
sketches of important and interesting American sky- 

The time required for the work is the usual time of 
five periods of 40 minutes each. Mrs. Eva Margolies, 
the teacher in charge of this subject, chose white soap 
as the medium to get over the idea of the third di- 
mension and the sculptural quality of architecture with 
its emphasis on simplicity, unity, rhythm, harmony, 
light and dark shadows. 

When the students completed their work in the peri- 
od of art appreciation, Air. Samuel S. Schuster, chair- 
man of the Art Department, gathered all of the work 

L5t «t5 

HHufe. ^*#l I 


ML ■» ^^| 

A Bit of Soap Sculpture 

together and used it as a lesson in Civic planning, as 
illustrated in the photograph. 

Information regarding ways and means of utilizing 
white soap as the medium for the expression of art, 
architectural models, sculpturing in the round or bas 
relief, may be had for the asking from the National 
Soap Sculpture Committee, 80 East 11th Street, New 

Visual Activities 

The Central Junior High School of Orange, New 
Jersey, of which Wallace M. Broadbent is principal, 
is actively engaged in building up a program of visual 

♦ ♦ 

The State Teachers College at Morehead, Kentucky, 
may be added to the list of those institutions which 
are initiating visual education programs. 

♦ ♦ 

A film library has been established in Lebanon, Pa., 
city schools, and the health program, grades 1, 2, and 
3, has been built around a series of health films. 

March, 19} 2 

Page 89 

Is one 


as good as another? 

If not, what makes the important difference? 

Teachers are familiar with the type of answer that 

is more a tribute to painful memorizing 

than to understanding. 

The pupil who really understands the subject answers 

easily in his own words. . . and be will not soon 

forget what be has learned. 

Tin "mcmorizer" is often able 
to answer correctly without 
really understanding the 
subject under consideration. 

But education is a structure, and 
without a good foundation it will 
sooner or later tumble. 

Every teacher realizes this... and 
welcomes Eastman Classroom Films, 
not only for their actual content, but 
for their general effect in teaching 
children to make the jump from 
book-words to the imaginative re- 
creation of events, processes, and 

They realize that a few Eastman 
( l.issroom Films dealing with a part 
of a subject will make the whole sub- 
|cct more vivid, and will pave the 
way to "correct answers" based on 
real understanding. 

Eastman Class- 
room Films, pro- 
jeetors, etc., are 
not expensive. 
Properly handled 
the films and the 
equipment will 
last for years. 

They know that in years' to come 
other teachers will be aided by the 
sound fundamental understanding 
which these films inspire. 

For these reasons Eastman Class- 
room Films are being widely used in 

cities and towns throughout the 
United States. Complete information 
will be sent you on request. Address: 
Eastman Teaching Films, Inc. (Sub- 
sidiary of Eastman Kodak Company), 
Rochester, New York. 

A Series of Films That Every School Should Own 



His Life 

and Times 

Four Reels, 16-or ^-millimeter: 

( 1 ) Conquering the Wilderness 

(2) Uniting the Colonies 

(3) Winning Independence 

(4) Building the Nation 

History le.ips into life and action. These 
historical films are valuable in pictur- 
ing coloniaPlife, frontier conditions, the 
causes and the military action of the Revo- 
lution, and the.early days of the Republic. 
They are of wide use, both for classroom 
instruction and in connection with school 
patriotic activities 
The picture is unique . the only one on 

Washington's life prepared at the request 
and with the cooperation of the George 
Washington Bicentennial Commission. Ac- 
tual historical settings have been used. 
Expert! have supervised every phase of its 
preparation. It is complete, authentic, and 
stirring in its presentation. 

A folder, illustrating and describing this 
unusual picture, will be sent on request. 

eastman Classroom Films 

Page 90 

The Educational Screen 

Do You 

Teach Geography? 

IB F yon teach or direct the teaching of Geography, yon will 
I want to investigate The Journal of Geography, an illustrated 
™ monthly magazine owned by the National Council of Geogra- 
phy Teachers, and published especially for teachers. 

THE JOURNAL GIVES YOU — Supplementary material for stu- 
dents and teachers . . . confidence by enabling you to know 
the best and thus keep several leagues ahead of the non-sub- 
scribers . . . success to teachers and students who sincerely 
want it. 

If you are not familiar with this splendid magazine pin this ad 
to your letterhead and the next copy will be sent to you FREE 
of charge. 


3333 Elston Ave. 
Chicago, 111. 

California Visual Meeting 

The annual spring convention of the Visual Aids 
Section of the California Teachers' Association is to 
be held March 18-19 in San Diego with headquarters 
at the Visual Instruction Center in Balboa Park. 

While "Teacher Training in Visual Instruction" will 
be the main theme of the program, there will be many 
interesting brief forum discussions of present prob- 
lems. These include, budgeting, equipment standards, 
photographic production, collections of visual aids for 
individual schools, testing and evaluating methods of 
instruction and Parent-Teacher Co-operation in visual 
education program. These discussions will be lead by 
prominent experts in the field. 

Novel and typical displays of visual aids, exhibits of 
recommended school equipment and excursion tours to 
the Art Gallery, museums and other educational insti- 
tutions in the Civic Cultural Center in Balboa Park 
will be other features of the program. 

Social events include a lawn luncheon, boat trip 
around the bay and a dinner dance at El Cortez Hotel. 
A large and enthusiastic group of teachers and admin- 
istrators from eight counties of Southern California 
is expected to attend. 


is serving the 
world with 
the best en- 

A sk your 
dealer about 
our 16 mm. 



information on the 
greatest and best se- 
lection of current pic- 
tures can be secured 
by addressing Dept. 
E, Columbia Pictures 
Corp., 729 Seventh 
Ave., New York City. 
Write for Free Cata- 
log 112-B. 

School Journeys Aid British Pupils 

Last year 480 "school journeys" were undertaken 
from London, over 200 from provincial centers and 
320 to the Continent, as far abroad as Denmark, 
Poland, Portugal, even across the Mediterranean to 
Algiers, while Dominion and continental parties have 
in turn toured England and Scotland. In all 40.000 
boys and girls were "on the wing." 

This statement forms part of the report of the 
School Journey Association Record for 1931. De- 
tails are given in the Record of a number of attractive 
journeys — a camp at Stratford-on-Avon, a tour in the 
Rhineland, eight days studying Rouen, an expedition 
to Bayeaux and so on. 

Each journey involved the transfer for a week to a 
fortnight, of 40 to 50 boys or girls to unaccustomed 
sleeping quarters in a more or less distant area, not for 
a holiday but for an educational purpose. To recon- 
struct the earlier life of some charming old village 
gives new interest to lessons and broadens the outlook 
of the youth of today. The School Journey movement 
is voluntary. The cost is contributed by the children, 
by teachers, and by grants from sympathetic local 
education authorities. 

March, 1932 

Page 91 

Cinematography at the 
University of South Dakota 

( i oncludrd from paijc 71 I 

provided a practical working laboratory awl gave the 
students valuable experience in technique which in 
PO Other way could lie acquired. They were dealing 
with crowds, with difficult lighting problems, and 

sometimes with temperamental players. 

This picture will soon be shown at the local the- 
atre and will be run in connection with their regular 
program. Our orchestra will be in the pit and will 
softly play while the silent masterpiece "Date Night" 
is being shown. A prologue will be given consisting 
mainly of a personal appearance by each member of 
the cast, also a little skit featuring our local funny 
boy, "Fat" Sydell. 

The question may be raised — what do advertising 
pictures have to do with a University course in cine- 
matography. The answer to this is — Such work as 
"Date Night" motivates your regular classes by giving 
a practical atmosphere to the course and by providing 
rery good experience in lighting and camera technique. 

The class in cinematography has also taken educa- 
tional pictures. They just finished a production for the 
civil engineerng department, "The Testing of Con- 
struction Materials." We have other pictures planned 
which will show the various fields of commercial 
endeavor, the idea being to give help to the high school 
•.indent in selecting life work for which he may be 
fitted, or in which he is most interested. 

This semester our class has more than doubled, and 
consists of very enthusiastic young men and women. 
They do not expect to go out to Hollywood and try 
for a job^-thev want to learn what the movie game 
is all about. They want to learn how to take good 
moving pictures of the folks at home, of recreational 
trips, and of friends. They want to learn how to edit 
these pictures in order to make them of the greatest 
possible interest. We have one girl who is big league 
material for any movie lot. We have a fine young 
man who is really a talented cameraman and we have 
a vci \ fine director in the person of Mr. Cooper. 

Our students have taken a new interest in the mo- 
tion pictures shown at the local theatre. Instead of 
just being interested in the story, they now notice and 
study camera angles, photography, lighting, tempo and 
methods of carrying along action. They are thus bet- 
ter equipped to enjoy the good dramatic motion pic- 
tures we have today. 

The Story of 

George Washington 


Use These Visual Aids to Make Your Celebration 

of the Washington Bicentennial 

Interesting and Worth While 

Incidentally Acquire a Valuable Visual Aid to the 

Annual Celebration of 

Washington's Birthday for Years to Come 

In Keeping with the Rtcommeniationt of 

The George Washington 
Bicentennial Commission 

and Keystone Quality 


Keystone View Company 


With the LEICA Camera end ita 5 Simplify Your 

interchangeable lenses, you can f ' . 

quickly and easily obtain abundant Teaching Problems 
illustrative material for your lee- — _ ^j f ^ f 

tures, at low coat. Action pictures 
panoramic viewa. portraits, even 
atereoviewe and microphotographa 
are eaally made with the LEICA. 
It ia the perfect copying camera, 
for It makea clear reproductiona of 
drawings, maps, photographs, Paint- 
ings, manuacripta, etc. The 
New Foeuaing Copy attach- 
ment designed for ue« 
with the LEICA 


The Universal Camera 
and the 

UDIFA Projector 

make, copying almpler, quicker and more ac- 
curate than ever before poaaible. ^^ 

The UDIFA Projector projccU on a acreen 
any picture you take with the Lt-ICA 
Camera. Double frame awe fifing four 
ttmea the illumination of the stand- 
ard aingle frame projected 
picture. ^^^^j^g. 

Write to Dept. 67 for 


i^aja- Describing the LEICA 

"* ■ - . Camera and 


111 ITZ.Ir.^ P 

Nevy > 

Page 92 

The Educational Screen 


Where the commercial firms — whose activities have an important bearing on progress in the visual field — 
are free to tell their story in their own words. The Educational Screen is glad to reprint here, within nec- 
essary space limitations, such material as seems to have most informational and news value to our readers. 

Erpi Tests Educational Talking Pictures 

A series of extensive experimental psychological 
tests to determine the effectiveness of the talking pic- 
ture as a supplementary aid in education were inaugu- 
rated last month in a large number of the public 
schools of New York City ; Camden and Elizabeth, 
N. J.; Schenectady, N. Y. ; and Baltimore, Md. The 
tests involve a total of 2538 pupils and 64 teachers and 
will extend over a period of eight weeks. 

The testing programs are being administered by the 
local school authorities in each city. The pictures and 
the tests used were developed by a group of educa- 
tional research specialists of the Educational Depart- 
ment of Electrical Research Products, headed by 
Colonel Frederick L. Devereux, General Manager of 
the Educational Department. 

Pupils of the fifth and seventh grade levels are be- 
ing given the tests, 1190 of the former and 1348 of the 
latter. Five thirty minute periods of instruction are 
given in two weeks in each course studied. Pupils 
participating are evenly divided into two groups, one 
forming the control group, the other the experimental. 
The control group receives instruction in the courses 
studied with every modern means of instruction avail- 
able to the teachers and pupils, with the exception of 
talking pictures. The experimental group receives 
similar instruction in the same subjects and for the 
same length of time with the inclusion of educational 
talking pictures based on the courses. 

Following the period of instruction, each group will 
be tested with exactly the same questions covering the 
subject matter in which instruction was given. Com- 
parison of the results achieved by each group will in- 
dicate the measure of effectiveness of the talking 
picture as a medium of education. 

Eight professionally produced talking pictures, made 
by Electrical Research Products in collaboration with 
many noted educators throughout the country, are be- 
ing used in the experiment. For the seventh grade 
experimental groups four pictures designed for use in 
music appreciation courses, "The String Choir," "The 
Woodwinds", "The Brass Choir", and "The Percus- 
sion Group", are being used. The fifth grade experi- 
mental groups are being shown four natural science 
films. "The Frog". "Butterflies", "Beetles" and "Plant 

Every effort has been made to conform to the re- 
quirements of modern scientific testing techniques and 
elaborate methods have been utilized to eliminate in- 
accuracies and to make the tests the most scientific 
ever attempted. A group of research students from 
Columbia University, now receiving special training for 
the work, will score the test papers. Two years of pre- 
liminary research work by the Research Department, 
during which more than 2000 pupils were involved 
have been devoted merely to preparing the tests which 
are being used in the experiments. Klaborate refine- 
ments of these tests resulted in reliability coefficients 
ranging from 86 to 95. 

Inaccuracies due to the human element have been 
eliminated by equating both teachers and pupils. Pint- 
ner Rapid Survey tests are given to all students and 
local intelligence scores utilized so that they may be 
equated. A second preliminary test is given all pupils 
to determine the extent of their present information 
on the topics to be studied. Teachers involved have 
been equated by selecting those having relatively the 
same teaching capabilities. Differences in teaching 
levels have been adjusted as a result of the large num- 
ber of teachers used. The large number of pupils in- 
volved and the selection of schools in different locali- 
ties further insure reliable results. The test questions 
are withheld from all teachers until the tests are ad- 
ministered so that no teacher will be able to point the 
pupils for the tests. 

"Nothing exactly like this has ever before been at- 
tempted," according to Col. Devereux. "We have 
no idea what the results may be. In the two years of 
research work already carried out and in the present 
experiment we have attempted to prove nothing. We 
are simply trying to discover the effectiveness of the 
talking picture as a supplementary aid to educaton 
But whatever they may be, we believe the results ob 
tained will be of tremendous value to education." 

A New Titler for Movie Makers 

A Cine-Kodak Titler is announced by Eastman Ko- 
dak Company as being available for use with the Cine- 
Kodak Models B, BB, K and M, with all their regular 
lens equipments. 

An illustrated pamphlet, entitled "Making Titles and 

March, 19} 2 

Page 93 

Editing Your Cine-Kodak Films," gives simple direc- 
tions fur securing first rate movie titlfv with or with- 
out the Titk-r. It also includes practical hints on the 
editing of films. 

Low-priced Filmo Single Control Projector 

Announced for Vpril 1 delivery is a new Filmo 
projector, the Model M. selling al a price lower by far 
than that of any previous Bell & Howell projector. 
Despite the low price, the Model M i» asserted by the 
manufacturers to be a quality machine built, like other 
Filmo models, for years of service, and projecting 
brilliant, steady, flickerless pictures. 

It is a single control projector, and simplicity of 
operation is a prime feature. The mechanism and the 
optical system are essentially the same as those used 
and proved for nine years in other Filmo models. In 
appearance it closely resembles tin- Filmo 57 projectors. 
Brilliant illumination, even upon a large screen for 
audiences running into the hundreds, is provided by 
the newly developed 300-watt. 110-volt projection lamp. 

The Model M is mounted upon a broad, secure, 
aluminum base, which forms the bottom of the carry- 
ing case. The neat, sturdy, black fabric leather covered 
rase i- set down over the fully erected projector and 
damped to the base. There are compartments in the 
case for films, reels, and projector accessories. 

Film is rewound rapidly by a 2' ( to 1 geared rewind. 
Large sprockets, plus the highly perfected and precise 
film movement mechanism, insure the film against 
damage. Framing is automatic. The lens is instantly 
interchangeable. A tilting screw facilitates centering 
the picture on the screen. The projector is adaptable 
to Kodacolor (under Eastman license). 

fhe Model M has the standard Bell & Howell single 
tooth shuttle movement. The same projector mav be 
had with a double tooth movement, and when so equip- 
ped is known as Model N. The price of both models is 
the same — $150 complete with case. 

Free Filmslides on Technical Subjects 

fhe C. W. Briggs Company of Philadelphia an- 
nounces the establishment of a Loan Library for the 
use of vocational and technical schools. This library 
comprises a large quantity of filmslides prepared es- 
pecially for school use by Louis \V. Sipley. with the 
collaboration of leading engineers and engineering or- 
ganizations throughout the United States. Mr. Sipley, 
who has been active in Philadelphia engineering circles, 
serving as Chairman of the membership committee of 

Face Your Class 

Project Picture Over Your Head 

TEUE Spencer Lecture Table Delineascope Model B has been 
designed for one specific purpose — namely, to enable the 
lecturer to face his class at all times, operate the lantern 
and discuss points of interest on the slide without diverting his 
attention from the class. The projection lantern sets on the 
teacher's desk and projects the picture image on a screen di- 
rectly over his head, in full view of each student. 

The teacher places the slide right side up on the slide track 
and sees it exactly the same as it appears on the screen to the 
class. He can point out, with his pencil, certain specific points 
of interest on the slide in front of htm and the image on the 
screen will show the image of his pencil pointing to the same 
spot be points out on the slide. 

Primarily designed for use with glass slides the Spencer 
Model B DelineaHcope may be equipped with a filmslide attach- 
ment, permitting the use 
of both glass and film- 
slides and micro-slides. 

Folder K-63 completely 
describes this Model li 
Delineascope and explains 
how its design makes 
teaching easier and more 
efficient. It is free. Write 
for it now ! 

BRANCHES: New York, 
Chicago, San Francis- 
co, Boston, Washing- 
ton, Minneapolis, Los 
scopes. Microtomes, De- 
lineascopes. Visual 
Aids. Optical Measur- 
ing Instruments. 

the Engineers' Club of Philadelphia and as a member 
of the executive committee of the Philadelphia section 
of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, has 
arranged this material exclusively for school use. 

A complete list of the material available and others 
in preparation by Mr. Sipley may be obtained upon 
request No charge, other than postage each way, 
will be made for the use of this material by any voca- 
tional or technical school. 

Columbia Expands 

Because of the growing demands of its rapidly ex- 
panding interests both in the production and distribu- 
tion fields. Columbia Pictures Corporation has again 
leased additional floor space at 729 Seventh Avenue, 
Mew York and will move a number of departments 
into the new quarters this week. It is less than three 
years since the company moved its home offices from 
1600 Broadway into what was twice the area pre- 
viously occupied. Since that time the growth has been 
n rapid that supplementary space was required four 

(Concluded on pegt 96) 

Page 94 

The Educational Screen 


A Trade Directory for the Visual Field 


Bray Pictures Corporation (3, 6) 

729 Seventh Ave., New York City. 

Carlyle Ellis (1, 4) 

S3 Hamilton Terrace, New York City 
Producer of Social Service Films 

Columbia Pictures Corp. (3, 6) 

729 Seventh Ave., New York City 

(See advertisement on page 90) 

Eastman Kodak Co. (4) 

Rochester, N. Y. 

(See advertisement on outside back cover) 

Eastman Teaching Films, Inc. (1, 4) 
Rochester. N. Y. 

(See advertisement on page 89) 

Edited Pictures System, Inc. (1, 4) 

130 W. 46th St., New York City 

Ideal Pictures Corp. (1, 4) 

26 E. Eighth St., Chicago, 111. 

Mac Callum, Inc. (3, 6) 

132 S. ISth St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Modern Woodmen of America (1, 4) 
Rock Island, 111. 

Pinkney Film Service Co. (1, 4) 

1028 Forbes St., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Ray-Bell Films, Inc. (3, 6) 

817 University Ave., St. Paul, Minn. 

Society for Visual Education (1, 4) 

327 S. LaSalle St., Chicago, 111. 

(See advertisement on inside back cover) 

United Projector and Films Corp. (1, 4) 
228 Franklin St., Buffalo, N. Y. 

Universal Pictures Corp. (3) 

730 Fifth Ave., New York City 

(See advertisement on page 87) 

Williams, Brown and Earle, Inc. (3, 6) 
918 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Y. M. C. A. Motion Picture Bureau (1,4) 
347 Madison Ave., New York City 
300 W. Adams Bldg., Chicago, 111. 


Bell & Howell Co. (6) 

1815 Larchmont Ave., Chicago, 111. 

i See advertisement on inside front cover) 

Eastman Kodak Co. (4) 

Rochester, N. Y. 

(See advertisement on outside back cover) 

Edited Pictures System, Inc. (1) 

130 W. 46th St., New York City 

Ideal Pictures Corp. (1, 4) 

26 E. Eighth St., Chicago, III. 

Mac Callum, Inc. (3, 6) 

132 S. 15th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Regina Photo Supply Ltd. (3, 6) 

1924 Rose St., Regina, Sask. 

Stark-Films (3) 

219 W. Centre St., Baltimore, Md. 

(See advertisement on page 88) 

United Projector and Film Corp. (1, 4) 
228 Franklin St., Buffalo, N. Y. 

Victor Animatograph Corp. (6) 

Davenport, la. 

Williams, Brown and Earle, Inc. (3, 6) 
918 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 


Williams, Brown and Earle, Inc. 
918 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Eastman Educational Slides 
Iowa City, la. 

Edited Pictures System, Inc. 
130 W. 46th St., New York City 

Ideal Pictures Corp. 
26 E. Eighth St., Chicago, 111. 

International Artprints 
64 E. Lake St., Chicago, 111. 

(See advertisement on page 86) 

Keystone View Co. 
Meadville, Pa. 

(See advertisement on page 91) 

James C. Muir & Co. 

10 S. 18th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Society for Visual Education 
327 S. LaSalle St., Chicago, 111. 

(See advertisement on inside back cover) 

Spencer Lens Co. 
19 Doat St., Buffalo, N. Y. 

(See advertisement on page 93) 

Stillfilm Inc. 
1052 Cahuenga Ave., Hollywood, Cal. 

University Museum Extension 
Lecture Bureau 
10 S. 18th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Williams, Brown and Earle, Inc. 

918 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 


Keystone View Co. 
Meadville, Pa. 

(See advertisement on page 91) 


Bausch and Lomb Optical Co. 
Rochester, N. Y. 

E. Leitz, Inc. 
60 E. 10th St., New York City 

(See advertisement on page 91) 

James C. Muir & Co. 

10 S. 18th St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Regina Photo Supply Ltd. (3, 6) 

1924 Rose St., Regina, Sask. 

Society for Visual Education 
327 S. LaSalle St., Chicago, 111. 

(See advertisement on inside back cover) 

Spencer Lens Co. 
19 Doat St., Buffalo, N. Y. 

(See advertisement on page 93) 

Stillfilm Inc. 
1052 Cahuenga Ave., Hollywood, Calif. 

Williams, Brown and Earle Inc. 
918 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 



indicates firm supplies 35 



indicates firm supplies 35 



indicates firm supplies 35 
sound and silent. 



indicates firm supplies 16 



indicates firm supplies 16 



indicates firm supplies 16 
sound and silent. 


March, 19)2 

Page 95 


THE EDUCATIONAL SCREEN offers on this page a helpful service. Informa- 
tion on sources of supply for the items listed below will be furnished our readers on 
request. Fill out the coupon and mail. 

• Note that aourcea for some of the equipment listed are given in the Trade Directory on the opposite page.) 

Accoustical installations 

Adapters, mazda 

Advertising projectors 


Arc lamps, reflecting 

Arc regulators 


Booths, projection 
Bulletin boards, changeable 





Cases, film shipping 

Cement, film 


Chairs, theatre 


Controls, Volume 

Dynamic Speakers 


Electric power generating plants 

Film cleaning machines 
Film rewinders 
Film slides 

Film splicing machines 
Film strips 
Films, Educational 
Films, Religious 
Films, Entertainment 
Films, Sound 
Fire extinguishers 

Fireproof curtains 

Gummed Labels 



Ink, pencils for slides 

Lamps, incandescent projection 
Lamps, high intensity 
Lamps, reflecting arc 
Lights, spot 
Loud Speakers 


Map slides 

Mazda projection adapters 

Mazda regulators 


Microphone attachments 


Micro projectors 

Motors, electric 

Motor generators 

Motors, phonograph 

Motion picture cable 

Needles, phonograph 

Opaque projectors 

Phonograph turntables 
Photo-electric cells 

Pictures, Prints 

Projectors, lantern slide 
Projectors, motion picture 
Projectors, opaque 
Projectors, portable, (16 mm.) 
Projectors, portable, (35 mm.) 
Public Address Systems 




Record cabinets 

Recording, electric; 1 


Regulators, mazda 


Reel end signals 


Screen paint 

Slides, lantern (glass) 
Slides, film 
Slide making outfits 
Slide mats 

Shutters, metal fire 
Speakers, dynamic 

Stage lighting equipment 
Stage lighting systems 
Stage rigging 
Stage scenery 

Talking equipment (35 mm.) 

Talking equipment (16 mm.) 

Title Writers 

Tone Arms 


Turntables, phonographs 

SERVICE BUREAU, The Educational Screen, 
64 East Lake St., Chicago, 111. 

Gentlemen: I should like to receive reliable information on sources of supply for the following items: 



Name Business or Profession. 

City State 

Page 96 

The Educational Screen 

Among the Producers 

(Concluded from />«</<* 93) 

times during the past year alone. The new move gives 
Columbia, the equivalent of three floors. 

New Leica Speed Lens 

From E. Leitz, Inc. comes an announcement which 
should be of great interest to photographers — a real 
ultra-speed lens for the Leica camera with an aperture 
of f/1.9! Amateurs, professionals, scientists, news 
photographers — all the workers in various fields who 
are using this capable little camera will greet this new 
lens with enthusiasm. 

The lens is a "Hektor", calculated to the same for- 
mula as the Hektor f/2.5, so popular with Leica users. 
It has a focal length of 73 mm., slightly longer than 

the standard objec- 
tives, thus enabling 
the sport photog- 
rapher to obtain 
large images of fast 
action, or the por- 
trait photographer 
to get a large head 
without distortion. 
News photogra- 
phers will find fre- 
quent use for the 
new speed lens in 
courtroom, hotel 
lobby and "candid camera" work. The cinematogra- 
pher, wishing to test lighting conditions or record ef- 
fects in the studio, will find it indispensable. For the 
scientist who desires to record certain subjects regard- 
less of conditions, and for the home portrait artist, it 
will be a satisfaction. For the amateur who wishes to 
pursue the mysteries of dimly-lighted places and cap- 
ture the ultimate in pictorial atmosphere, it will be a 

Some conception of the extreme speed of this new 
lens may be gained by the fact that a New York 
photographer, equipped with one of these lenses and 
using super-sensitive panchromatic film, made actual 
snapshots of human-interest subjects and after-theatre 
traffic along Times Square, with no other illumination 
than that from overhead signs and street-lamps. Ex- 
cellent depth and definition were shown, and 5x7 en- 
largements were sharp and distinct. 

The Hektor f/1.9 comes in a mounting similar to that 
of the longer telephoto lenses available for the Leica. 
A depth of focus scale is provided, and focus is ac- 

The New Ultra-speed Camera 

complished by turning the tube of the lens. 
, All who are interested in the new Leitz Hektor may 
obtain further information by addressing E. Leitz, Inc. 

New Optical System in Victor Projectors 

The Victor Animatograph Corporation announces 
that, after several months of research and experi- 
mentation, it has developed a new Optical System of 
exceptional efficiency which sets an entirely new stand- 
ard for brilliancy in the 16 mm. projection. It is 
claimed that this new Hi-Power System gives twice 
the illumination of the regular Victor Optical System 
when the same projection lamps are used. 

The constantly growing popularity of 16 mm. films 
and projectors among educational, religious, and in- 
dustrial users of motion pictures has resulted in de- 
mands for more and more light to meet the needs for 
large, brilliant images and for projection throws of one 
hundred feet or more. 

The new Victor Hi-Power Optical System is an 
extremely important step forward, in that it literally 
doubles the power of 16 mm. projection lamps. It 
accomplishes this by gathering and transmitting to the 
screen twice as much of the light from the lamp as is 
transmitted by the regular Victor Optical System. It 
is said that the consequent increase in illumination will 
more than satisfy present and prospective users of 
16 mm. projectors who have been demanding greater 
illumination to meet daylight projection and auditorium 

The Victor Animatograph Corporation had already 
been successful in mastering projection throws of more 
than one hundred feet with its regular Optical System 
when using 375 Watt-75 Volt or 165 Watt-30 Volt 
lamps. With the Hi-Power Optical System capable 
of doubling the amount of light utilized from these 
lamps, it is evident that the illumination it makes pos- 
sible is sufficient to meet every reasonable demand of 
non-theatrical users. 

The System consists of a Super Reflector adjustably 
mounted in a special lamp house extension, a set of 
precision-ground Bull's Eye Condensers and a more 
powerful projection lens. These parts may be easily 
installed in a few moments by any Victor owner and 
are available at a very reasonable cost. 

It will not replace the regular Victor Optical System 
in all models, due to the fact that it provides greater 
illumination than is required for home use or where 
large pictures and long projection throws are not re- 
quired. Therefore, the Hi-Power System will be 
provided in New Victor equipments only on order and 
at a slight extra cost. 



Visual Instruction News 


Schools Extravagant Today Without Visual Education 
A Survey of the Use of Visual Aids 
Units of Instruction for Teacher Training Courses 
The Movie Situation 

Single Copies 25c 
• $2.00 a Year • 



A Partial List of 


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University of Kansas 

University of Pennsylvania 

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Texas Christian University 


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School Systems of: 





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Los Angeles 

Complete list gladly 

fttrnished for your 




Big pictures 

an imcJarkmed Room. 


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of hundreds .... or thousands. 
Under those conditions, AMPRO'S capacity to 
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AMPRO'S simplicity and flexibility of control are 
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Full details of THE AMPRO PRECI- 
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Gentlemen: Please send me complete information on the new 400 Watt Ampro. 

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automatic pilot light $200.00. 




April, 19)2 

Educational Screen 

Combined with 

Visual Instruction News 

Page 101 

APRIL, 1932 





Herbert E. Slaught, Pres. Stanley R. Greene 

Frederick J. Lane, Trees. Joseph J. Weber 

Nelson L. Greene, Editor William R. Duffey 

Ellsworth C. Dent, Manager R. F. H. Johnson 

Evelyn J. Baker Marion F. Lanphier 

Josephine Hoffman F. Dean McClusky 

Otto M. Forkert Stella Evelyn Myers 



1 02 

Schools Extravagant Today Without Visual Education. 

E. R. Enlow I03 

A Survey of the Use of Visual Aids in Pasadena Junior 

College. Harry A. Haworth . 1 05 

Units of Instruction for Teacher Training Courses (No. 4) 

L Paul Miller I08 

Film Production Activities I 1 6 

News and Notes. Conducted by Josephine Hoffman I I I 

Among the Magazines and Books. 

Conducted by Marion F. Lanphier I 14 

The Film Estimates : II5 

The Church Field. Conducted by R. F. H. Johnson I 1 6 

School Department. 

Conducted by Dr. F. Dean McClusky I 1 8 

Among the Producers 1 24 

Here They Are! A Trade Directory for the Visual Field.... 1 28 

Contents of previous issues listed in Education Index. 

General and Editorial Offices, 64 East Lake St., Chicago, Illinois. Office 
of Publication, Morton, Illinois. Entered at the Post Office at Morton, 
Illinois, as Second Class Matter. Copyright, April, 1 932, by the Edu- 
cational Screen, Inc. Published every month except July and August. 

$2.00 a Year (Canada. $2.75; Foreign, $3.00) Single Copies, 25 cts. 

Page 102 

The Educational Screen 


THIS IS the first issue of The Educational 
Screen combined with Visual Instruction 
News. We offer it in the confidence and con- 
viction that the amalgamation of the two magazines 
previously serving the visual field is a 
First forward step thoroughly in harmony with 
Combined the recent action that merged the two na- 
Issue tional organizations in the same field. 
Unity of organization and publication can- 
not fail to make for strength and progress in the 
immediate as well as the ultimate future of the visual 

Things happened rapidly in the February and March 
just past. They had to. When the merger of or- 
ganizations was consummated at the February meet- 
ings in Washington, the magazine merger was still 
in the suggestion stage. Yet, by thinking fast and 
confining negotiations to primary essentials only, it 
was possible to announce combination of the two maga- 
zines in our respective March issues and make April 
the first combined number. 

Necessarily many details of operation, many ele- 
ments in the finished product, have had to wait. Trans- 
fer of records and equipment, coordination of staffs, 
harmonizing of circulation lists have been largely 
achieved. We believe we have insured that every 
subscriber to either magazine shall receive this issue, 
every member of both national organizations and that 
there will be no duplicates. If we have failed in any 
single case, we want to hear about it at once. In 
addition to the combined circulation lists of the two 
magazines, hundreds of other key people in the field, 
who never received either magazine, will be getting this 
April issue. This extra mailing, to a selected and con- 
stantly changed list of active visual workers previously 
unacquainted with either publication, will be a regular 
practice hereafter. 

AMONG the matters awaiting future decision, 
we may mention two. First, we regret that it 
has been impossible to complete, in time for 
this issue, the Editorial Board being chosen by the 
new Department of Visual Instruction of the National 
Education Association, which is to be added to the 
magazine for its functioning as official organ of the 
Department. Selections and acceptances will doubtless 
be in hand so that the Editorial Board can appear in 
the May issue. 

For obvious reasons the name, The Educational 
Screen combined with Visual Instruction News, 

can be only temporary, yet the change of a long-es- 
tablished name cannot be lightly made. It 
A New involves difficulties and consequences which 
Name? must be carefully thought through. Selection 
of a new name, adoption of a new cover 
design, giving adequate notification necessary in print 
and by mail to many quarters in this country and 
abroad, may require several months. 

In the all-important choice of a name we invite the 
fullest cooperation and suggestion from the entire 
visual field, both commercial and academic. We are 
free to adopt, if desired, the name of the first educa- 
tional magazine in this field, "Visual Education", which 
was taken over by The Educational Screen in 1925. 
Many will prefer "Visual Instruction", since the word 
"education" connotes rather the learning process, while 
"instruction" better indicates teaching method. Visual 
aids concern teaching procedure first, the effect on the 
learning process being the resultant. The name, "The 
Educational Screen" has the merit of ten years stand- 
ing behind it, yet it seems to limit visual aids to pro- 
jected pictures only, excluding many other visual and 
sensory aids which are essential to complete and ef- 
fective visual teaching. Perhaps the right name has 
yet to be created. Creators will be welcomed. We 
seek the perfect name for the newly combined maga- 
zine in the newly unified field. 

EDISON, and now Eastman, are gone — the two 
geniuses who made photography the priceless 
instrument of progress that it is today. East- 
man's flexible film not only made possible Edison's 
Kinetoscope, progenitor of the modern mo- 
George tion picture, but solved the serious problem 
Eastman of heavy, breakable glass plates. This set 
cameras clicking around the world and 
brought incalculable values to the photography now so 
vital to the commercial and journalistic worlds. 

George Eastman's sound philanthropies matched his 
technical achievements. First, profit-sharing stock to 
the employees in his factories ; second, to his home 
city of Rochester, The Eastman School of Music and 
its allied activities, the dental dispensary, and more 
than $35,000,000 to the University of Rochester. 
Finally afield. Some $20,000,000 to Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology, other millions to Negro 
schools, and still others to found dental dispensaries in 
foreign cities — carefully studied gifts of some $75,000,- 
000 as his additional contributions to world welfare 
and progress. Neither the visual field nor the rest of 
the world can ever forget its debt to George Eastman. 

Nelson L. Greene 

April, 19)2 

Schools Extravagant Today 

Without Visual Education 

Page 103 


TEACHING by old methods today would be real 
extravagance. Times change. Ox-cart travel 
no longer means economy. The business man 
who refuses to have a telephone installed because it 
adds to his office expense — doesn't exist, but if he did, 
he would be regarded as very short-sighted. True he 
could "save" a monthly telephone bill by so doing, but 
personal visits made in place of phone calls would 
represent a real waste of time — and time means money. 

Educators and tax-payers realize today that memo- 
rizing lists of unused and unusable words from the 
blue-back speller represented a prodigious waste of 
time, effort, and money. The same may be said of 
the calculation of carpeting or partial payments, or 
of learning to read out loud with wonderful inflection 
but no comprehension of what it was all about. All 
of these were nothing but frills — that is, things learned 
which would never be of any value to the learner. It 
is just such frills that the modern educational program 
would displace by subjects and activities which make 
for all-around development of the personality, char- 
acter, and civic consciousness, as well as the mental 
ability of the pupil. The old emphasis was placed 
solely on mental growth and submissive acquiescence 
to the inflexible authority of the teacher — who must 
needs be a stern "disciplinarian". 

Not only has the new educational program attempted 
to eliminate the old-time frills which wasted the tax- 
payer's money, the pupil's time, and the teacher's 
patience ; it has taken advantage of every possible 
means of facilitating pupil learning — enabling the pupil 
to learn the most possible in the shortest possible time. 
This is absolutely necessary today. The compass of 
human knowledge, the scope of human inter-relations 
— in short, the social and intellectual heritage of the 
child — have increased within the past generation as 
perhaps never before in the world's history. The 
child cannot possibly assimilate his due share of this 
preparation for effective citizenship unless the learn- 
ing processes are speeded up. 

To expect the child to accomplish television results 
by wigwag methods is nothing short of preposterous. 
In the first place it is an imposition on the child — ask- 
ing him to make "bricks without straw", after the 

"tale of the bricks" has been multiplied many fold. 
In the second place it is extremely uneconomical. 

In the older methods of instruction, learning was 
passed on to the student chiefly by words, either di- 
rectly from the mouth of the teacher or out of books. 
Words still have their due share in conveying ideas 
to the learner. But, another avenue of entrance to 
the mind has been opened up to carry its portion of 
the learning traffic. The eye route is referred to. It 
is not a new route, but one which in the past has been 
neglected. The modern perfection of photography in all 
its many forms is mainly responsible for the present 
emphasis on the visual appeal. In the past, aside from 
reading the printed page, the eye could function only 
in the limited field of seeing experiences to which the 
learner had actual physical access — a very restricted 
segment of the world. Having seen little the learner 
failed to understand much. 

Today the learner may see the entire world vicar- 
iously. Geography is no longer a distasteful memori- 
zation of countries, capitals and boundaries, but a 
face-to-face experiencing of other peoples and the 
conditions under which they live — evoking a sympa- 
thetic understanding. This experiencing of peoples 
and climes is made vivid by a portrayal on the lumi- 
nous screen, motion or still or both, followed by actual 
impersonation and construction. But the child cannot 
costume himself in the habiliments of Japan, for ex- 
ample, without careful, directed reading and research. 
The beauty of visual aids is that they do not only 
furnish the picture which the child carries in his mind 
of Japanese life and times, but also stimulate such 
an interest in the country and its people that the child 
is motivated to gain a factual knowledge which is both 
greater and more abiding than were he reading without 
the visual framework on which to base his under- 
standing. Truly "the eye understands more than the 
ear", though both contribute to the sum total of 

Perhaps the three words, "seeing", "hearing", and 
"doing" best characterize the modern school program. 
Visual aids play an important part in each of these 
three processes. The school journey or field trip in- 
volves all three and is the most direct seeing experience. 
Obviously the class cannot be taken to distant parts 

Page 104 

The Educational Screen 

nor to past events so that this visual aid is of restricted 

The motion picture, however, affords a good sub- 
stitute for the actual excursion. Did we not all go 
around the world with Douglas Fairbanks? Then, 
too, the motion picture, by means of stop-motion pho- 
tography or slow-motion or animated technical draw- 
ings, and the like, may reveal to us many phenomena 
and processes which the unaided eye is incapable of 

Persons, events, processes, or things not requiring 
motion for their study, may be recorded on lantern 
slides and projected as still pictures on the screen. 
Here "seeing" may be as prolonged as necessary and 
accompanied by oral expression which is "doing" for 
some and "hearing" for all. 

Classroom activity "projects" are especially fine 
visual aids in that they involve doing as well as seeing. 
Considerable visual exploration of many sources of 
picture material must usually precede the construction 
necessitated in the project, and motivated oral ex- 
pression is sure to follow its completion. 

The magazines of today, especially in their adver- 
tisements, afford recognition of the force of the ap- 
peal through the eye to the pocketbook. And what 
adult, not to mention child, fails to peruse carefully 
the illustrated comic section of the newspaper? The 
teacher is merely keeping abreast of the times when 
she takes advantage of the added interest and under- 
standing contributed not only by the formal visual aids 
for screen projection but also by the many non-pro- 
jection visual devices such as exhibits, dramatizations, 
charts, posters, graphs, maps, globes, blackboards, 
sand-tables, magazine and book illustrations, stereo- 
graphs, cartoons, paintings, models, shadow pictures, 
puppet-shows, projects, and what not, to "lessen the 
evils of verbalism". 

Research has shown that visual aids motivate pupil- 
learning so that by their use more knowledge is ac- 
quired in a given time and is retained better than by 
instruction without the visual aids. This means that 
the use of visual materials decreases the number of 
pupils failing and so decreases the cost of instruction. 
In the famous Yale experiment the "motion picture" 
pupils learned 19% more and remembered 12% more 
American history than did the "text-book" pupils. 
Moreover, the motion picture group voluntarily read 
40% more supplementary historical reading material 
than did the other group. Not only do visual aids 
enhance learning both in the amount gained and in the 
amount retained ; they produce greater satisfaction 
on the part of the learner, which results in a better 

attitude toward the subject learned. 

Education today is concerned not merely with the' 
subject-matter learned, but with the attitudes, ideas, 
and habits learned at the same time, that is, in the 
personality traits developed along with the subject- 
matter learning. Here visual aids function vitally. 

There is, then, at least a four- fold economy in the 
utilization of visual aids and any educational program 
which does not take advantage of this means of econo- 
mizing is to that extent an extravagant program. This 
economy consists in : 

(a) A greater amount learned, with greater satisfac- 
tion to the learner ; 

(b) More of it retained after the lapse of a period of 
time ; 

(c) A reduction in the number of "repeaters" to be 
taught again ; 

(d) A saving in the school life of the pupil whose 
failures are reduced. 

Experts have estimated that the price of a single 
adult movie ticket per year for each pupil would pro- 
vide an adequate city program of visual education 
while the average cost in cities above 100.000 of teach- 
ing one pupil who fails for another year is $112. 
(Cities above 100.000, 1929-30). This contrast does 
not even reckon the value to the pupil of the time 
he saves by not repeating or the value to every pupil 
(and incidentally to the city) of the enrichment in 
his learning produced by the visual aids. This last 
is really the most important of all. 

Some, who are doubtless not aware of the many 
advantages and savings attributed to visual aids, decry 
the use of "visual education" because "they didn't have 
those things when I was a boy" (and look what 1 am 
now). This same parent ought logically to begrudge 
his child and deny himself such recently acquired privi- 
leges as tuning in on a radio program, or riding in the 
family car, or taking out a library book, or turning on 
the electric lights, or talking over the phone, or joining 
a Boy Scout troop, or playing the saxaphone, or taking 
in a movie, or boarding a street car, or reading a tele- 
gram, — or what have you? And yet — have you ever 
heard the parent who says, "Now when I went to 

school ", implying if not actually saying, "what 

was good enough for me then is good enough for my 
children now". 

There is a simple fallacy here which needs only to be 
pointed out in order to be appreciated and refuted. 
It hinges on the words "then" and "now". Perhaps 
many of us might say, and really mean it, that "what 
was good enough for me then would also have been 

(Concluded on page 122) 

April, 19)2 


Page 105 

A Survey of the Use of Visual 
Aids in Pasadena Junior College 

THE Visual Education Committee of the Pasadena 
Junior College has attained some very interesting 
Us from a survey regarding the use of visual 
ai(K in the Junior College. It is often said or sup- 
posed that the secondary schools use motion pictures 
to the exclusion of other types of visual aids. This 
survey shows that in the Pasadena Junior College 
(grades 11-14) the motion picture ranks low in a 
list of eleven aids rated. Mr. Archie M. Turrell, as 
chairman of this Committee, has done a fine piece of 

In our secondary schools a Visual Education Com- 
mittee is appointed by the principal to encourage the 
use of visual aids by acting as liaison officers between 
the teachers and the central visual education depart- 
ment. In this capacity the committee informs teach- 
ers of aids available for their work and arranges 
picture projection dates, rooms and operators. 

The operators are scheduled from a club of boys 
called 'The Silver Screen Club" whose members are 
trained to operate the projection machines, under the 
supervision of the committee. It is a purely volun- 
tary organization but its services are available to any 
school for the operation of projection apparatus, for 
stage crew work, or for handling any of the mechani- 
cal or electrical equipment of the auditorium. The 
sponsor and trainer for the club is a man of experi- 
ence in projection and stagecraft, Mr. Wedemeyer. 

The full report by the Committee constitutes the 
rest of this article. 

Report of the Visual Education Committee 

I. "Problems encountered and solved" 

A. The perennial criticism bobs up that we em- 
phasize motion pictures to the exclusion of 
other types of visual aids. 
B. A survey is launched to obtain objective data 
on the question. 

('. The results of the survey (presented in 
graphic form) show that, if the criticism was 
once true, it does not now apply. 

II. "Problems remaining unsolved" 

A. The comments resulting from the survey in- 
dicate conditions to be met. 

III. "Recommendations regarding the work of the 

A. The comments in the survey, also, suggest pos- 
sible extension of the work of the Committee. 

IV. Appendix 

A. Copy of Bulletin II issued by the Committee. 

B. The questionnaire used in the above survey. 

C. Survey data sheet showing the figures com- 
piled in a form to make interpretation easy. 

If the term "Visual Education" calls up any mental 
picture in the mind of the "average" teacher, it is 
without doubt connected with motion pictures in some 
way. Just why the term should connote motion pic- 
tures to the exclusion of a large field of other types 
of visual aids to instruction can probably be traced to 
the time when this method of instruction was abused 
in that very way. 

To the members of the Visual Education Committee, 
busy arranging picture projection dates and scheduling 
and training operators for their work, it may still seem 
to be the situation. 

Feeling that this opinion was due more to a lack of 
information of all that the faculty was doing in this 
field than to anything else, the committee instituted a 
survey to find out what the various types of visual 
aids in use in the Junior College were, and what rela- 
tive emphasis was placed on them as evidenced by the 
frequency of use of each type. 

Briefly to explain the method of the survey, each 
teacher was given a list of the various types of visual 
aids to instruction with space at the bottom for addi- 
tions to the list, and was asked to indicate after each 
type the number of times it was used per month, using 
the last month as a basis for estimate. 

The absolute mathematical results of the study are 
questionable, but not the relative tendencies shown. 
As a result the motion picture is a low ninth in a list 
of eleven aids used. The figures were rearranged on 

Page 106 

the basis of departments. Without reference to the 
type of aids used the second graph shows the relative 
order of the departments in the use of visual aids. 
Probably this is also an indication of the extent to 
which the ideas taught in the various fields of knowl- 
edge lend themselves to visual presentation. 

The comparative use of various types of aids and 
the relative use of aids by various departments are 
presented in graphic form in the tables below. 
Suggestions for future work of the committee are 
given later in the report. 

Following is a sample of the questionnaire used in 
gathering the data. 

Survey of the Use Made of Visual Aids to In- 
struction in Pasadena Junior College 1930-1931 

(This is not being used for a Master's or a Doctor's 

I If you employ no visual aids to instruction in your 
class work, check here .... and return this blank 
to Mr. Turrell's box. 
The remainder of this report is not concerned with 
the use of materials in the laboratory period, but re- 
lates only to those visual aids which the instructor 
uses in connection with the lecture hour. 

The Educational Screen 

II Visual Aids not requiring lantern projects. 


Check here 

if used 

this year 

Estimate No. of 
class meetings in 
which the instruc- 
tor makes use of 
them (See Note)* 




Wall charts 

Pictures (not motion 
or lantern) 

Demonstration (using lab- 
oratory equipment) 

Field trips (total for 
the instructor) 

(Other type) 

Ill Visual Aids requiring lantern projection. 

Motion picture 

Still film 

Lantern slide 

Microscopic projection 

(Other type) 

♦NOTE: If used frequently, take the last month as a basis 
for estimate. If infrequently (2 or 3 times a semester), fill 
in the right hand column only. 


IPloturee 2794 

lull Ch«rt« 2683 

Dejomtretione 1473| 

Lantern Slides 

1350 1 



stm ni»» 


Held TTipi 


Uotion Picture 






Relative Use of Various Types of Visual Aids 
(by all Departments of Instruction) 

Relative Use by Departments of Instruction 
(all types of visual aids) 

April, 19)2 

Page 107 

IV Did you use the service of the Silver Screen Club 
members in connection with the above work ? 

each time part of the time 

none of the time 


(numbers indicate times the different types of 

Riolog- Com- Eng- 
ical merce lish 

Maps 468 2150 559 

Wall Charts 1160 90 210 

Pictures 250 90 289 

Demonstrations 217 50 

Field Trips 119 4 

Models 200 

Motion Picture 24 44 2 

Still Film 106 

Lantern Slide 209 90 5 

-Microscopic projection 21 

Opaque projection 

Totals 2668 2624 1065 

X u mber of teachers who 
answered questionnaire 8 12 14 

Teachers who reported not us- 
ing any visual aids this year 8 10 

' ', not using (of those reporting) f>7 71 

Number of teachers 

who did not report 2 3 9 

Comments and Recommendations on the Work 
of the Committee 

In addition to giving the committee a picture of the 
use made of visual aids to instruction in Pasadena 
Junior College, there was one section of the survey 
which we hoped would be fruitful in suggestions for 
improvement, namely the question : In what way can 
the Visual Education Committee improve its services 
to you during the coming school year? 

These comments were classified into two fields: 
those complimentary to the committee and its work, 
but not offering suggestions for improvement ; and 
those pointing to greater possibilities. Of the first 
type there were many, which the committee acknowl- 
edges and is very happy to receive. Of the second 
type the results were disappointing when figured in 
numbers, but in quality contained three very good 
suggestions. A brief resume of these three follows : 
A. Some of the teachers have expressed a desire for 
more "daylite" screens. Mr. Haworth has ex- 
plained a way in which several of these might be 

V In what way can the Visual Education Committee 
improve its services to you during the coming 
school year? 

A tabulation of results obtained from the question- 
naire appears below. 


aids were used in the different departments.) 

House Math. 

& Fine Ind. Lan- & Phys. Phys. 

Arts Arts guage Engr. Music Educ. Science 

































Science Totals 

458 4260 











705 13264 





























made available at small expense, and the committee 
intends to take steps to fill this need. 

B. Some teachers seem to lack information of the 
various materials available. Some new scheme for 
disseminating this information among the faculty 
members is needed. Just what this method should 
be the committee does not know, but intends to 
propose some other method by the opening of the 
school in the fall. 

C. One department head has suggested that travel 
pictures be shown during the Wednesday Club 
Period to which all interested be invited, and has 
offered to arrange talks to accompany or precede 
the presentations. The committee may be able to 
work out something along this line, if it seems 

Visual Education Committee 

Archie M. Turrell. Chairman 
Arthur F. Hall 
Winefred Millspaugh 
\. M. Wedemeycr 
Fred. G. Young 

Page 108 

Units of Instruction (or Teacher 
Training Courses (No. 4) 

The Educational Screen 

What Facts About Electricity are Important in Projection? 


(A) Why is a review of facts concerning electricity 
and electrical devices useful in our study of 
While a teacher does not need to be an experienced 
electrician in order to operate projection equipment, he 
needs to know a few elementary principles. The pro- 
jectors he uses have electric lamps, the capacity of 
which is indicated in watts. Motion picture projectors, 
to be studied shortly, have motors, rheostats, and other 
electrical devices. A few common terms will be de- 
fined in this unit. Motion picture films listed in this 
unit, under "Visual Aids," may be used to make the 
topic more interesting. 

The Pennsylvania Department of Labor and Indus- 
try has suggested the following outline for training 
projectionists, in answer to a request regarding what 
will be expected of teachers to qualify for the amateur 
projectionist's license in Pennsylvania. The same sort 
of outline would be useful, of course, in any State, 
whether a license is required or not, for operating 
16 mm. portable machines using safety films. 

Requirements for an operator's license include a 
knowledge of : 

( 1 ) Electric current : alternating and direct. Volt- 
age. Cycles, 25 and 60. 

(2) Wiring: Proper sizes. Circuits. Fuses. 

(3) How to adjust projector to current. 

(4) Parts of the projector and their relationship 
to one another. 

(5) The illuminant and its relation to projection. 

Author's Note: Useful suggestions continue to 
come in concerning Units 1 to 3 of this series, which 
appeared in the January to March issues of The 
Educational Screen. It is hoped that publication of 
these specimen units will provide a basis for discus- 
sion as to what we should include in our teacher-train- 
ing courses in visual education. Copies of the complete 
list of topics of forty-five units, now in use in several 
Pennsylvania colleges, are being sent to those who 
request them. The units on projection, only, are being 
published in this series. 

(6) Technique of operation, including ability to 
locate various troubles. 

(7) Lubrication, care and housing of projector. 
(Teachers in other States than Pennsylvania, will 
of course inquire as to regulations in those States, 
and meet requirements there.) 

(B) When are direct and alternating current used? 
Find out what kind of current is used in your school. 

When only an incandescent electric bulb is used in a 
projector, either direct or alternating current is satis- 
factory. If an arc light is used, be sure you have the 
right kind of current. Alternating current (A.C.) 
cannot be used with a direct current (D.C.) arc. When 
a motor is used, to operate a motion picture projector, 
be sure to read the directions as to the kind of current 
required. Some projectors need to be adjusted for 
either A.C. or D.C. The change in this case is made 
very simply. 

(C) What units are used in measuring electricity? 
The ampere is a measure of the amount of elec- 
tricity flowing through a conductor per second. A 
16 mm. motion picture projector ordinarily uses a 
lamp requiring 5 amperes. Care should be taken, when 
a rheostat is used on such a machine, that the current 
does not exceed 5 amperes, as shown by the indicator 
on the ammeter. 

The ohm is the unit for measuring resistance. It is 
equal to the resistance offered by 157 feet of number 
18 copper wire. 

The volt is the electro-motive force necessary to 
cause a current of one ampere against a resistance of 
one ohm. The ordinary voltage in the wiring of a 
school is 110 volts. If a town or school is equipped 
for lighting only on 220 volts, an auxiliary rheostat 
must be used. This plugs into the room socket, and 
reduces the current to 110 volts. A 16 mm. motion 
picture projector ordinarily uses a lamp taking 50 
volts, and is equipped with the standard resistance for 
operation of a line carrying not more than 125 volts 
and not less than 105 volts either A.C. or D.C. Volts 
are measured by an instrument called a voltmeter. 

The watt measures the amount of work an electric 

April, 19)2 

Page 109 

current can do. Watts equal amperes multiplied by 
volts. For example, a motion picture projection lamp 
using 50 volts and 5 amperes is a 250 watt lamp. 
"Still" picture projectors ordinarily use 500-watt lamps 
for glass slide projection, and as high as 1000-watts 
for opaque projection, or for slide projection in audi- 

(D) What arc motors and rheostats? 

Motors are machines for converting electrical energy 
into mechanical energy. Motors on motion picture 
projectors require little attention other than lubrication 
at designated places. 

Rheostats are used with projectors having electric 
light bulbs in order to control the amount of current 
going through the lamp. The rheostat must be adjusted 
to send through the least current when the light is first 
turned on. This lengthens the life of the lamp. The 
current is then increased up to but not exceeding 5 
amperes. Rheostats must be used with arc lamps, 
and must be selected according to line voltages and re- 
quired amperes. Rheostats of 4J4 amperes can be 
used with the usual electric wiring, but any having 
higher capacity usually requires special wiring. 

(E) What advantages have incandescent lamps for 

The power consumption of incandescent lamps is 
much less than that of arcs. The new gas-filled lamps 
with concentrated filaments furnish efficient and eco- 
nomical illumination. They have efficiencies of .5 to 
.8 watts per candle power, and are rated to have a life 
of about 50 hours. These lamps are not considered 
to be sufficiently concentrated for microscopical pro- 
jection. A 1000- watt lamp needs special wiring be- 
cause of the heavy current. 

Verbal Aids 

Elementary physics text-books. Chapters on electrical 


Visual Aids 

Motion picture films projected, on: "Heat and Light 
from Electricity," "Magnetic Effects of Electricity," 
(Eastman Teaching Films) and "The Light of the 
Race," "Making Mazda Lamps," and "Thomas A. 
Edison," Free, (General Electric Co.) 

Written Summary 

1. The current used in this building is (direct, or 

2. The voltage is and the cycles : 

3. The lamp in the glass slide projector used in this 

course is watts, and the lamp in the 

motion picture projector is watts. 


This is the First Issue 
of the Combined 

Educational Screen and 
Visual Instruction News 

AS ANNOUNCED editorially in the March 
issues of both magazines the merger of the 
two publications was made in the interests 
of greater and more effective service to the 
field. The many expressions of enthusiastic ap- 
proval of the move which have reached us 
from both the educational and commercial field 
have been most gratifying and encouraging. 

WE WANT to embark at once upon our 
plan for a program of consecutive im- 
provements 'which will bring a steadily 
finer magazine to the great field as it grows — 
one which will cover all phases of visual in- 
struction completely and authoritatively from 
every angle. 

IF YOU have not already subscribed, we feel 
sure you 'will want to do so immediately. To 
those who subscribe now we are offering 
FREE a copy of the current edition of the fa- 
mous "1000 and One" directory of films, which 
sells to the general public for 75c and to sub- 
scribers for 25c. It is the only directory of the 
kind available, listing several thousand films 
for instruction and entertainment, completely 
classified as to subject, with full information 
as to where each film may be obtained. 
The blank below is for your convenience. 

64 East Lake St., Chicago, 111. 

I enclose check for which please enter (or renew) my 

subscription as indicated. This entitles me to a free 

copy of the current edition of "1000 and One" film 

One year $2.00 □ two years $3.00 O 

(add 75c per year for Canadian and 

$1.00 per year for Foreign subscriptions) 

Name Street 



Position . 

Page 110 

The Educational Screen 


The aim of this new department is to keep the educational field intimately acquainted with the 
increasing number of film productions especially suitable for use in the school and church field. 

University Students Produce 
Unique "Talkie" 

A unique "talkie" is being presented by a group of 
students of the University of California. A 16 mm. 
feature film of two 400-foot reels, entitled Black Re- 
venge, was first produced by the students without 
sound recording. This picture is now being shown to 
the accompaniment of dialog spoken by the members 
of the cast in person, together with other sound effects. 
The sound is received by a radio microphone placed 
in a room adjacent to that in which the picture is 
shown and from which the screen may readily be 
seen. The microphone is hooked up with a regular 
talkie sound amplifier and speaker system. After a 
few rehearsals, we are told, the students were able to 
achieve with this set-up synchronism comparable to 
regular sound recorded film. 

The first showing of the "talkie" was in a nature 
of a preview given in the auditorium of the Bell & 
Howell building in Hollywood. The occasion was a 
gala one, and so great was the demand for tickets that 
a repeat performance was necessary. 

The picture is a travesty on the old-time melodrama 
and has all the regulation characters of this type of 
vehicle. The picture has been booked by various or- 
ganizations, including the Los Angeles Cine Club. The 
students responsible for the production are planning 
a second picture for the near future. 

Magic Carpet Series 

In addition to the Movietone School Series, Fox 
Films distribute another group of films, entitled the 
Magic Carpet Series, which should appeal to the edu- 
cational and non-theatrical field as having instructive 
as well as entertainment value. These sound tra- 
velogues, in one and two reels, have had much research 
expended on them and employ many crews for ex- 
peditions to far-off places. 

Among the latest releases are the following: Man- 
hattan Medley, a fine screen study of a day in the life 
of the great metropolis, New York ; Over the Yukon 
Trail, in which the romantic trail of '98 is retraced; 
Zanzibar, which pictures the colorful aspects of that 
sleepy tropical port; Fires of Vulcan, presenting dar- 

ing ventures into dangerous volcanic locations ; With 
the Foreign Legion, showing "for the first time, the 
true Foreign Legion, photographed by special permis- 
sion of France"; By-Ways of France, a portrayal of 
the beauty of rural France ; Alpine Echoes, where yod- 
eling mountaineers and snowcapped tops are the sub- 
jects ; Big Game of the Sea, offering a thrilling whale 
capture; and Incredible India, which covers a diver- 
sity of aspects of the native life. 

Additions to Filmo Library 

Prominent among the new 151 Pathe 16 mm. sound 
releases which have been added to the Filmo Library, 
are 13 of the popular Grantland Rice Sportlights of 
one reel each. Then there are 67 two-reel comedies. 
16 Aesop's Fables in one reel, and the always interest- 
ing Vagabond Series of 8 subjects, including such 
titles as Venetian Nights, The Gem of Agra, Sands 
of Egypt, and The Glory of Spain. 

A great many features, ranging from six to ten 
reels, are listed. For next month there will be another 
lot of 16 mm. talkie listings, including important Uni- 
versal and Columbia releases. 

Ford Prints Set Record 

A record production of 6000 industrial sound mo 
tion picture prints, announcing the new Ford V-Eight 
Car, has been completed in four days by the Metro- 
politan Motion Picture Company. Four days previous 
to the published announcement of the new Ford, work- 
was gotten underway at the Motion Picture Com- 
pany's Studios. The motion pictures showing the 
new Ford being built and in actual operation we re- 
produced in great secrecy by the Ford Motor Com- 
pany itself and rushed to Metropolitan's Studios and, 
under the personal direction of M. T. Caplan, presi- 
dent, the picture was carefully cut and edited and 
scored with a comprehensive description of the new 
car by "Ty" Tyson, popular Michigan radio announcer. 
Contacts were immediately established in New York 
and Chicago for a nation-wide theatrical distri- 
bution of the prints. The same evening prints of Un- 
complete subject, about 240 feet in length, were being 
shipped to theatres in every section of the country. 
It is estimated that the picture is being exhibited in 
upwards of 6,000 theatres. 

April. 1932 

Page 111 





Visual Meetings and Demonstrations 

A Join! .Meeting of The Metropolitan- Xew York 
Branch of The National Academy of Visual Instruc- 
tion and The Visual Instruction Section of The New 
York Society for the Experimental Study of Education 
was held at the Bell Telephone Laboratories Audi' 
torium. New York City, on Friday evening, March 18. 

Dr. 1 Inward A. Gray, of Electrical Research Prod- 
ucts, Inc., in his talk on "Educational Talking Picture 
rimentation" described the experiment now being 
conducted in the public schools of five Eastern cities. 
The program was completed with the showing of the 
following educational talking pictures: Individual Dif- 
ferences in Arithmetic. The String Choir, Beetles, and 
■sing Your I 'ocation. 


Visual Education was included among the Sectional 
rams at the Annual Ohio State Educational Con- 
ference April 7, 8, and 9, with E. J. Arnold, Superin- 
tendent of Schools. Xelsonville, presiding. Addresses 
were delivered by Mr. Carl E. Milliken, Secretary of 
Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of Amer- 
ica, on "The Social Value of Visual Instruction"; 
Emeline Baumerster, Supervisor of Geography, San- 
dusky, on "Visual Aids in Classroom Teaching"; and 
Dr. George Rommert of Munich, Germany, on "Mi- 
crocosm in Education". The program was concluded 
with a summary by P>. A. Aughinbaugh, of the State 
Visual Instruction Board of Control. 

There will be an exhibit and demonstration of all 
kinds of visual instruction equipment in the Senior 
High School, Port Washington, New York, on Tues- 
day evening. April 26. 

The Visual Instruction Committee of the Port 
Washington Public Schools feels that this demonstra- 
tion will give teachers and administrators an oppor- 
tunity to determine the merits of various kinds of 
equipment under identical conditions. Representatives 
from the leading schools of Nassau, Suffolk and West- 
chester Counties have given assurance that they will 
attend. The leading manufacturers of visual instruc- 
tion equipment have been invited to exhibit their prod- 
ucts. The demonstration will l>e confined chiefly to 
apparatus used in the classroom. 

There will be exhibits of 16 mm. motion picture 
machines, both silent and sound; lanterns for glass 
slide and opaque projection ; lanterns and attachments 
for microscopic and stillfilm projection ; screens and 

All school officials are invited to attend. 

Another Pioneer in Visual 
Instruction Has Gone 

We have just received from the Visual Aids Section 
of the California Teachers' Association notice of the 
recent death of Ida M. VVaite, director of the Glen- 
dale City Schools, with the request that the following 
resolutions be printed. 

"Whereas the visual education field has suffered a 
distinct loss in the passing of our beloved friend and 
fellow-worker, Miss Ida M. Waite and 

"Whereas she has been an educational leader in 
the Glendale school system during the past nineteen 
years and a pioneer in the visual instruction movement 

"Whereas in addition to her worthy professional 
career, she led a life rich in social service and valued 
friendships ; be it 

"Resolved that we, the members of the Visual Aids 
Section of the California Teachers Association, South- 
ern Section, do hereby express our deep regret oc- 
casioned by the passing of our valued friend and be 
it further 

"Resolved, that this resolution be entered in the 
minutes and a copy of it sent to the family and with 
it an expression of our sympathy and the assurance 
that her full and energetic career will continue to be 
an inspiration to her wide circle of friends." 

Stereoscopic Apparatus Revives Eyesight 

Experiments in reviving the eyesight of those who 
have lost the practical use of either eye, due to con- 
stant strain, are being conducted in the physics-optics 
research laboratory of the University of Southern Cali- 

Employing a manuductor, a special type of stereo- 
scope, the corrective system gives training in hand- 
and-eye cooperation and coordination, using hand 
movement to stir visual attention, hand guidance of eye 

(Concluded on page \2Z\ 

Page 112 

The Educational Screen 



THIS section has been reserved for notes covering 
the activities and plans of the Department of 
Visual Instruction of the National Education 
Association, with which the National Academy of 
Visual Instruction was merged recently. Reports and 
news notes to appear in this section should be mailed 
directly to the secretary of the Department, 1812 Illi- 
nois Street, Lawrence, Kansas. 


The National Academy of Visual Instruction, com- 
posed of a group of visual instruction directors and 
other educators, was organized in 1920. Three years 
later, the Department of Visual Instruction of the 
National Education Association was founded. Since 
that time, the two organizations have paralleled each 
other in aims and activities, with some duplication of 

During the greater part of the history of these two 
organizations, there have existed other similar groups. 
Most prominent of these was the Visual Instruction 
Association of America, with headquarters in New 
York City. 

About a year ago, the Visual Instruction Associa- 
tion voted to become the Metropolitan New York 
Branch of the National Academy of Visual Instruction. 
This left but the two national organizations in the field. 

These two groups, the Academy and the Department, 
had been considering a merger for the past two years. 
The merger was first approved by the Department of 
Visual Instruction at its annual meeting in Los Ange- 
les, California, during the summer of 1931. It was 
approved next by the National Academy of Visual 
Instruction at its annual meeting in Washington, D. C, 
on February 24, 1932. There is now but one or- 
ganization and it is an approved Department of the 
National Education Association, ready for accom- 

The merged organization combines the rich history 
and achievement of the National Academy of Visual 
Instruction with the activity and both national and 
international high reputation of the Department of 
Visual Instruction of the N. E. A., thereby providing 
a satisfactory clearing house of information and ideas 

for those who may be interested in using visual and 
other sensory aids to instruction. 

It is expected that the combined Academy and De- 
partment of Visual Instruction will become as im- 
portant to the teacher or other user of visual aids to 
instruction as the American Medical Association is to 
the physicians ; as inclusive in its membership as the 
National Education Association ; and so active that 
its influence will be felt throughout the world. 


Membership in the Department of Visual Instruc- 
tion, combined with the National Academy of Visual 
Instruction, is open to anyone who may be interested 
in this important educational development. The only 
preliminary requirement for active membership is 
membership in the National Education Association. 
All members receive without extra charge, the official 
magazine and such other bulletins or reports as may 
be published by the Department. 

Active Membership is available to visual instruction 
directors and workers ; teachers ; administrators ; mu- 
seum, extension and religious workers ; members of 
community organizations; and members of the edu- 
cational staff of industrial organizations. The fee 
for active membership is $2., covering a period of 
twelve months from the date of enrollment. 

Associate Membership is available to those who may 
not be qualified for Active Membership. Such mem- 
bers will receive all the usual services but will not be 
eligible to vote or hold office. The annual fee for 
Associate Membership is $2. 

Institutional Membership is provided for schools; 
university extension divisions ; university, college, 
state, county or city departments or bureaus of visual 
instruction ; museums ; libraries ; publishing houses ; 
and other educational or welfare organizations which 
may desire to assist the Department in its work and 
which may desire more than one copy of each of the 
various publications. Each school or other organiza- 
tion which becomes an Institutional member will re- 
ceive, without extra charge, a maximum of five copies 
of each of the publications, including this magazine. 
Each Institutional member shall be permitted to send 
one delegate with voting power, and an unlimited 
number of visiting delegates, to each meeting. The 

April, 19)2 

Page 113 

annual fee for Institutional Membership is $10. 

Contributing Membership provides an opportunity 
for producers, manufacturers or distributors of visual 
instruction materials and equipment; foundations; 
philanthropic groups or individuals to assist the or- 
ganization in prosecuting research and in creating 
greater interest in the possible uses of visual aids 
among schools and other community organizations. 
The suggested annual fee is $50., but this amount may 
be increased at the option of the donor. Those or- 
ganizations which are or may become contributing 
members shall receive special rates on advertising space 
in the annual directory and in other publications of the 
Department in which advertising may be authorized. 
Furthermore, each shall receive, without extra charge, 
a maximum of 25 copies of the annual directory and its 


The following publications will be furnished without 
charge to all members : 

The Educational Screen combined with Visual In- 
struction News (published every month except 

July and August) $2.00 

The Annual Visual Instruction Directory 1.50 

1001— The Blue Book of Non-Theatrical Films. . .75 

"Visual Aids in the Curriculum," pamphlet 25 

Special reports, proceedings, etc (Estimated) .... 1.50 

Total cost to others $6.00 

In addition, Active Members, of whom membership 
in the National Education Association is required, re- 
ceive the interesting and helpful Journal of the 
National Education Association. 


There will be two meetings annually, held at the 
time and place of the annual meeting of the National 
Education Association (Summer) and of the Depart- 
ment of Superintendence of the N. E. A. (Winter). 
All meetings are open to members and visitors. 

Central Office 

For the present, the central office of the Department 
will be maintained at 1812 Illinois Street, Lawrence, 
Kansas. Plans for the future provide for the es- 
tablishment of a clearing house with a staff competent 
to direct research, publish reports, and give advisory 
service to members. Suitable office space for such an 
office has been offered to the Department by the Na- 
tional Education Association. All inquiries directed 

to the Secretary of the Department, at the address as 
given above, will receive prompt attention. 

Branch Organizations 

Inasmuch as it would be impossible for all who may 
be interested in the use of visual and other sensory 
aids to instruction to attend central meetings of the 
1 >cpartment, it has been considered advisable to es- 
tablish branch organizations among the various cities 
and states. The Massachusetts and Metropolitan New 
York branches have been established during the past 
year. Negotiations are under way for the establish- 
ment and development of suitable branch organizations 
in many other cities and states, including Cleveland, 
Chicago, Pittsburgh, upper New York State, Cali- 
fornia, New Jersey, Iowa, Wisconsin, Nebraska, Kan- 
sas, Missouri and Pennsylvania. The branches of 
the Department may meet whenever and wherever they 
choose and will be given assistance in planning and 
executing an active program through each year. 

Membership Application Blank 

Office of the Secretary-Treasurer, 
Department of Visual Instruction & 
National Academy of Visual Instruction, 
1812 Illinois Street, Lawrence, Kansas. 


I herewith make application for n Active D Asso- 
ciate D Institutional n Contributing Membership in 
the Department of Visual Instruction of the National 
Education Association, combined with the National 
Academy of Visual Instruction, covering the period 
of one year from date. 

Check below the preferred date for payment of dues. 

n Remittance attached n First of next month. 





City & State 

I am Q i 
I am not n \ 

a member of the National Education 

NOTE — Make checks payable to the Department of 
Visual Instruction. 

Page 114 

The Educational Screen 



New York State Education (March) "Admini- 
stration and Supervision of Visual Instruction" by 
Mr. Alfred W. Abrams, the sixth article of a series, 
is very practicable and helpful, particularly for school 
principals with whom these two functions generally 
rest. Mr. Abrams mentions a few administrative 
problems which must be met, and what is involved in 
the supervision of visual instruction, giving some sug- 
gestive directions for effective use of pictures. 

School Executives Magazine (March) How the 
use of the radio for instructional purposes has created 
a need for visual aids by the listening pupils, is told 
in "Visual Aids and Educational Radio" by W. C. 
Bagley Jr. of the Columbia Broadcasting System. 
Moving pictures and slides are very useful in prepara- 
tion for the broadcast and for this purpose the Amer- 
ican School of the Air suggests pertinent films in the 
Teacher's Manual they have prepared. 

The New York Times Magazine (February 28) 
"American Civilization Assayed", by Bernard Fay, a 
keen student of American life and history, discusses 
the writer's belief that "Europe needs to examine the 
American way to see if it does not contain, despite 
mistakes, principles that are of definite value to the 
whole world." Included in the illustration-cartoon 
that precedes the article, is Uncle Sam, the Showman, 
with his wares, — Liberty with her torch, machinery 
and belching stacks, the bucking cowboy, gold mines, 
skyscrapers, airplanes, AND — a familiar figure of an- 
other day, bearing a derby, a cane and a pair of enor- 
mous shoes! 

The article begins with several pen pictures, one 
from Brittany, another from a smart Parisian home, 
another from a wealthy house in Passy, yet another 
from a room of gloomy bank Directors, and the last 
from a smug faculty gathering. The closing burden 
of each sketch, be it a Brittany peasant, a bankrupt 
financier, a mother, or the younger generation speak- 
ing is, "That awful American civilization !" The 
author then begins his long and thoroughly delightful 
presentation of America's assets, — her Poe and Whit- 
man "who made Europe think", and her four great 
"myths which have fascinated the European mind : 
the Morgan, the Ford, the Wilson, and the Chaplin 
myths." While the Morgan and Ford myths were for 
good conservative people and young, ambitious, and 
reckless men, respectively, the "Chaplin myth was for 

practically everybody. Before he went to Russia and 
took to thinking Chaplin was really good. His swift 
and charming gestures, his quick gayety that always 
smiled upon sadness, his intelligent meaningless, his 
refined love of the common people evoked exquisite 
dreams, deep feelings, and spoiled nothing. All those 
who were young between 1914 and 1922 loved Chap- 
lin. He was 'American civilization' at its best — the 
vision of an angel bringing to everybody the greetings 
of a witty, kind and melancholy god, who was probably 
a little lazy, but knew, nevertheless, how to create 
lovely human gestures, exquisite movement and fine 
feelings. Nobody, then, really succeeded in describ- 
ing American civilization, but it was pretty well under- 
stood that there was a lot of good in a country that 
could claim Wilson, Ford, Morgan and Charlie Chap- 
lin. No great book was written about it; the man of 
the street did not need it, for he knew — he went to the 
movies." The author then proceeds to discuss how 
the conception shifted its emphasis. We cannot quote 
further, but this complete excerpt considering Mr. 
Chaplin indicates again the importance of that artist 
in the American picture and testifies, as well, to the 
careful discrimination of the writer in presenting his 

School Management (March) "Talking Pictures 
— A New Teaching Aid", by V. C. Arnspiger, reviews 
the films which have been made by educational experts 
for teacher training work. Following these reviews, 
we find a resume of the films produced in the social 
studies and the science group. One realizes, when 
reading Mr. Arnspiger's account, the extent to which 
the talkie is being used and the far greater influence 
that it will, some day, have. 

International Review of Educational Cinematog- 
raphy (January) Always of particular interest to 
our readers is the content of this inestimable publi- 
cation. 'What We Can Expect from the Educational 
Sound Film", by Dr. Walter Giinther, "An Exhibi- 
tion of Mechanical Aids to Learning", by C. P. 
Hankin, the report from the I. I. E. C. Enquiries — 
"Young People's Impressions of War Films", and the 
Department called "Review of Periodicals and News- 
papers" will be of tremendous help to our readers. 
The Review Department is heartening for it recog- 
nizes The Educational Screen as a valuable source 
of information in the field. 

April, 19)2 

Page 115 


Being the Combined Judgments of a National Committee on Current Theatrical Films 

(The Film Estimates, in whole or in part, may be reprinted only by special arrangement with The Educational Screen) 

Alia* the Doctor (Richard Barlhelmess H First 
National) Serious, very linieal medical story. 
Horo sacrifices career to take blame and jail 
sentence for brother's crime. After release, 
parforma emergency operation, and wins back 
happiness for nil. Earnestly acted, but rather 
heavy entertainment. 
A Interesting- Y Interesting C Beyond them 

Amateur Daddy. The (Warner Baxter. Mar- 
ion Nixon i (Fox) Very human and appealing* 
story with charming romance interest. Genial 
hero leaves his engineering work to father a 
pal's four orphan children. I»eset with poverty 
and evil-i Mentioned neighbors. Well-acted, 
convincing, decidedly worthwhile. 
A (iood Y Very g«M>d (' Mature but food 

Are You Listening < Wm Haines. Madge 
,| iM-C-M i tittle merit 

except as far as it i-» an authentic portrayal 

of activities In radio-broadcast tnK studio. 

Haines in non-emart-aleck role. Minor roles 

■ ted in mediocre story. 

topid v Doubtful C No 

Blonde Captive (Australian explorations) 

mbia) Absurd title and publicity for fine 

La in men t and educational film. Elaborate 

picture of primitive life in Australia. No 

pi intelligent vocal explanation by 

Lowell Thomas. White woman, shipwrecked 

years before, mere Interesting incident. 

A— Excellent Y Interesting C— Probably Good 

Broken Wing. The (Leo Carrlllo, Lope Ve- 

lez i i Paramount i Another burlesque, Mexican 
hrtiggurt role. Self-appointed overlord of his 
province. Carrillo is all-powerful but naive. 
Finally loses his beloved girl charmingly played 
by I.upe Veles, to American aviator who 
crashed nearby in storm. Lively. 
A Fair Y— Fairly good Hardly 

But Flesh Is Weak (Robert Montgomery. 
Nora Gregor) iM-d-Mi Sophisticated story of 
engaging, penniless old aristocrat with great 
aversion to work, and his son just like him. 
both hunting a wealthy marriage. Smooth 
acting, novel characters, clever dialog refresh- 
ingly free from wise cracking and cheap sug- 
gestiveness. with charming heroine 
I i.ood of kind Y— Mature C -No 

Carnival Boat (William Boyd) (RKO-Pathe) 
Much exceedingly interesting and instructive 
portrayal of strenuous life and work of lum- 
berjacks in remote mountain forests, splendid 
backgrounds and photography. Otherwise 
merely hectic melodrama that strains after 
thrill with mediocre acting. Show-boat mere 
A— Perhaps Y — Good C Exciting 

Cheaters at Play (Tommy Meighan) (Fox) 
Meighan excellent as reformed crook setting 
out to catch gang of jewel thieves on Atlantic 
liner, among them his own long lost son. 
Shows fine bits on thievery methods. Well 
tangled plot, interest sustained, good comedy 

rlotte Greenwood. 
\ <..x>d of kind Y— Doubtful C— No 

Cohens and Kellys in Hollywood (Sidney and 
Murray) (Universal) Agreeable foolery by the 
old comedy pair, free from slapstick and vul- 
garity uf their former pictures. Real human 
interest story which travesties amusingly Hol- 
lywood production methods and the ups and 
downs of movie prosperity. 
A Fair Y — Amusing A — Amusing 

Estimates are 

given for 3 groups 


-Intelligent Adult 



(15-20 years) 



(under 15 years) 

Bold fared type 

means "recommended" 

Cossacks of the Don (Russian production i 
lAmkinn, Grim, realistic picture of primitive 
>n and crude village life in South Rus- 
sia. Some rather original camera work, but 
direction is clumsy, acting heavy and ludi- 
crously overdone. Rather hectic as entertain- 
A Different Y— Unsuitable C— No 

Crowd Roars. The (James Cagney, Joan 
Blondel | ( Warner ) Professional auto-racing 
melodrama seeking chiefly thrill, sensation and 
endless noise, with some footage on the cheap 
love affairs of very cheap people. Hard boiled 
hero treats 'em rough, including girls and the 
English language. Typical low-caste life. 
A— Hardly Y— Doubtful C— No 

Dancers in the Dark • Miriam Hopkins t (Para- 
mount) Sophisticated stuff about wisecracking 
cabaret-heroine of very checkered past, who 
finds real love in young sax player, defeats 
evil intentions of various rivals — and finally 
'true love" wins. Sex is chief Idea of whole 

A— Hardly Y — Unwholesome C — No 

Disorderly Conduct ( Sally Filers. Spencer 
Tracy) (Fox) Clever, fast picture of romance. 
police and high-life gambling. Hero-policeman 
is engaging grafter, heroine a chronic hut 
fascinating lawbreaker, her father a gambling 
overlord— and all end happily. As police pub- 
licity, very doubtful. 

A— Good of kind Y— Doubtful C— No 

Expert. The (Chic Sale. Dickie Moore) (Para- 
mount) Well-done sentimental story of lively, 
officious old granddad from country, who tries 
living with his city children-in-law but re- 
treats to Home for Aged. Fine role played 
by small boy. Well acted, human, convincing. 
A— Good of kind Y— Amusing C — Amusing 

Final Edition. The (Pat O'Brien. Mae Clarke i 
(Columbia) Above average newspaper-murder- 
mystery yarn, with usual "movie" newspaper 
atmosphere. Good suspense. Heroine cleverly 
gets evidence on elusive crook, wins back her 
reporter job, and also job as wife of city- 

A — Good of kind Y — Amusing 

C — Probably good 

Fireman, Save My Child (Joe £. Brown) 
(Warner) One of Brown's best roles — as local 
fire-chief, baseball hero and inventor, then star 
pitcher on a big league team for whom he 
almost loses the World Series when he hears 
a fire siren, but wins it instead. Good clean 
fun. Misleading title. 
A— Amusing Y Good C— Good 

Freighters of Destiny (Barbara Kent)(RKO- 
Pathe) Western of unusual interest show- 
ing business of wagon-freighting to remote 
hamlets in the Sierras, with good admixture 
of danger, thrill and romance. Notable for 
beautiful mountain scenery and fascinating 
sound effects. 
A— Good of kind Y— Very good C— Good 

Gay Caballero. The (George O'Brien) (Fox) 
Lively western, with rather good plot on the 
Robinhood motif, fast and furious action. 
American pals pose successively as a well- 
known bandit to help the Mexicans and each 
other. Fine settings and photography. Vio- 
lence and excitement only objections for chil- 

A -Good of kind Y— Probably good 

C — Very exciting 

Girl Crasy (Wheeler and Woolsey) (RKO- 
I'tithei Hilarious nonsense-farce about Eastern 
ne'er-do-wells on a Western dude ranch. Typ- 
ical hokum and horseplay, with less vulgarity 
than usual. Laughable for all admirers of 
Wheeler and Woolsey but hardly their best 
A — Depends on taste A Amusing C — Perhaps 

Hotel Continental ( Peggy Shannon, Theo- 
dore von Eltr) (Tiffany) Well done, sophisti- 
cated, romantic crook melodrama laid in fam- 
ous old hotel on its last nfght. Hero a famous 
'ler seeking loot concealed years before, 
charming heroine also a crook with scarlet 
past, both made admirable at the end. 
A— Good of kind Y— Doubtful C — No 

Impatient Maiden. The (Mae Clarke. Lew 
Ay res i (Universal) Blase' heroine approves 
love, sneers at marriage, but young ambulance 
doctor changes her ideas and she his. Very 
clinical operation the climax. Well acted but 
rather banal and improbable story. 
A— Hardly Y— Doubtful C— No 

Lore of the Ring (Jack Dempsey) (State 
Rights, Glorifies prize-ring prowess as great 
American sport, showing big moments of a 
dozen fights, particularly the Knockouts, with 
very crude vocal accompaniment throughout. 
Primarily a blatant ballyhoo for Dempsey'* 

A — Depends on taste Y — Doubtful 

C — Better not 

Michael and Mary (English production) 
(Universal) Excellent screening, with dignity 
and taste, of A. A. Milne problem play. Two 
fine, earnest people marry risking bigamy 
under rigid English divorce laws. Beautifully 
acted and spoken, strong dramatic value, con- 
vincing characters and conclusion. Slow 
tempo of real life. 

A— Very good Y — Probably good 

C — Beyond them 

One Hour With Yon (Chevalier. Jeannette 
McDonald i ( Paramount) Artistic, highly so- 
phisticated Parisian comedy, skillfully directed 
and deftly acted by notable cast. Deliberately 
suggestive, amusing portrayal of husband 
genuinely in love with his wife but still suscep- 
tible to artful vamp. Decidedly adult. 
A— Very good of kind Y- -Better not C— No 

Pleasure (Conway Tearle) (Art Class) Ama- 
teurish production in which author, unhappily 
married to an unfaithful wife, falls in love 
with a model. Situation is cleared up when 
wife leaves with another man and gets di- 
vorce. Cast is too good for slow and arti- 
ficial story. 
A— No Y— No C— No 

Police Court (Henry B. Walthall. Leon Jan- 
ney) (Monogram) Second rate picture with 
serious intent. Human-interest story of de- 
voted little son of drunken father who was 
formerly great actor. Slow-moving action anil 
mawkish sentiment at times. Well-acted but 
more depressing than entertaining. 
A Mediocre Y— Perhaps C— Unsuitable 

(Concluded on page 124) 

Page 116 

The Educational Screen 




The Movie Situation 

Report to the Publicity Group of the World 
Service of the Methodist Episcopal Church 


MOTION pictures are very much to the front these 
days. Commercially this is attested by the vast 
sums being invested in production of films and in 
movie houses; also by the crowds which flock to the 

Educationally, there are several different groups 
making a study of motion pictures for use in the 
schools, and many films are being produced for this 

Into the church life has naturally overflowed some 
of the enthusiasms from the commercial and educa- 
tional fields. Without artificial stimulation requests 
for information regarding the sources of film for 
church purposes have been on the increase. The 
reasons for the growing demand on the part of our 
churches are well known. 

First, there is no question but that good movies are 
interesting. They hold attention. People like action. 
Probably this is the biggest lure of the movies. 

Second, there is a growing number of projection 
machines either in the possession of the churches or 
available for their use. 

Third, an entirely new interest has been developed 
in the past few years by the introduction of amateur 
movie cameras and projectors. The development in 
the church field has been almost entirely with the 
16 mm. film. 

Fourth, the few films now available for use by our 
churches have acted as an appetizer, creating a demand 
for more. 

Our embarrassment is that there is comparatively 
little available in the way of good films for the 

There are several distributors booking films for 
church and school purposes. The subjects consist 
mainly of scenics, industrials, comedies, dramas and 
1 few moral and religious subjects. For the most 
part these latter are admitted to be the poorest of the 
group. There is actually, very little of good religious 

film available for Sunday church use. But the demand 
is strong. Some groups are seriously working on this 
problem at this time. 

Motion picture film is now distributed in two stand- 
ard sizes, the 35 mm. which is known as standard film, 
and the 16 mm. or amateur size. The advantages and 
disadvantages of these two sizes can be listed as 
follows : 

35 mm. Film 

This is the standard professional film. For use in 
the largest auditoriums it is the more satisfactory size. 

Its disadvantages are that it is more expensive in 
first cost, handling, repair, and shipping. The sad fact 
is that many projection machines owned by churches 
are in poor condition and are often handled by ama- 
teurs who know little of the adjustments. The re- 
sults are disastrous to the film. 

These projection machines are, of course, more ex- 
pensive than 16 mm. projectors, and in some states 
require booths. 
16 mm. Film 

Its advantages are : comparatively low cost of pro- 
duction, handling, repair, and distribution. Experience 
this far is that there is less wear and tear on the film. 
The machines are simpler to thread and operate and 
are cheaper to buy. Models for home use or small 
church rooms can be purchased for less than $100.00 
and models for church auditoriums or halls for from 
$150.00 to $300.00. The most reliable of the standard 
35 mm. machines are from $250.00 up. The fact that 
an increasing number of individuals are purchasing 
16 mm. cameras and projectors enlarges the field for 
16 mm. films. 

Amateur cameras are being used effectively in film- 
ing local stories of church activities which because of 
their local atmosphere create considerable interest. 
Missionaries are increasingly using 16 mm. cameras 
to visualize their experiences and tell the story of their 

April, 19)2 

Page 117 

While in the past 16 mm. projectors have been 
limited to use in smaller auditoriums, manufacturers 
pave been making rapid steps in producing machines 
capable of giving much better illumination, and there- 
fore larger, more brilliant pictures. 

The problem of the distribution of film is a serious 

In the first place, there is the problem of storage. 

standard film there are certain fire regulations 

which prohibit the handling of film in certain areas 

and which regulate method of storage and handling 

in other sections. 

In the second place there must be inspection. It is 
a matter of general experience that a film can not be 
booked on a circuit. The only safe way is to have 
it inspected and repaired between each showing. 

There is always the personal factor to be reckoned 
with, namely of the thoughtlessness of some pastors 
in neglecting to return film on schedule and the con- 
sequent disappointment of the next booker. This often 
leads to unpleasant complications. 

In the case of the 16 mm. film there are not so many 
utions on their handling, nor are they so much 
in need of repair, though they always must be in- 
spected. They can be shipped by parcel post without 
il shipping can as is required for the standard 


We would like to make the following recommenda- 
tions : 

1. That the various church agencies consider ser- 
iously the question of procuring a series of films in 
the interest of their work. 

2. That careful attention should be given to the 
quality of the film produced both from point of view 
of photography and of interest. A film which hangs 
together on a human interest story gets its message 
over most effectively. 

3. That in producing new professional films a nega- 
tive should preferably be made standard size and from 
it the positive prints either in 35 or 16 mm. can be 
made. This recommendation is based upon the tech- 
nical fact that better 16 mm. prints can be made from 
35 mm. negatives than from 16 mm., also that it is not 
good photographic practice to make 35 mm. enlarge- 
ments from 16 mm. negatives. 

4. While recognizing their limitations, we believe 
that for general church use 16 mm. prints should be 
made up for distribution, because of the growing sale 
of 16 mm. machines, because of the relative cheapness 
of production and because of ease of handling, distri- 
bution, and use by amateurs. 

5. At the same time at least some of them should be 
put out in standard size both for the purpose of large 
conferences or gatherings and also for use of the many 
churches already equipped with standard projection 


6. That we approve the principle of having certain 
general religious films produced which can be used by 
all denominations and that we put ourselves on record 
as being ready to consider any proposition for the 
production or circulation of such films. 

7. That, in co-operation with other existing agencies, 
a list of film exchanges dealing with films for church 
and educational use should be prepared and printed 
for distribution to the churches. 

Salvation Army Uses Movies 

Capt. Knutson of the Salvation Army in Los Angeles 
states that his organization has just purchased a Filmo 
projector and is using it in connection with meetings 
in Los Angeles. He states that there has been a big 
increase in attendance as a result. He is very opti- 
mistic as to what can be done by the Salvation Army 
and churches by means of showing motion pictures. 


is serving the 
world with 
the best en- 

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dealer about 
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information on the 
greatest and best se- 
lection of current pic- 
tures can be secured 
by addressing Dept. 
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Corp., 729 Seventh 
Ave., New York City. 
Write for Free Cata- 
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Page 118 

The Educational Screen 


Director, Scarborough School, Scarborough-on-Hudson, N. Y. 

Annual Visual Aids Convention Held in San Diego, California 


THE annual spring convention of The Visual Aids 
Section of California Teachers' Association, south- 
ern section, was held at the Visual Instruction Center 
in Balboa Park, San Diego, California on March 18 
and 19. 

Beginning Friday morning, guided visits were made 
to an elementary and a junior high school where visual 
aids were being used as an integral part of the day's 
lesson. During the early part of the afternoon tours 
were made to the various museums, Fine Arts Gal- 
lery, and the zoo. The program for the day was 
closed by two nationally known speakers of the pho- 
tographic field. Mr. Edward P. Curtis of the East- 
man Kodak Company, Rochester, New York, chose 
as his subject "Photography, the Language of the 
Modern Age." Mr. J. A. Dubray of the Bell and 
Howell Company, Chicago, Illinois, gave a very inter- 
esting talk on "How Motion Pictures Are Made 

Saturday was devoted to open forum discussions. 
The sessions were divided into two sections directed 
by leaders. A short period was allowed to each sched- 
uled speaker and time was given after each talk for 
discussion by the audience group. One section, under 
the heading of "Today and Tomorrow's Program for 
City Schools," discussed problems of budgeting for 
city schools, equipment standards, parent-teacher co- 
operation in a visual education program, and the value 
of teacher-made film subjects. At the same time, an- 
other group under the heading of "Visual Education 
Problems of the Rural School," discussed problems 
of finance, equipment standards, production and col- 
lections of individual schools, sources of free and 
economical aids, and the survey of visual education 
made by the National City school district. A step of 
progress in the southern part of the state was shown 
by the newly organized visual education department 
of the San Diego county schools library. 

The two groups united for discussion on teacher 
training in visual education. Mr. J. W. Ault, Dean of 
Education and Principal of the Training School, San 

Diego State Teachers College, gave an interesting talk 
on "Visual Education Courses Offered to Teachers in 
Training and to Teachers in Service." Miss Annette 
Glick, Assistant Director, Visual Education Division, 
Los Angeles city schools, summarized the report of 
the committee on teacher training in visual aids, and 
made recommendations for the extension of such 
courses in all state universities and colleges. 

A very interesting paper was read by Mr. E. D. 
Robertson, Vice-president of Stillfilm Company, for 
the Association of Visual Aid Manufacturers and 
Dealers on "The Economic Value of Classroom Vis- 
ual Aids." Considerable space was given to the as- 
sociate (commercial) members of the association for 
the display and demonstration of latest developments 
in visual aids and equipment. 

One of the highlights of the convention was a visit 
to the scene of an actual filming by the San Diego 
High School Camera Club of an original student play, 
which is being produced by the camera club in col- 
laboration with the drama department of the San 
Diego Senior high school. Also, for the first time at 
a visual aids convention, photographs made by student 
members of the newly organized high school camera 
club and the John Muir Technical high school of Pasa- 
dena, were exhibited and received much favorable 

Several important matters were discussed and voted 
upon during the business meeting, which was held at 
the close of the sessions. Under the heading of "new 
business" a letter was read from Mr. Ellsworth C. 
Dent, Secretary-Treasurer of the National Academy 
of Visual Instruction, inviting the association to be- 
come a section of the newly combined national visual 
education organization now known as The Visual 
Instruction Department of the N. E. A. The proposi- 
tion was generally well received and the executive 
committee was instructed to make a further investi- 
gation of the plan with the idea in mind of a possible 

The social events of Fridav included a lawn lunch- 

April, 19} 2 

Page 119 

eoa under the trees in Bullion Park and an informal 
dinner and dance at F.l Cortez Motel. During the 
ning Mr. Walter R. Eiepner, Superintendent of San 
Diego City Schools, gave an address of welcome to 
the visiting delegates, and Mr. C. B. Baldwin, Super- 
intendent of Huntington Beach City Schools, gave the 
mse. Saturday afternoon the visitors enjoyed a 
boat ride trip which was a guided tour of the "Harbor 
of the Sun." 

A Modern Geography Room 

\ I.ondon headmaster describes the special room in 
a new school building which is to be devoted to the 
teaching of Geography exclusively. 

"All the windows will have close-fitting dark blinds 
to enable the lantern to he used in the daytime. What 
I hope to have is an epidiascope. This remarkable ap- 
paratus throws on the screen images, in color, not only 
of pictures and maps, but also of objects. Geographi 
eal specimens may he effectively shown with this 

"The front wall facing the class must be almost en- 
tirely blackboard! for plenty of illustrations will be 
led. There must he a suspended support for maps 
similar to a clothes drier in the home — capable of be- 
ing raised and lowered by means of a pulley. Several 
large globes will be needed, one plain, one with land 
outline, and one with physical and political features. 
\ . < '. Spary, in his recent book on the subject, from 
which I have obtained several ideas, recommends an 
equipment for suspending these globes in front of the 
class at any height required, which is a better plan 
than keeping them on their stands. Suspended, they 
provide a useful means, in conjunction with the lan- 
tern, of demonstrating day and night, the incidence of 
the sun's rays, the seasons, the other world and astro- 
nomical facts. They have the advantage of showing 
the earth more nearly as it actually is, suspended, not 
rigidly supported." 

Association Advocates Teaching 
History by Film 

Teaching history by motion pictures is an improve- 
ment on the traditional method of teaching, according 
report just issued by the Historical Association of 
London, in which Miss Frances Consitt compiled the 
findings of three years of experiments in schools of 
various grades. 

The investigation is said to have shown that the film 
is particularly valuable for older children in senior 
and secondary schools, while pupils below the age of 

Beautiful Art Titles, 3c a Word 

20 border styles available wilhciut extra chame. K words or less 
per title. Ha, Kxlra words 8c. All titles made extra long to 
permit thorough reading by children. Quality and excellence 
of laboratory work guaranteed. Quick service. Writ* for illus- 
trated folder. Address Oept. DP. 

ART TITLE GUILDE— 4208 N. Leavitt St., Chicago 

Let Us Bid or Estimate On Your 

YOUR BUDGET for VISUAL AIDS will go much farther when 

you purchase your material from us: 

Motion Picture Films Glass Slides — Filmslides 

35 mm. and 16 mm. Widths Sets for Every Subject 

Stereopticons, Cameras, Projectors, Screens, 

And All Accessories 

Talking Picture Equipment and Special Attachments. 

Write for Catalogs and quotations. 

If your material is obtained through competitive bidding, 

please include us in your bidders' list. 





Tell Stories 

Learn how to make your camera become a 
skilled story teller. It's all in understanding its 
capacities and limitations. 

There is joy in making good photographs . . . 
Read how others do it. Subscribe to that beau- 
tiful, monthly magazine. 

Camera Craft 

It's devoted to photography. $2.00 a year, 
sample on request. 


703 Market Street, San Francisco, California 

Page 120 

The Educational Screen 

nine derive less advantage from the moving pictures 
than from oral lessons. 

As regards the makeup of the film itself, tests have 
shown that interest centers on action rather than on 
setting. Films of historical novels are not recom- 

mended, and the expensive spectacular film is also 
thought likely to prove unsuitable. The investigation 
has shown the need for scenes arranged in a definite 
sequence and selected for the definite purpose of his- 
tory teaching. 

Metal Shelf Divider 

The sheet-iron shelf divider illustrated, 
designed by the Visual Education Divi- 
sion, Los Angeles, has been found most 
successful for housing stereographs, 
slides, and flat picture sets, as the divider 
is constructed to slip over the standard 
size shelf and may be shifted about at 

A label holder is spot-welded upon the 
face of the U-shaped clamp which grips 
the shelf, into which typed or printed 
titles may be slipped. Shifting may be 
done instantaneously, and the upright 
metal strip is sufficiently strong to hold 
apart relatively heavy objects. 

Where, in order to conserve space, pic- 
ture sets are stood on end, instead of flat, a second 
metal divider may be slipped upon the shelf above so 



Technical and Nontechnical 

With Synchronized Sound or Silent 

The General Electric Company, through its Visual 
Instruction Section, has produced many educational 
pictures of both a technical and nontechnical nature. 
These films are intended for exhibition in the interest 
of education, public welfare, and commercial develop- 
ment. They deal with the electrical industry, its ac- 
complishments, and its relation to other industries. 
General Electric films — 35- and 16-mm. silent and 
35-mm. sound — are lent free of charge except for 
transportation costs. Write to the nearest of the fol- 
lowing General Electric offices for a copy of Motion 
Picture Catalog, GES-402B. 

1 River Road, 925 Euclid Ave., 

Schenectady, N. Y. Cleveland, Ohio 

140S Locust St., 

Philadelphia, Pa. 329 Aider St., 

230 S. Clark St., Portland, Omron 

Chicaeo. 111. 187 Spring st , N . w ._ 

200 S. Main St., Atlanta, Ga. 

Salt Lake City, Utah 

1801 N. Lamar St., Special Distributor — 

Dallas, Texas 'Department of Visual Instruction, 

84 State St., University of California, 

Boston, Mass. Berkeley, Calif. 

*A small service charge is made for films ordered from this office. 



that the two upright edges come together, or approxi- 
mately so, in the form of a wall. 

Lantern Slides 

Accurately Graded 
Photographically Perfect 


First Through Eighth Years 


First Six Years 


Elementary and Junior High 


Fourth Through Eighth Years 

We also carry a full line of projection apparatus, 
screens and accessories. Send for Catalogue. 

Your correspondence invited 

Eye Gate House, Inc. 

330 West 42nd Street 

New York, N. Y. 

April, 19)2 

Socialization from the Classroom Moving Picture 

Page 121 


M(>VI\'<; Picture-; were used for the pupils of 
the Adjustment Department of Collinwood 
Junior High School, Cleveland. ( Hii. >. to correlate 
with classroom work in social studies. The re- 
sponse from classroom picture was noted on a 
group of 8B2 skirls. This section was the lowest 
ot the SI', grade, ami was composed of girls who 
were very retarded in their mental capacity. These 
girl- have actual ages of fourteen and fifteen years, 
and a mental age of hut eight, nine, or ten y< 
Tin- majority of them have very poor home train- 
ing, coming mostly from foreign homes. They 
often have a low standard of morality. School for 
them is a Gaily compulsion, until they reach the 
longed-for age of sixteen, when they can get a "job," 
acquire some "classy" clothes, and a more ample 
Supply of cosmetics. 

The feature presented was the Pioneer Women, 
which portrayed the part played by the pioneer 
women in such a frontier settlement as Boonesboro. 
The class had previously made a study of the move- 
ment of the fust settlers into the West <luring the 

eighteenth century and especially of the settlement 
of Kentucky and Tennessee. 

At the next meeting of the class, the film was 
discussed. One of the first reactions of the girls 
was the fact that "men alone did not win battles." 
They realized that it would have been impossible 
m the wilderness and hold it. if it had not been 
for the quiet and plodding toil of the brave pioneer 
women at home, performing their duties even when 
the dangers and disappointments were great. The 
girls noted that the help of these courageous women 
in preserving their simple homes, encouraged these 
sturdy men in the opening and conquering of the 
western territory. 

Another thing that impressed these girls was the 
plain character of the pioneer women. One girl 
said, "I just loved to look at Mrs. Richardson (a 
pioneer's wife)." 

Before the class realized a discussion of character 
and social traits was substituted for the history les- 

Russia Advances 
Troops Toward Harbin! 

After seeing the above in the newspapers, the whole class wants to know about 
Harbin. Here is a real incentive for teaching the geography of 


Are you prepared to meet the op- 
portunity? STILLFILM, INC., has 
visual aids covering all of these and 
many other countries. 

Write for information, it will cost 
you nothing. 


4701-4705 West Pico Boulevard 

hrom "Still film .'ii China 

Page 122 

The Educational Screen 


Glass & Film Slides 

U. S. History — 20 units 
Ancient & Medieval History — 12 units 

Replete with Maps 

Write for bulletins describing this most 
up-to-date teaching material. 



"America's Oldest Producer of Educational 
Projection Slides" 

Another girl said. "I never thought that just 
sticking around your home, and doing the house 
work could mean so much. Why the heroine in the 
movies always does something thrilling!" 

They then discussed some of the tasks they had 
to do at home after school, and decided that after 
all, these tasks weren't so burdensome, since the 
work was for their homes and families. The pio- 
neer men risked and often gave their lives, and the 
pioneer women made their great sacrifices, too. 

The charm of these women was referred to. The 
girls decided that fancy clothes of the party type 
were not suitable for the school girl of today. Sev- 
eral times girls in the class had been requested to 
come to school in clothing more suitable for the 
classroom instead of their sister's cast off party 
gowns. Many times too, they had been sent out 
to remove an over-supply of cheap cosmetics. The 
girls remarked too, that these pioneer women were 
attractive and charming in their simple colonial 
type of dresses, and when the period closed these 
girls' who had always adorned themselves with poor 
suited clothing and over-supply of cheap jewelry 
and cosmetics, suggested the adoption of a stand- 
ard school uniform. 

The practical results of the showing of this pic- 
ture did not end here. A great desire was expressed 
for more pictures of that type. A vigilance commit- 
tee of three was formed in this group. Occasionally 
a girl was requested to report to school the next 
day arrayed in a more suitable manner, and several 
highly-colored complexions were removed at the 
request of the committee, with the mutual consent 
of the class. 

Schools Extravagant Today 

(Concluded from page 104) 

good enough for my children then". But we are prone 
to forget "then" and "now" are separated by a period 
of years — a whole generation. They cannot mean the 
same time nor the same conditions. The schools of 
our childhood would be as ludicrously anachronistic 
in our present-day state of progress as was King 
Arthur's Court to the Connecticut Yankee. 

Let's quit forgetting all the intervening years of 
development, and say instead : "What was good enough 
for me then is not good enough for my children now." 
The best that can be had today is none too good for my 
children nozu, just as the best that could be had yester- 
day was none too good for me then." Who wants to 
drive spikes with a tack hammer anyway? 

News and Notes 

(Concluded from page 111) 

motion, and touch projection as a guide to visual 

A series of charts bearing unfinished outlines of ob- 
jects is introduced during the training-process, so that 
the individual may trace with one hand and eye a 
picture seen through the stereoscope by the opposite 

Forty-eight exercises are included in the experi- 
mental steps of visual aid, and the patient is urged 
to complete them at a pace dictated by his own ability. 
Stereoscopic experiments were conducted for twelve 
years before the present visual apparatus was com- 

Movies Teach Golf Course Maintenance 

According to Golfdom Magazine, the Midwest 
Greenkeepers' Association has produced a two-reel mo- 
tion picture on golf course maintenance methods which 
will be loaned to other organizations of greenkeepers 
or to golf clubs, without charge, as part of the Mid- 
west's educational program. 

The film, which was made with a 16 mm. camera, is 
called Divots from a Greenkeeper's Day and shows the 
extent and character of work carried on in maintaining 
a metropolitan district golf course. We understand 
that greenkeepers' organizations or golf clubs can se- 
cure prints of the film by presenting requests to R. N. 
Johnson, President, Midwest Greenkeepers' Associa- 
tion, Medinah Country Club, Medinah, Illinois. 

April, 19)2 

Page 123 


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Silent cS* Talking 

Page 124 

The Educational Screen 

Film Estimates 

(Concluded from page 115) 

Prestige (Ann Harding, Adolphe Menjou) 
(RKO-Pathe) The lovely actress and fine cast 
wasted on hectic and depressing picture of 
horror and suffering in jungle prison camp in 
tropic India. Degenerate humanity, torrid 
heat, hard liquor, sex, etc. Aims primarily 
at morbid thrills, and succeeds. 
A — Hardly Y — By no means C — No 

Shopworn (Barbara Stanwyck) (Columbia) 
Trite story of rich youth in love with waitress 
to whom mother violently objects. Misunder- 
standings and separation — heroine has liaisons 
and stage career — final reconciliation to which 
even mother contributes. Stanwyck's acting 
a redeeming feature. 
A — Ordinary Y — Unsuitable C — No 

Should a Doctor Tell? (English production) 
(Regal) Edgar Wallace story of the complex 
consequences of an early mis-step by the hero- 

ine, absurdly exploited as "daring and sexy''. 
Mostly well acted, slow in tempo and not sen- 
sational, and quite un-Hollywood in dignity 
and convincingness. A serious problem play. 
A — Rather good Y — Passable C — Beyond them 

Sky Devils (Spencer Tracy, William Boyd) 
(U. A.) Fast and furious burlesque of army 
life in American aviation corps in Great War. 
Wildly improbable. Incessant slang, wise- 
cracks, bad English. Extraordinary air-stunts, 
hair-raising feats, constant laughs. Low com- 
edy at its best. 

A — Hilarious 

Y — Amusing 

C — Good but exciting 

Steady Company (June Clyde, Norman Fos- 
ter) (Universal) Rather wholesome little prize- 
fight picture, with two overlong and violent, 
ring fights, otherwise showing a human and 
humorous romance of a fine little telephone 
girl and a sturdy young truck-driver with 
"champ" ambitiona and with better chances 
for success at it than at anything else. 
A — Hardly Y — Passable C— Hardly 

Tarzan the Ape Man (Johnny Weismullen 
(M-G-M) One of the most fantastic and sensa- 

tional thrillers yet made, laid amid striking 
African scenery, with notable animal pho- 
tography. Bizarre masterpiece of technique, 
with trick shots and faked effects faultlessly 
done. Disregards probability and scientific 
truth to get maximum thrills. Unusual, inter- 
esting, but educational value very doubtful. 
A — Notable of kind Y— Thrilling C— No 

Wayward (Nancy Carroll, Richard Arlen) 
(Paramount) Feeble repetition of old theme. 
Snobbish mother opposes son's marriage to 
chorus girl, who fights back and wins out. 
Poor dialog, and some weak acting especially 
by Arlen, are no help to trite story. List- 
less production. 
A — Mediocre Y — Worthless C — No 

Young Bride (Helen Twelvetrees, Eric Lin- 
den) (RKO) Fine, intelligent heroine buried 
in false story and welter of cheap people. 
Supposed to love vacuous, blatantly conceited 
hero and the marriage to turn out happily- 
slang-stuffed dialog, cheap cafe and dance-hall 
background. General public will think it 
A— Cheap Y — Better not C — No 

Summary of Proceedings -Visual Education Section 

Pennsylvania State Teachers College Faculty Conference March 21-23, 1932, Harrisburg 

THE Visual Education Section, which held its meet- 
' ings in the new Education Building, was attended 
by eighteen State Teachers College faculty members, 
five representatives from Accredited Colleges, and five 
members of the Department of Public Instruction. The 
general theme for discussion was the final revision of 
the content of the Course of Study for Visual Educa- 
tion in State Teachers Colleges. 

It was the unanimous opinion of those in attendance 
that visual education has made rapid strides during the 
past five years. 

It was unanimously decided that the core curriculum 
of the Visual-Sensory Aids Course should consist of 
the following elements common to practically all sub- 
jects : Research; Historical Background; Verbalism; 
Projectors, still and motion picture — housing, care, 
technique; School Journeys — organizing, conducting, 
checking; Objects -Specimens -Models — assembling, 
bousing, care, sources ; Museum Procedure ; Pictorial 
Materials — standards for evaluating, mounting and 
filing of flats, housing and care of stereographs, mak- 
ing lantern slides, mending films and film-slides, hous- 
ing and care of slides and films, technique for all ; 
Photography — still and motion picture camera tech- 
niques ; Blackboard and Bulletin-board technique ; Ad- 
ministering and Budgeting Visual Materials ; Radio- 
Vision — apparatus, procedures, programs, etc. ; Bib- 

It was a common belief of those present that ef- 
fective instruction depends upon a knowledge of the 
above common elements and skill in the use of visual 
aids ; it is, therefore, recommended that persons pre- 
paring to teach in the schools of this Commonwealth 

should be required to take the course which has been 
developed by this group. 

A permanent committee consisting of Newton Ker- 
stetter of California, Wilber Emmert of Indiana, L. C. 
Krebs of Shippensburg, and Paul G. Chandler of Mil- 
lersville, was appointed to continually revise the Course 
of Study and circulate pertinent visual education in- 
formation to all visual instructors within the Common- 
wealth. Miss Ruth Barrett of Edinboro was made 
secretary of this committee. 

In view of the fact that visual education is a man- 
datory course in State Teachers Colleges, and the fur- 
ther fact that experimental studies have revealed im- 
portant values for visual-sensory aids, the conference 
members believe that: 

1. The results of all experimental studies in the field 
of visual education together with an outline of the 
course of study adopted should be published by the 
Department of Public Instruction for the benefit of 
the visual education instructors and those taking 
visual education courses. 

2. State Teachers, and Accredited Colleges should place 
special stress on the use of visual-sensory aids in 
instruction and learning ; and as a practical appli- 
cation of this emphasis, faculty members should be 
encouraged to master still projector and 16 mm. 
motion picture techniques. 

3. The Visual Education Division of the Department 
of Public Instruction should be requested to develop 
a collection of objects-specimens-models that will 
serve as a model for the (a) elementary schools, 
(b) secondary schools of the State. 

April, J 93 2 

Page 125 


Where the commercial fir mi — whose activities have an important bearing on progress in the visual field — 
art free to tell their story in their own words. The Educational Screen is glad to reprint here, within nec- 
essary space limitations, such material as seems to have most informational and news value to our readers. 

The Franklin Institute Eclipse Projector 


A VISUAL aid for showing eclipses of the sun 
has been developed by James Stokley, associ- 
ate director of the Franklin Institute of Philadel- 
phia. The unit consists of a device invented by Mr. 
Stokley for projecting images on a translucent 
n. The construction of the device permits 
continuous reproduction on the screen of three types 
of eclipses, < 1) partial, (2) annular and (3) total. 

In Figure 1 is shown the device with cover re- 
moved. This consists of three projectors, A, B, 
and (', mounted side by side. Illumination in each 
projector is by a 500 watt incandescent lamp. Pro- 
jector A is used to project a circle of light through 
the screen, representing the sun, and is fitted with 
a circular disc, D, on which are mounted circular 
rubber discs E. When in operation the disc, D, 
revolves and the rubber discs, E, pass before the 
ray of light from the lamp, throwing a shadow on 
the screen. The size of the rubber discs vary and 

Wm^knmmT ' 


nrf . - M 


\sf. r , 



Figure 1 

being placed in different positions produce different 
screen effects. In the partial eclipse one of the rub- 
lie r discs produces a shadow which is preceded and 
followed by a crescent of light as it moves across 
the screen. In the annular eclipse the moon's 

shadow moves across the sun until only a circle of 
light remains on the screen. 

Both the partial and annular eclipses are pro- 
duced by means of projector A. The most interest- 
ing eclipse, total eclipse, is represented through the 
use of all three projectors. Figure 2 shows the suc- 
cessive stages of this eclipse as represented on the 

Figure 2 

screen. At stage 1 the moon is moving across the 
face of the sun. This is accomplished by means of 
projector A. When the shadow has fully covered 
the sun projector C is automatically turned on and 
by a perforated slide, G, the Bailey's Beads effect 
is produced as shown at stage 2. This represents 
the sun rays flashing through the valleys on the 
moon's surface. This is instantly followed by the 
corona effect, stage 3, and which is accomplished 
by projector B moving into action with a special 
colored slide, H. The result here is very beautiful, 
the brilliant flames and great bands of light show- 
ing around the dark shadow of the moon. As the 
moon starts to move away the Bailey's Beads ap- 
pear at the right, stage 4, and then the crescent of 
1'ght grows until the full sun is again depicted. 

The projector device was made by Bausch & 
Lomb Optical Company of Rochester to Mr. Stok- 
ley 's design and specifications. The construction 
of the complete unit required great care and ac- 
curacy. The special slide for the corona was made 
by C. W. Briggs Company. The moon disc on the 
slide had to measure exactly 1.385 inches and the 
coloring was made to Mr. Stokley 's specifications. 

This eclipse projector is the only one of its kind 
in the world and will be used in the new Museum 
of Franklin Institute where it will be kept in con- 
tinuous operation when the Museum is open to the 

Page 126 

The Educational Screen 

public. This unit has aroused a great deal of in- 
terest and several other large museums have indi- 
cated their desire to obtain one of these units. 

Burton Holmes to Record Films 

Burton Holmes Lectures, Inc., the internationally- 
known motion picture lecture bureau and the fore- 
most producer of the so-called travelogue type of 
screen subjects in the world, has contracted for the 
installation of RCA Victor Photophone recording 
equipment. Under the provisions of the contract 
entered into between the two companies, Burton 
Holmes Lectures, Inc., becomes an RCA Victor Com- 
pany licensee and hereafter will record its sound mo- 
tion picture product by the Photophone system. For 
many years the Burton Holmes silent product was 
released through Paramount. At present and until 
next September, the current releases of twelve sound 
picture programmes are distributed by the Metro- 
Goldwyn Mayer Pictures Corporation. Future releases 
will be determined prior to the expiration of the 
existing contract. 

In addition to maintaining a complete recording 
studio and laboratories for the production of standard 
size 35 millimeter sound motion pictures at its head- 
quarters in Chicago, Burton Holmes Lectures, Inc. 
immediately will begin the production of 16 millimeter 
sound pictures for non-theatrical exhibition through 
the medium of the recently introduced RCA Victor 
Photophone portable sound-on-film reproducing equip- 
ment. Having upwards of 7,000,000 feet of standard 
size 35 millimeter negative in its vaults, among which 
are more than 2,000,000 feet that have never been 
publicly distributed, a vast library of subjects of ines- 
timable value to schools, churches and other non- 
theatrical institutions is made available. 

"With the introduction of the new RCA Victor 
Photophone 16 millimeter sound equipment, the re- 
production of hundreds of subjects is made imme- 
diately possible" said Hilles V. Montgomery, of Bur- 
ton Holmes Lectures, Inc. "The field for the distri- 
bution of such subjects is almost boundless, and our 
facilities, combined with those of the RCA Victor 
Company, will soon bring about the production of 
hundreds of subjects and make them available for 
early distribution. We have more geographical nega- 
tive than any organization in the world, and when it 
comes to subjects of historical importance, we prob- 
ably can go further back than any motion picture pro- 
ducing company. We can cover practically every 
event of outstanding significance as far back as the 
days when the late Czar of Russia's reign was brought 

to its sudden end. One of the principal activities upon 
which we will embark without delay will be the reduc- 
tion of many existing 35 millimeter subjects to 16 mil- 
limeter with accompanying sound. Before the end of 
the current year a large and impressive library will 
have been produced." 

Sound Equipment and Films 

Educational Talking Film Company, Chicago, is 
now offering a complete line of portable 16 mm. sound- 
on-disc projectors, 35 mm. sound-on-film projectors, 
and educational talking films for schools, universities, 
churches, etc., on the following subjects — Science, 
Geography, Music, Civics, Economics, Physics, Biol- 
ogy, Natural History, Astronomy, Vocational Guid- 
ance, Social Science, Teacher Training, Physical 
Education, Physiology, Arithmetic, Protestant and 
Catholic Education Series, Scenic Travelogue, and 
numerous others on 16 mm. stock with sound-on-disc, 
and 35 mm. sound-on-film safety stock. 

They offer 16 mm. projection owners a popular 
price sound-on-disc attachment which will enable them 
to take advantage of the fine subjects obtainable. These 
converters are made in two distinct styles, one to play 
through the radio amplifier ; the other can be obtained 
with a high grade amplifier and speaker. Either of 
these designs can be used also for microphone attach- 
ment, thus adding a public address system to its uses. 
These products are reasonably priced and can be pur- 
chased for cash or on time payments. 

The Educational Talking Film Company also 
handles high grade conversion equipment for convert- 
ing 35 mm. silent to sound, as well as Photo Electric 
Cells, Amplifiers, Dynamic and Magnetic Speakers, 
Lenses, Accoustical Installations, Microphones, Pub- 
lic Address Systems, Records, Recording Phonograph 
for making records, Screens, Motion Picture Cameras, 
Turntables, and numerous other items — in fact every- 
thing that is used in connection with visual and sound 

The Educational Talking Film Company is the free 
loan distributing agency of the well known sound pro- 
ducers of motion pictures, Visugraphic Pictures Corpo- 
ration, and are distributing free such features as Coast 
to Coast in 48 Hours featuring Col. Lindbergh, Broaci- 
zvay Limited, One Day, Wings of Tomorrow, Happy 
Landings, Rollin' down the Rio and numerous others. 

This Company is opening several distributing offices 
in a number of western States and educational centers, 
enabling the users of their products to obtain better 
service than heretofore offered. The Chicago office 
is located in the Wrigley Building. 

April, 19)2 

Page 127 

Additional Material on Washington 

Announcement has already been made in this De- 
partment of the three sets of glass slides on Washing- 
ton which are available from Eastman Educational 
Slides. The Keystone View Company has also pre- 
pared a set of 50 lantern slides in response to a request 
from the Washington Bicentennial Commission. 

The Spencer Lens Company has available two sets 
of filmslides on \\ ashington and two on United States 
History which should effectively supplement the glass 
slides on the Father of Our Country. 

The field should be interested in this material not 
only as aids to the Bicentennial Celebration but also 
to the annual celebration of Washington's Birthday 
for years to come. 

Educators Vote on Projectors 

An interesting "popularity contest" was conducted 
at the recent meeting of the National Education As- 
sociation in Washington. At the Bell & Howell booth 
was the new Filmo Model M projector, on display for 
the first time. Beside it was the Filmo JL projector. 
Every visual educator was asked to express his opinion 
of the Model M in comparison with the JL and other 
Filmo projectors. The almost unanimous verdict was 
that if a single machine was to be bought for a school, 
to be used in good-sized auditoriums as well as in 
classrooms that cannot be effectively darkened, the 
super powerful and versatile JL should be chosen. 
The new Model M was received with genuine enthu- 
siasm, especially by heads of visual instruction de- 
partments in the larger cities, where hundreds and 
even thousands of elementary grade teachers need a 
sturdy, powerful machine of extreme simplicity. For 
such use, as well as in all situations where price is a 
primary factor, the single control Model M was voted 
"made to order". 

Metropolitan Motion Picture Company 
Expands To New Studios 

The Metropolitan Company has completed arrange- 
ments for the occupancy, April 1, of new and larger 
quarter- at 1745 East Grand Boulevard, which will 

intain both a large sound-proof recording studio and 
complete developing, cutting, editing and finishing 
laboratories. Its 3,500 square feet of floor space will 
also house the company's complete selling, creative and 
production personnel and facilities. 

What Is Economy 
in Education? 

It May Be Constructive 
It May Be Destructive 

Education — particularly self-education- 
a teacher. 

is possible without 

No education is possible without material equipment. 

This is not an argument in favor of dispensing with teach- 
ers. It is an argument in favor of providing teachers with 
equipment worthy of their objectives and of the materially 
rich times in which we live. 

Visual equipment is a means of furnishing vicariously the 
materials and experiences needed for effective teaching. 

Keystone Visual Aids bring these materials to the teacher 
at a cost that is insignificant when compared with the more 
meaningful school activities which they engender. 

Keystone Stereographs of thousands of interesting facts of 
the world as reference material make the pupil's study in- 
teresting and effective, thus often saving the repetition of a 
grade. Their purchase by a board of education is a sound 
move in economical management. 

Keystone Lantern Slides of many units of work enrich the 
class discussions, make it possible to cover more ground in 
the time allotted, and make it easy to present clearly to all 
the class the subjects discussed. This is an economy, both in 
teacher effort and in enlarged results. 

Keystone Map Slides cost less as complete equipment than 
wall maps and, because of elasticity of uses, including in- 
teresting activity projects, make interesting and worth while 
the map work of the class. This is an economy, both in 
expenditure and in more effective teaching. 

The Keystone Pupil-made Lantern Slide Outfit puts at the 
disposition of the teacher, at an insignificant cost, the means 
of providing quickly and easily original material, enlarged 
and projected for discussion by the group. This is a most 
obvious economy in instruction. 

The Keystone Visual Readers, by utilizing stereographs and 
lantern slides in the approach to meaningful activities and a 
consequent high level of interest and to the acquisition of 
the necessary skills to read effectively, have, in some cases, 
saved more than half the repeaters previously incurred during 
the first year of reading work. Since a poor start in reading 
is the generally acknowledged cause of most failures through- 
out the school course, this is a most evident economy in 
school expenditures, as well as an economy in the time of 
the pupil during the remainder of his school life. 

The Use of Keystone Visual Aids Is Synonymous with Econ- 
omy in Education. 

Keystone View Company 

Meadville, Penna. 

Page 128 

The Educational Screen 


A Trade Directory for the Visual Field 


Bray Pictures Corporation (3, 6) 

729 Seventh Ave., New York City. 

Carlyle Ellis (1, 4) 

S3 Hamilton Terrace, New York City 
Producer of Social Service Films 

Columbia Pictures Corp. (3, 6) 

729 Seventh Ave., New York City 

(See advertisement on page 117) 

Eastman Kodak Co. (4) 

Rochester, N. Y. 

(See advertisement on outside back cover) 

Eastman Teaching Films, Inc. (1, 4) 
Rochester, N. Y. 

Edited Pictures System, Inc. (1, 4) 

130 W. 46th St., New York City 

General Electric Company (3, 6) 

Visual Instruction Section, 
Schenectady, N. Y. 

(See advertisement on page 120) 

Herman Ross Enterprises, Inc., (3, 6) 
630 Ninth Ave., New York City 

(See advertisement on page 119) 

Ideal Pictures Corp. (1, 4) 

26 E. Eighth St.. Chicago, 111. 

Modern Woodmen of America (1, 4) 
Rock Island, 111. 

Pinkney Film Service Co. (1, 4) 

1028 Forbes St., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Ray-Bell Films, Inc. (3, 6) 

817 University Ave., St. Paul, Minn. 

Society for Visual Education (1, 4) 

327 S. LaSalle St., Chicago, 111. 

(See advertisement on page 100) 

United Projector and Films Corp. (1, 4) 
228 Franklin St., Buffalo, N. Y. 

Universal Pictures Corp. (3) 

730 Fifth Ave., New York City 

(See advertisement on page 123) 

Williams, Brown and Earle, Inc. (3, 6) 
918 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Y. M. C. A. Motion Picture Bureau (1, 4) 
347 Madison Ave., New York City 
300 W. Adams Bldg., Chicago, 111. 


Ampro Projector Corp. (6) 

2839 X. Western Ave., Chicago, 111. 

(See advertisement on inside front cover) 

Bell & Howell Co. (6) 

1815 Larchmont Ave., Chicago, 111. 

(See advertisement on inside back cover) 

Eastman Kodak Co. (4) 

Rochester, N. Y. 

(See advertisement on outside back cover) 

Edited Pictures System, Inc. (1) 

130 W. 46th St., New York City 

Ideal Pictures Corp. (1, 4) 

26 E. Eighth St., Chicago, 111. 

Regina Photo Supply Ltd. (3, 6) 

1924 Rose St., Regina, Sask. 

United Projector and Film Corp. (1, 4) 
228 Franklin St., Buffalo, N. Y. 

Victor Animatograph Corp. (6) 

Davenport, la. 

(See advertisement on page 123) 

Williams, Brown and Earle, Inc. (3, 6) 
918 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 


Da-Lite Screen Co. 

. 2721 N. Crawford Ave., Chicago 
(See advertisement on page 98) 

Williams, Brown and Earle, Inc. 
918 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 


C. W. Briggs Co. 

628 Callowhill St., Philadelphia. Pa. 

(See advertisement on page 122) 

Eastman Educational Slides 
Iowa City, la. 

Edited Pictures System, Inc. 
130 W. 46th St., New York City 

Eye Gate House Inc. 

330 W. 42nd St.. New York City 
(See advertisement on page 120) 

Ideal Pictures Corp. 
26 E. Eighth St., Chicago, 111. 

International Artprints 
64 E. Lake St., Chicago, 111. 

Keystone View Co. 
Meadville, Pa. 

(See advertisement on page 125)' 

Society for Visual Education 
327 S. LaSalle St., Chicago, 111. 

(See advertisement on page 100) 

Spencer Lens Co. 
19 Doat St., Buffalo, N. Y. 

(See advertisement on page 97) 

Stillfilm Inc. 
1052 Cahuenga Ave., Hollywood, Cal. 

(See advertisement on page 121) 

Williams, Brown and Earle, Inc. 

918 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 


Keystone View Co. 
Meadville, Pa. 

(See advertisement on page 126) 


Bausch and Lomb Optical Co. 
Rochester, N. Y. 

Clay-Adams Co., Inc., 

117 E. 24th St., Xew York City 
(See advertisement on page 99) 

E. Leitz, Inc. 
60 E. 10th St., New York City 

Regina Photo Supply Ltd. 

1924 Rose St., Regina, Sask. 

Society for Visual Education 
327 S. LaSalle St., Chicago, 111. 

(See advertisement on page 100) 

Spencer Lens Co. 

19 Doat St., Buffalo, N. Y. 

(See advertisement on page Vt) 

Stillfilm Inc. 
1052 Cahuenga Ave., Hollywood, Calif. 

(See advertisement on page 121 1 

Williams, Brown and Earle Inc. 
918 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 



indicates firm supplies 




indicates firm supplies 




indicates firm supplies 
sound and silent. 




indicates firm supplies 




indicates firm supplies 




indicates firm supplies 
sound and silent. 






Visual Instruction News 


Picture Lending Library of Buffalo Museum 

An Experiment in Visual Education in Chemistry 

Units of Instruction for Teacher Training Courses 

Visual Instruction in Indiana 

A Picture Study Lesson with the Opaque Projector 

Single Copies 25c 
• $2.00 a Year • 


19 3 2 

The 400 Watt Ampro Brings You 

Astonishing Illumination Brightness 

and Detail In Undarkened Class Rooms . . . . 

Model AD DeLuxe as Above $200.00 Complete With Case 
Model AS Standard, Without Pilot Light, $175.00, Complete With Case 

AMPRO CORPORATION, 2839 No. Western Ave., Chicago 

Gentlemen: Please send me descriptive literature. 
Name Position ... 




y ERY OFTEN the conditions for projecting 
pictures in class rooms are not perfect. Never- 
theless large, life-size pictures, with perfect de- 
tail are essential so that every student in the 
room can see clearly and without eye strain. 

Then there is the occasion to project pictures 
in auditoriums for large audiences. Herj again, 
bright illumination is necessary so that theatre 
projection is obtained. 

The new 400 Watt Ampro Precision Projectors 
have been designed to meet these varying con- 
ditions, so that either in undarkened class rooms 
or in larger auditoriums, professional results are 
obtained on the screen. Actual tests have shown 
that these models will project pictures of size, 
brightness, and detail equal to a 35 mm. pro- 
jector using a 1000 watt lamp. 

Ampro projection is steady and without a 
flicker. Still pictures can be shown indefinitely, 
a safety shutter saving film from any possible 
harm due to overheating. Often the instructor 
wishes to go back over a scene already shown. 
A flip of the reversing switch, and the film is 
reversed. Rewind is automatic and rapid . . . 
fifty seconds for a full reel. 

Ampro is a rugged instrument, built for years 
of constant and trouble-free service. Its compact 
design requires but little space. The weight is 
only a little more than ten pounds. Its simplicity 
is such that even a child can operate it. It is a 
flexible instrument, usable on either alternating 
or direct current without change. 

See your dealer for an inspection of these new 
models. Should you wish further information, 
the coupon is for your convenience. 

C ©JRJP©lB4ari[IDiS 


May, 19)2 

Page 131 

Educational Screen 

Combined with 

Visual Instruction News 
MAY, 1932 




Herbert E. Slaught, Pres. 
Frederick J. Lane, Trees. 
Nelson L. Greene, Editor 
Ellsworth C. Dent, Manager 
Evelyn J. Baker 
Josephine Hoffman 
Otto M. Forkert 

Stanley R. Greene 
Joseph J. Weber 
William R. Duffey 
R. F. H. Johnson 
Marion F. Lanphier 
F. Dean McClusky 
Stella Evelyn Myers 


Editorial 1 32 

The Picture Lending Library of The Buffalo Museum of 

Science. Ruth Edwards Norton.. I 34 

An Experiment in Visual Education in Elementary College 
Chemistry. B. S. Hopkins and H. G. Dawson I 36 

Units of Instruction for Teacher Training Courses (No. 5) 
L Paul Miller 1 38 

Visual Instruction in Indiana. George Mclntire 139 

Film Production Activities 141 

News and Notes. Conducted by Josephine Hoffman 142 

Department of Visual Instruction Notes. 

Conducted by Ellsworth C. Dent 144 

Among the Magazines and Books. 

Conducted by Marion F. Lanphier 146 

The Film Estimates _ 147 

The Church Field. Conducted by R. F. H. Johnson 148 

School Department. 

Conducted by Dr. F. Dean McClusky 150 

Among the Producers I 58 

Here They Are! A Trade Directory for the Visual Field... 1 60 

Contents of previous issues listed in Education Index. 

General and Editorial Offices, 64 East Lake St., Chicago, Illinois. Office 
of Publication, Morton, Illinois. Entered at the Post Office at Morton, 
Illinois, as Second Cless Matter. Copyright, May, 1932, by the Edu- 
cational Screen, Inc. Published every month except July and August. 

$2.00 a Year (Canada, $2.75; Foreign, $3.00) Single Copies, 25 eh. 

Page 132 

The Educational Screen 


WE WOULD propose for careful considera- 
tion by all our readers in the visual field — 
and by the Visual Instruction Department of 
the N. E. A. in particular — a project to be developed 
for the coming Century of Progress Exposition in 
Chicago in 1933. The suggestion came from a mem- 
ber of the magazine staff, has been studied and elab- 
orated by the entire staff, and has recently been sub- 
mitted to certain recognized leaders in the educational 
field. The emphatic approval bestowed upon 
A the embryonic plan by all who have been 

Project consulted confirms our own conviction that 
for the the project holds really great possibilities 
Visual for the national cause of visual instruction. 
Field The project aims to give a complete and 

continuous demonstration of actual visual 
instruction, in all subjects, for all grades, with all sen- 
sory aids already proven valuable. This demonstra- 
tion would constitute the soundest and most effective 
propaganda the visual cause has ever received — would 
reach a greater public in the brief duration of the Ex- 
position than has been reached in the past ten years of 
printed and vocal effort to the same end — and would 
in itself present a perfect and impressive example of 
visual instruction. Following is a brief outline of the 

SECURE in the educational section of the Expo- 
sition a space sufficient for two small enclosed 
classrooms, juxtaposed, divided by one solid, 
opaque wall common to two rooms. This common 
wall will be the front wall of each room, carrying 
blackboards, maps, charts, screens, etc.. pupils seated 
to face toward it. The other three sides of each room 
may be lined with drawers and cupboards to a height 
of three or four feet. Above, the three walls would 
be glass to the ceiling. Each room will be sound-proof, 
electrically lighted, and with perfect artificial ventila- 
tion. Microphones within will make every sound aud- 
ible outside. Sounds from outside will be inaudible 
within. The teacher and class will work inside, un- 
disturbed by foreign sounds. The public outside can 
see every move and hear every word spoken by teacher 
or pupils. 

The unit would be located preferably between and 
bordering upon two parallel corridors, which are pub- 
lic thoroughfares, the two side walls of each classroom 
abutting on the corridors. The entire passing public, 
therefore, would have a side view of each class at its 
work, and could hear all that is going on within. Out- 
side the rear wall of each classroom would be an en- 
closed space, with seats and sloping floor, where the 

most interested spectators could get away from the I 
noise of the corridors for serious study of teaching 1 

Each room would contain permanent equipment of * 
material and apparatus. Classes would be definitely I 
scheduled through the period of operation, say two or 
three hours each day. 

One room might serve grades I to IV, the other 
grades IV to VIII, so that visitors would always have 
a choice of higher or lower grades for observation, 
according to their major interest. Detailed schedules 
of subjects, topics, teachers, class personnel and I. Q's 
would be kept constantly posted in the adjacent cor- 
ridors, and printed regularly in Exposition programs. 

Pupils, and most of the teachers, should come from 
a nearby school, regularly operating a summer session, 
and using visual aids continuously. Proper and reli- 
able transportation must be arranged to insure smooth! 
operation on schedule. Classes need not be large but 
they must arrive on time. 

It should be possible to enlist from all over the 
United States occasional services of able teachers who 
have developed new and significant methods for teach- 
ing particular topics. The correct integration of such 
special classes into the continuous curriculum of the 
sessions would be one of the nicest problems for the 
central administration handling the entire project. 

THE year to come is none too much time for ade- 
quate preparation for a project of this novelty 
and complexity. The financing, the organizing 
and the supervising of such a work constitutes a tre- 
mendous task. Perhaps three small committees, from 
an interested University School of Education, from a 
city school system, and from the national Visual In- 
struction Department of the N. E. A. — cooperating as 
a joint committee under a single supervisor and ad- 
ministrator — would be the method. 

Large and numerous difficulties loom, of course. 
But were they twice as large and numerous they 
should be tackled. The visual field has never had 
such an opportunity to permeate the national con- 
sciousness as is offered by the coming "World's Fair." 
Visual instruction can be appreciated by millions — not 
by mere thousands as in years past — by such an 
irresistible demonstration of its vivid appeal, its po- 
tency, its present actuality. 

May the Visual Instruction Department of the X. 
E. A. be able to say in 1934, and long thereafter, 
omnium carum rcrum pars magna fni. 

Nelson L. Greene. 

Uay, 19)2 


3 N 

Page 133 


Da-Lite Screens 

Rear View 


The DA-LITE Model "F" 

A screen that combines the advantages of the 
Da-Lite glass bead projection surface, compact- 
ness, simplicity, rapid set-up, and low price. The 
Model "F" stands firmly on a pair of folding 
feet. The upright support bar swings down 
parallel to the case when the screen is collapsed 
for carrying. Ruggedly made and beautifully 
finished, the DA-LITE Model "F" invites com- 
parison at the following prices. 

22x30 $13.50 30x40 $16.00 

36 x 48 $18.00 


Front View 

DA LITE — pioneers in the development of projec- 
tion screens — always ahead — ever anticipating the 
industry's needs ! Da-Lite advanced thought scores 
again with three brand new and very worth while ideas, 
of particular interest and import to the world of visual 
education. Three new screens, to meet three urgent 
needs! Here they are: 





The Da-Lite "A," the most famous 
of all portable, table-type screens, 
may now be had with a specially 
built, thoroughly rigid, adjustable, 
collapsible tripod stand. The Da- 
Lite "A" is distinguished by its 
unique mechanism for automatically 
raising the screen or returning it to 
the box. Also by the patented 
stretching device which brings the 
projection surface to perfect, 
wrinkle-free flatness. Now — with 
the tripod stand, the Model "A" may 
be used at any desired height from 
the floor. 

22 X 30 $20 
36 X 48 $30 

30 X 40 $25 
39 X 52 $35 

Tripod Equipment — $5 Extra 

Must be ordered when screen it 

The MODEL "A" DA-TEX Translucent Screen 

Here is a collapsible, portable screen for rear projection. It's the Da- 
Lite "A" in all respects excepting that it has the DA-TEX translucent 
projection surface instead of the glass bead. The same clever mechan- 
ism raises and lowers the screen; the same stretching device brings 
the surface to plate-level smoothness. The Model "A" DA-TEX may 
be had with tripod equipment. 

22x30 $20 30x40 $25 

36 x 48 $30 

Tripod Equipment $5 Extra 

If Wanted, Must be Ordered When Screen is Ordered 

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The Da-Lite line of superior projection screens is the most 
complete line the industry affords. Completely descriptive 
literature sent upon request addressed to 

The DA-LITE SCREEN CO., INC., 2721 N. Crawford Ave., Chicago. 

Page 134 

The Educational Screen 

The Picture Lending Library of the 
Buffalo Museum of Science 

ALTHOUGH Americans have today generally 
accepted art as a delightful and interesting field 
for study and recreation, one which is now 
both respectable and respected, there is still that feel- 
ing that perhaps it is not the most manly of pastimes. 
Some of this feeling is, of course, being dispelled by 
the sound business possibilities in art. A painting or 
piece of sculpture well-chosen is a good investment ; 
with the passing of time its market value increases. 

Another and more useful cause, however, for the 
hesitancy of most people to cultivate the arts is the 
thought that it requires a specially trained intellect- 
uality to understand and appreciate them. This, of 
course, is wrong for, though the more one knows about 
any subject, the greater is his enjoyment of it, beau- 
tiful creations can and should be enjoyed by every one 

Recently a man from the great army of unemployed 
entered an art gallery with the sole purpose of keep- 
ing warm. He wandered aimlessly at first through 
the galleries but was soon noticed to be gazing more 
intently upon certain paintings and to return again 
and again to them. Finally he went to the director and 
asked for a job in order that he might stay in the 
midst of this new-found beauty. He was immediately 
given the duties of a guard and his interest given full 
opportunity and encouragement to develop. 

All of us, however, are not impelled by the need for 
warmth to enter our galleries, and there are many who 
feel they would like a little working knowledge with 
which to fortify themselves before assailing the doors 
of that holy sanctuary. Or, having entered it and hav- 
ing had their interest caught, they wish to know more 
about the things upon which they have looked. For 
these people the Buffalo Society of Natural Sciences 
has instituted another among its many services. 

The Picture-lending Library at the Buffalo Museum 
of Science came into being through the development 
of the Division of Visual Education. Some years ago 
this Division was begun by the Museum with the idea 
of loaning lantern slides of natural science subjects to 
the public. Soon the demand for slides on travel sub- 
jects was felt, and this material was added. And so 
the collection grew until it came to include slides on 
almost every subject which the public demanded, in- 
cluding art. There are now over 6,000 slides on art 
alone, grouped in sets many of which have accompany- 


ing manuscripts and which quite thoroughly cover the 
history of art from early cave drawings to, and in- 
cluding, the modern movement. These slides, together 
with a lantern, may be borrowed without charge by any 
one who is a member of the Society or who has a card 
signed by a member. The Buffalo Society of Natural 
Sciences was the first institution in the country to 
offer this free lantern and slide service to the public, 
and the enormous use which is made of it has proved 
its value. 

For carrying on this service the Buffalo Museum of 
Science has developed a fully equipped and operating 
organization, and, as it was, and still is, the only one 
in the city, full scope was given in extending it to 
meet all the needs of the community. And another 
need did arise — a need for pictures which could be seen 
and observed for a longer time and without the aid 
of a lantern. A great many splendid Alinari and An- 
derson photographs of famous works of art had been 
bought previously in order that the Museum might 
make their own slides from them and thereby build up 
a file of negatives. From these the Museum's slide 
collection could more readily be replenished when 
necessary. With these splendid reproductions on hand 
the idea was conceived of loaning them also. And so 
started the Museum's pioneer Picture-lending Library- 

The pictures have been mounted on uniform and 
attractive photomounts. On the back of each one is 
an envelope containing two cards, one of which gives 
a short sketch of the artist's life and the other an ap- 
preciation of the particular painting. We do not, of 
course, mean this appreciation to be considered as 
final. One may heartily disagree with it. It is only 
the interpretation of one person, and the feeling about 
a painting, or any work of art, must necessarily be a 
personal one. Our interpretation, however, may lead 
those interested to see new things and provoke them 
into analyzing and forming their own opinions. ■ 

As in the case of the slides, anyone may borrow 
these pictures without any charge whatever. They 
may be kept for two weeks and then exchanged for 
new ones. 

Since the beginning of this service the Museum's 
collection has been added to. mostly through gifts, until 
there now are almost 700 exceptionally fine photo- 
graphs and prints of famous paintings and sculpture, 
manv of them in color. 

May, 19)2 

Page 135 

( >ne of the main projects is our work with the 
ichools. Art. more than any other suhject. demands 
visual aids for teaching. They arc, in fact, essential. 
Art is created to appeal through the ere and in no 
other way can it reach us. The Buffalo Museum of 
Science, therefore, ;b the only visual loan center in the 
city, is doing everything it can to supply the schools 
With tliis necessary material. Included in its collec- 
tion are, of course, the pictures recommended by the 
Board of Education for study in the grades. These, 
as far as possible, are in color, as it is color that most 
appeals to children. It is an encouraging fact that 

A Complete Picture Unit 

good and accurate color reproductions of pictures for 
children are now being published at a nominal cost. 
But it is far from easy to procure true color reproduc- 
tions of the less popular subjects so most of the prints 
for more advanced study are in black and white. A 
poor color print does far more harm than good. 

Aside from the lists provided by the Board of Edu- 
cation the Museum has tried to meet the individual 
demands of the teachers. We have solicited lists and 
suggestions from them and have noted the frequency 
of requests for certain pictures and types of pictures. 
Seasonal subjects are particularly in demand for grade 
study and such subjects as can be related to the other 
school work. 

Several schools have begun a series of loan exhibits, 
borrowed from us. Groups of pictures are selected 
id exhibited, a new group being hung every two 
veeks. Two of the schools allow the children to 
loose the pictures themselves. 

The radio is another source of educational interest 

with which the Buffalo Museum of Science works. 
Programs, such as the Art Appreciation talks broad- 
cast by the American School of the Air, are posted, 
together with the pictures to be discussed, and they 
may also be listened to in the Radio Listeners' Room. 

Having one central loan bureau for all visual educa- 
tion material has been felt to be of decided value. 
Aside from the question of time and energy involved, 
the fact that the material is at hand is an inducement 
to make use of it. Teachers who come to borrow 
slides or charts for other subjects, borrow at the same 
time, art slides and mounted pictures — teachers who 
otherwise might not have felt it incumbent upon them 
to give their pupils much art instruction. And art 
teachers borrowing art material find it convenient to 
get history and geography slides for teaching the back- 
ground necessary to a study of art. With the en- 
larged curriculum of modern schools it is not easy 
for the teacher to find time for extra outside work, 
no matter how helpful it may be. 

As the Picture-lending Library has become more 
widely known, the loans have increased remarkably. 
Most of the borrowers are teachers, but the demands 
are most interestingly varied. Mothers borrow them 
to frame and hang in their homes in order that their 
children may become familiar with them by seeing 
them thus constantly for two weeks. Many of them 
bring their children and let them select themselves the 
picture that most appeals. 

This is a splendid way to introduce your children 
to an appreciation of fine art. Children soon tire of 
one thing. Constant change is needed to hold their 
attention. One man I know whose children are still 
more or less in the infant stage, proposes to buy a 
number, fifty or more, prints, as fine as he can get. 
including etchings and wood-block prints whenever 
possible. These will range in subject from such things 
as Durer's "Rabbit" and Rembrandt's delightful 
sketch of an elephant, which might interest the young- 
est child, up to the more advanced subjects which the 
child will be able to appreciate as it grows older. Only 
two or three pictures will be hung in the nursery at 
a time and they will be changed frequently, thus con- 
stantly renewing the interest of the child and making 
him accustomed to seeing the best artistic creations. 
What the child absorbs in this way he can never lose. 

There are hundreds of such pictures from which to 
chose — compositions by the greatest artists in the 
world — and subjects which any and every child would 
love immediately. It is splendid to own such a col- 
lection, if possible, but, for all those who wish, such 
a collection may be enjoyed, without cost, by borrow- 
ing from our Picture-lending Library. 

(Concluded on page 140) 

Page 136 

The Educational Screen 

An Experiment in Visual Education in 
Elementary College Chemistry 


DURING recent years it has been the custom at 
the University of Illinois to show motion pic- 
ture films to some of the advanced classes, 
especially those who are interested in certain indus- 
trial processes. Frequently students from the ele- 
mentary classes were invited to witness these displays 
and many films of particular interest to the Freshmen 
were shown for their special benefit. These showings 
were not made during regular class hours and at- 
tendance was optional. In general the interest was 
good, but there was no indication that these efforts 
were improving scholarship, increasing interest or 
promoting the welfare of chemical education. 

In February 1931, the Freshman classes were moved 
into a new building which had complete equipment for 
showing silent motion pictures. Accordingly it was 
decided to undertake a study of the educational value 
of motion pictures, film slides and regular lantern 
slides, when these are incorporated in the regular lec- 
ture work of a course. The time of one assistant was 
devoted to various problems connected with the study, 
such as the collection of material, editing of films, 
making suitable slides, arranging and cataloging ma- 
terial and operation of the projectors. 

It was concluded that if visual education w^as to be 
successfully applied to our problem it must be incor- 
porated as an integral part of the regular sessions of 
the class. Accordingly the plan selected was to pre- 
sent during the regular lecture periods, either lantern 
slides or motion picture films to illustrate the topic 
under discussion. This plan involved three very im- 
portant considerations: (1) a very careful study of 
available material with the presentation limited to 
those portions which are of definite educational value 
in the teaching of chemistry; (2) a complete under- 
standing between the lecturer and the operator regard- 
ing what materials are to be shown and the order of 
their display; (3) a decided modification of the lec- 
ture plan in order to save time and to bring out with- 
out repetition the full educational value of the various 
visual aids. A somewhat extended study of each of 
these considerations is worthwhile. 

Our first problem was to make a comprehensive 
study of material available for visual education pur- 
poses. Accordingly the semester outline was care- 

*Presented before the Symposium on Visual Aids of the Di- 
vision of Chemical Education at the A. C. S. meeting, Buf- 
falo, September 2. 1931. 

fullv scrutinized and all suitable topics were selected. 
Thorough search was made for slides and motion pic- 
ture films based upon these topics and for pictures or 
drawings from which illustrative material could be 
prepared. After diligent search we concluded that 
we should be compelled to make our own slides since 
those available were not suited to our purpose. Ac- 
cordingly many slides were made to furnish such 
illustrations as would permit the lecturer to present 
his material more clearly, more concisely or with 
greater interest. At first these slides were prepared 
from all available sources such as the illustrations and 
diagrams in textbooks, periodicals and advertising lit- 
erature, but this search consumed too much time and 
after all did not give a complete set of slides. It is 
more efficient to study thoroughly the material to be 
presented in a given lecture, select five to ten subjects 
for slides and search for this material. We have 
found that slides made from cross section diagrams 
and tables of comparative data to be far more valu- 
able than those made from photographs of industrial 
equipment although the external appearance is of 
interest. In general, preference was given to illustra- 
tions similar to those appearing in the textbook used 
in the course in order that the student might not be 
burdened with the necessity of copying down exten- 
sive descriptions or tabulations. The use of lantern 
slides produced excellent results and it is our opinion 
that their use will continue to play an important part 
in the development of visual education in a subject 
which is as involved as general chemistry. 

Filmslides were not used extensively. Those avail- 
able were not prepared for use in chemistry classes 
and were entirely too elementary. Although filmslides 
are more convenient than glass lantern slides, they are 
expensive to prepare and do not permit easy rear- 
rangement. However, the glass lantern slide is fra- 
gile, heavy and expensive unless purchased in large 
quantities. We have experimented with a lantern slide 
made on a safety (cellulose acetate) film base which 
promises to be light in weight, cheaper and durable. 

In the field of motion picture films there is available 
a very large amount of material which may be secured 
at little or no cost, since many manufacturing con- 
cerns loan films to anyone who is willing to pay the 
transportation charges. We have found that depend- 
ence upon this sort of material involves at least two 
serious difficulties: (1) it is necessary to make reser- 

May, 19)2 

Page 137 

rations several weeks in advance because the worth- 
whole films are busy. In conducting a course in 
chemistry it is obviously difficult to live up to a rigid 
schedule in order thai a certain film may tit in at the 
proper time. The uncertainty concerning the arrival 
of the film uii schedule i? also a complicating factor 
which is frequentl) encountered. (2» All of the com- 
mercial films which arc now availahlc contain tOO 
much advertising. Many of the distributing linns in- 
sist that their films must be shown without the elim- 
ination of any portions. To comply fully with this 
request would largely defeat the purposes of visual 

education, because of the heavy demand of time, and 
because so much of the film has no value so far as 
the purposes of chemical education are concerned. 
Such difficulties as these arc perennial if we are to 
depend on borrowing or renting films. 

A method of completely eliminating these difficulties 
is presented by the outright purchase of the film. The 
advantages of owning the film are obvious. It is 
Possible to cut out all those scenes which art' of a non- 
chemical nature ; the film is always available, so its 
display at the psychological moment presents no dif- 
ficulties; and if a second showing for review is de- 
sired, there is no embarrassment The great disad- 
vantages of purchasing films come from the cost and 
the fact that so much of the footage is waste. To 
compile from commercial sources a library of motion 
picture films which would adequately cover a year of 
general chemistry would obviously require a consider- 
able investment. 

In the realm of educational films a much better 
situation exists. There is a considerable list of sci- 
ence subjects, and these films are arranged for their 
educational value. Typical scenes from the best 
sources have been selected and skillfully assembled to 
give a definite and fairly complete story of the pro- 
cess In these films a minimum of space is devoted 
to titles, in order that the picture display may be more 
complete. It is expected that whatever explanation is 
necessary will be supplied orally, and to assist in this 
phase of the presentation each film is accompanied by 
a Teacher's < mide which supplies all necessary infor- 
mation. This plan permits the chemistry teacher to 
: a definite topic, to present those portions of the 
film which fit in with his lecture plan and to do it all 
without waste of time, and without the necessity of 
showing time-consuming titles or non-chemical sub- 

While these educational films show that a great step 
in advance has been taken, there are still some fea- 
tures of the present situation in which improvement 
is to be desired. From our experiences the following 
suggestions are offered. First the list of offerings 

should be materially extended, because at present there 
are many of the most important topics in general 
chemistry which are not represented. This statement 
applies with particular force to the field of theoretical 
chemistry, since most of the films now available deal 
with applied chemistry. It is of course no simple task 
to devise a film which will adequately represent a fun- 
damental principle of chemical science. Such a film 
will require long study, patient effort, the most skillful 
direction which can be obtained and the friendly co- 
operation of teachers who are willing to help. It is 
very obvious that the assembling of a series of such 
films will be an expensive process and no firm can 
afford to undertake the task until they are assured 
that the resulting films will be used by a considerable 
number of teachers. It is probable that developments 
along this line w'ill be very gradual, at least so far as 
the immediate future is concerned. 

A second improvement in our present educational 
films, which would make them of greater value in the 
teaching of chemistry requires a thorough editing by 
an experienced teacher of chemistry. The films which 
are now available have been prepared for pupils in 
geography, nature study or general science. The films 
still contain much material which is not chemical in 
nature, the showing of which consumes valuable time 
and detracts from the central thought of a chemical 
lecture. We need a series of films which have been 
assembled especially for the use of chemistry students, 
which will eliminate as much as possible the purely 
mechanical steps in a process and which will not hesi- 
tate to use chemical terms and to emphasize the chem- 
istry involved. When such a collection of films is 
available for the illustration of chemical industries, 
and these are accompanied by skillfully devised films 
on the fundamental theories, then visual education 
will be in a position to assume a prominent place in 
the teaching of chemistry. 

A third suggestion for the makers of chemistry 
teaching films is that much greater use be made of 
animated diagrams. In a chemical process it is of 
course important to show how the raw material looks 
when it enters a vat or a machine and then to show 
its changed appearance or properties after the treat- 
ment has been completed. But the chemistry student 
needs to know how these changes were produced. If 
a chemical change has resulted he should know what 
the change is and how it has been brought about. The 
use of animated diagrams permits him to visualize 
each step in the process and to get a clear mental pic- 
ture of the chemistry involved. Some films which 
accomplish this task admirably are now available but 
their number should be greatly increased. 

(To be concluded in the /»».• iuue) 

Page 138 

Units of Instruction for Teacher 
Training Courses (No. 5) 

The Educational Screen 

How Are Classrooms Prepared for Projection? 


(A) What are some precautions which should be ob- 
served in using projection equipment? 
The following are suggested by Spencer Lens Co. : 

(1) Do not attach a 1000-watt bulb to a house wir- 
ing system without first having it inspected by 
some one competent to determine whether or 
not it can carry the load. 

(2) Do not connect any bulb to a wiring system 
without first being sure that the voltage of the 
system is that for which the bulb is made, or 
that a proper resistance is inserted. 

(3) When new bulbs are inserted, see that the 
socket is so rotated in its mount as to bring the 
filament to the correct position. When pre- 
centered bulbs are used, the filament will al- 
ways be properly centered when the bulb is in 

(4) Keep optical parts clean. 

Difficulties : Reasons : 

(a) If there is a blue shadow (a) The light is too 
in the center of the screen near the condens- 

(b) If a yellow shadow is ev- (b) The light is too 
enly distributed around far back, 
margins (c) The light is too 

(c) If a shadow appears at low. 

the top of the screen. . . . (d) The light is too 

(d) If a shadow appears at high. ( Similarly 
the bottom of the screen for sides) 

(e) If spots appear in the (e) The condensers 
field are dirty. 

(f) If there is a general haze 
over the field 

(g) If the lines in the picture 
are not sharply defined . . 

(f) The objective is 

(g) The instrument is 
improperly f o - 

Author's Note: This is the last of a series of lessons 
on the general subject of physical factors of projection. 
The series is part of a set of forty-five units of instruc- 
tion which have been in use experimentally in visual 
education courses for practice teachers, and for teach- 
ers in service. No claims are made for originality. 
The material for each unit has been gathered from all 
available sources, and organized for convenient refer- 
ence. The question is merely raised, as to whether 
it would be helpful to have a laboratory manual, or 
work-book, for visual education courses in teacher- 
training institutions. 

(B) How are classrooms made dark for projection? 
For obtaining the best results, darkened or partially 

darkened rooms are needed. There should be a room, 
or several rooms, in every school, equipped for projec- 
tion. Methods of darkening rooms are : 

(1) Dark shades at each window. 

(2) Wide shades, made to order, to cover two or 
three windows. 

(3) Heavy curtains, drawn by means of a cord and 
pulleys, preferably one cord controlling all cur- 

(4) Home-made shades of heavy material, operated 
like porch sun-screens, rolling on cords. 

It is essential that rooms be so equipped that they 
can be prepared quickly for projection. No more time 
should be used to prepare for projection, than is used 
in average school rooms for ventilation. 

(C) Must classrooms be dark, for projection? 

For projection of motion pictures, there should be 
complete darkness. It is best to have a specially pre- 
pared projection room for showing films, not only be- 
cause of convenience in darkening the room, but also 
because the projector can be kept in a fixed place. 
There is danger of damaging a machine in moving it. 
No projector should be jarred, particularly, while the 
filament of the lamp is hot. 

Glass slides and film slides, and opaque pictures, can 
be projected in a room in which the ordinary window 
shades are drawn, if projectors with lenses of short 
focal lengths are used, back of translucent or "day- 
light" screens. The images on the translucent screen 
are fairly sharp, if the apparatus is properly placed. 
The advantage of the "daylight" arrangement is that 
a few pictures can be thrown on a screen during 
a lesson, without the necessity of darkening the room, 
and hence without any interruption in the classroom 
procedure. There are projectors specially made for 
"daylight" projection. 

May, 19 i 2 

Page 139 

i I > i How u apparatus placed, for "daylight" pro- 

i 1 | Place the translucent screen before the projec- 
tor at a distance of about five feet, or as far as 
the size of the screen will permit A larger 
screen ran lie placed farther. 

(2) The corrugations of the screen must be toward 
the class. 

i .^ i I'Ik- center of light from the projector must 
be on the center of the screen. 

(4) No strong light must come between the screen 
and the projector. The screen should be on the 
opposite side of the room from the windows, 
and no light should strike it from the back ex- 
cept that from the projector. 
i E i What kinds of screens or,- there.' 

i I i i opaque screens. 

( a » heavy white cloth. 

lb) aluminum coated, (useful for opaque ob- 
jects and micro-projection, but should be 
used only when audience is within an in- 
cluded angle of 60 degrees from the center 
of the screen.) 
(c) sateen, i especially for portable outfits ). 
(2) Translucent screens, for use in comparatively 
small rooms, and with projectors placed back 
of the screens. 
Verbal Aids: 
Dorris, Anna \ '., "Visual Instruction in the Public 

Schools," P. 172. 
Abrams. A. \\ '., "< lassroom Equipment for Visual 
Instruction." Educational Focus, 1:8-9. Sept., 1929. 
Catalogues of companies supplying projection equip- 
Visual Aids: 
Exhibit of screens, and other accessories. 

Visual Instruction In Indiana 


THERE is no better way of leading pupils to a 
world beyond the four walls of the classroom 
than the visual way- In a few brief years the pu- 
pils who are in the classrooms of the various schools 
of our country will be forced to live in the great world 
outside and somewhat remote from the guidance of 
educational institutions. Visual methods of instruc- 
tion enable them to secure a more vivid picture of 
this great community in which they will live. In In- 
diana much constructive work has been done. Mow- 
ever, schools having visual programs seem to cluster 
about certain sections of the state. This fact is evi- 
dently due to one or both of two existing factors. 
Either economic conditions have an influence on the 
quantity of equipment furnished for school use or 
the influence of one school having a successful visual 
program has gone a long way toward leading other 
schools in the same locality to the adoption of an ex- 
tensive program for the use of modem visual aids. 
Each locality has ideas differing from those of other 
communities. For this reason no uniform program 
has been developed for the state as a whole. 

Perhaps the most outstanding differences of prac- 
tice exist in the method of administering the visual 
program. I.ess than five per cent of the IX.} schools 
reporting a visual program designate a member of the 
faculty as acting director. One individual who feels 
the responsibility of conducting a department may 
accomplish more than a number of individuals work- 

ing with no specific scheme of procedure. In the 
smaller schools a teacher could be designated as di- 
rector of visual instruction on a part-time basis. Each 
school would then have a visual instruction depart- 
ment though the working materials were only a few 
pictures clipped from magazines and booklets or a few 
models and exhibits obtained from industrial concerns. 
The important point is that the appointment of a di- 
rector would be a beginning and no one can predict 
the results for the possibilities are unlimited. 

An individual acting as director would bring out 
and make use of equipment that would otherwise re- 
main idle. A well known author in the field of super- 
vision of instruction says that if the equipment now- 
gathering dust in remote corners of the school build- 
ings could be put into use, a wealth of materials could 
be had which has only required the teacher's touch 
to give it effectiveness. In Indiana approximately 
eighty per cent of the schools have some type of visual 
program. Of this number 43 per cent have 35 mm. 
equipment, 11.5 per cent have 16 mm. equipment. 18 
per cent have opaque projectors, 21 per cent have film 
slide projectors, and 75 per cent have glass slide 
lanterns. Five per cent of the glass slide projectors 
and 14 per cent of the motion picture projectors were 
not in use during the school year 1930-31. This was 
in part due to economic conditions which made neces- 
sary budget reductions in many schools of the nation 

The mere fact that projection equipment was in use 

Page 140 

The Educational Screen 

does not means that such equipment was used ex- 
tensively. Lantern slides were most extensively used. 
Fifty-five per cent of the 183 schools reporting a visual 
program have slide libraries in the school buildings. 
The number of slides used for the school year aver- 
aged 888 with a range from 20 to 5,000 slides. Thirty- 
two per cent of the schools make use of "home made" 
slide equipment. Twelve schools report that photog- 
raphy is taught in connection with science courses. 
This affords an excellent opportunity for making lan- 
tern slides from negatives brought in by students. One 
school added 150 slides to the school slide library in 
this manner. It is interesting to note that slides cost 
very little when they are made in the school laboratory. 
When schools have no slide library, or when the 
library is incomplete, the director may order slides 
from the State University and other distributing cen- 
ters. Fifty-three per cent of the schools receive slides 
in this manner. When slides are owned by the school, 
the saving in postage and express charges aids ma- 
terially in adding new slides to the collection. The fol- 
lowing table lists the number of schools making use 
of rental materials and the number of schools main- 
taining a school library of slide and film subjects. 

Number of Schools Making Use of 
Slides, Films, and Exhibits 

Schools Schools Schools 
Type of with with with 

visual less than 100 to 200 more than Total 

material 100 pupils pupils 200 pupils 


16 mm. films .... 2 8 10 

35 mm. films .... 8 8 

Glass slides 24 36 42 102 


16 mm. films .... 2 7 14 23 

35 mm. films .... 7 12 28 47 

Glass slides 20 48 33 97 


16 mm. films .... 3 5 11 19 

35 mm. films .... 5 8 35 48 

Exhibits 5 8 11 24 

Only 10 per cent of the schools own motion pic- 
ture subjects while approximately 56 per cent own 
slides. Films are more expensive and a given subject 
is not in use as frequently as a set of slides. For this 
reason films may be rented although a library of the 
most frequently used subjects is desirable for the 
larger school systems. However, the problem of rental 
and ownership is largely a matter of concern for the 
individual school. Of greater importance is a method 
of encouraging all schools to use visual materials. If 

(Concluded on page 149) 

Picture Lending Library of 
Buffalo Museum 

(Concluded from page 135) 

There are many other types of people who use the 
library. Art students find these pictures invaluable 
for supplementing their school work and text books ; 
study clubs borrow them ; ministers, Sunday schools 
and other church organizations ; social settlement 
workers; and, of course, the individual who loves them 
and wants them merely for himself. 

Many of the experiences that one has with these 
individuals are both amusing and encouraging. One 
day a young boy of about college age came hesitantly 
into my office and asked if I had any pictures of 
paintings. I said I had and asked him what sort of 
paintings he liked. He wasn't exactly sure. So I 
started showing him some at random. I soon found 
that he was very eager to see more but very shy and 
embarrassed about taking so much of my time. So 
I turned the key over to him and told him to look 
through the pictures himself as much as he wanted. 
He immediately sat himself on the floor, and it wasn't 
long before he forgot his embarrassment and was ask- 
ing about this picture and that and giving expression 
to his own opinions. In the end he selected several 
pictures to take home with him. Having broken the 
ice that once, doubtless future attempts on his part 
will be less of an effort. 

Just recently the Museum acquired quite a few ex- 
amples of modern art. Although I had thought mod- 
ern art to be quite thoroughly accepted, I found that 
controversy still rages. I put some of them up in the 
cases in my office and awaited results- I had not long 
to wait. An adult came in. (It so happens that we 
have two Nature Sketching Hobby Clubs which sketch 
the things about the Museum. One of them is for 
children.) The adult to whom I referred stopped be- 
fore a reproduction of a Van Gogh painting and. quite 
seriously, said: "This is awfully good, isn't it! Really 
some of your children do remarkable work, don't 

To my great surprise it was the children who most 
truly appreciated the modern work. One boy of about 
ten or twelve years of age was looking at a reproduc- 
tion of a Matisse painting which most adults passed 
with a smile. This small boy, however, immediately 
remarked, "That's done mostly for design, isn't it, and 
for color? The color's great!" 

Although the Museum's Picture-lending Library is 
comparatively new, having been begun but three years 
ago, it has already proved of considerable service to 
the community. We feel that its possibilities of de- 
velopment in the future are unlimited. 

AI.m. 19} 2 

Page 141 


The aim of this new department is to keep the educational field intimately acquainted with the 
increasing number of film productions especially suitable for use in the school and cburcb field. 

University of Kansas Produces 

Three new motion pictures, one on football, one on 
track, and one t « • be used in clinical psychology classes, 
have been produced l>y the Extension Division of the 
University of Kansas during the past month. 

The football picture covers, play by play, the an- 
nual spring practice game of the University of Kansas. 
The "Varsity" squad of regulars and promising fresh- 
men played an assembled team of former football let- 
ter men of the University. The score was 21-0 in 
favor of the regulars, hut the film shows, in slow mo- 
tion, the successes and failures of certain new forma- 
tion- tried by loach I largi-- with the varsity squad. 
The film will be used this spring and next fall for in- 
structional purposes. 

The track picture includes normal and slow-motion 
pictures of field and track events of the Tenth Annual 
Kansas Relays. In addition, there arc slow motion 
pictures of the leading contenders in the Olympic try- 
out-, including action pictures of James A. Bausch, 
who lacked hut a few points of tying the world's record 
for the decathlon. The film will he used for instruc- 
tional purposes as well as to create still greater inter- 
est in this outstanding annual athletic carnival. The 
film is two reels in length. 

The film for use in clinical psychology classes, or 
with groups which may be interested in the problems 
of mental deficiency, includes intimate scenes of cases 
in the State Training School for the Mentally De- 
ficient, at Winfield. Kansas. It was produced in con- 
nection with a survey of cases of the higher levels, 
conducted by Dr. Bert A. Nash. Director of the Edu- 
cational Clinic, University of Kansas, with the assist- 
ance of students in the Graduate Division of the School 
of Education. The pictures were photographed by 
Ellsworth C. Dent, using a 16 mm. camera. 

This picture includes pictures of inmates of all 
levels, from the profound idiots to those of nearly 
normal mentality. The institution is "pammed" from 
a nearby hill-top. followed by close-ups of the various 
building- The recent development of "super-sensi- 
tive" film made it possible to secure some excellent 
pictures in the hospital and in some of the ward build- 

The Extension Division at the University of Kansas 
i- considering the production of additional motion 
picture- and slides, covering the industries of Kansas. 

If these are produced, they will he available for sail- 
or loan to schools outside Kansas. 

New 16mm. Film Releases 

Eastman Teaching Films announce the following 
new films as being ready for distribution. 

First Aid Series, consisting of four films, provide 
accurate demonstrations of first aid technique based 
on the methods advocated by the American National 
Red Cross. The titles are : Life Saving and Resuscita- 
tion. Control of Bleeding, Carrying the Injured, and 
Care of Minor ll'ounds. 

I 'irginia. the Old Dominion depicts a region rich in 
geographic, commercial and historical interests. The 
three units show the Coastal Plain region, the Piedmont 
Plateau and the Greater Valley. 

I'eru shows the varied relief features, rich natural 
resources, transportation difficulties, and living condi- 
tions in this country. An animated map outlines the 
Coastal Lowlands, Andean Highlands, and Interior 

Oysters tells the life history of the Atlantic oyster, 
and the methods used in "farming," fishing and can- 
ning. The last unit shows how pearls are formed and 
assembled into necklaces. 

I nder-Sea Life illustrates the curious adaptations 
of animals to meet the needs of food gathering, ag- 
gression, protection against enemies, and survival of 
the species. ♦ ♦ ♦ 

The Bell and Howell Filmo Library has just re- 
leased a group of educational films, sixty-two 400-foot 
silent subjects in all, covering a variety of useful ma- 
terial. The majority of the films are on geographical 
subjects, dealing not only with the physical aspects of 
the various lands, but also with the people and their 
customs and occupations. 

Eleven films deal with biology and nature study ; two 
films. Nature and the Poet, and An Indian Legend, are 
classed as literary material ; and three films are from 
the group. Modern Truths from Old Fables. 
♦ ♦ ♦ 

Apex Films Inc., Xew York City, has secured the 
world rights on 16 mm. film for Tony Sarg's Almanac, 
a series of 100-foot animated silhouettes. This is the 
first time that these stories have been released on 16 
mm. film. They are a decidedly novelty, being of par- 
ticular appeal for the home field. 

(Concluded on page 149) 

Page 142 

The Educational Screen 





Experiments With Visual Aids 

The Audubon Junior High School, Cleveland. Ohio, 
has demonstrated the value of visual aids in a series of 
experiments conducted with two ninth grade general 
science classes. The contributing factors involved in 
setting up the conditions were equated so far as possi- 
ble, and neither class was told that its work was to 
make a showing in an experiment. 

The plan of teaching called for the presentation to 
the experimental group of the regular subject matter 
in general science plus all the visual aids in slides, 
movies, models, and exhibits obtainable from the Edu- 
cational Museum. The control group was taught 
identical subject-matter but the visual aids were with- 
held. Greater motivation, more positive conceptions 
through the medium of sight, and valuable additions 
to teaching method are some of the values suggested 
through this experiment. 

♦ ♦ ♦ 

A series of tests was made earlier in the year in 
Middlesex schools, of England, under the control of 
the National Union of Teachers with regard to the 
effect of films on education. The report on this experi- 
ment, which has just been published in book form, 
shows that the film has distinct educational possibili- 
ties. Stress is laid particularly on the strong memory 
of sound films and the lasting vividness of the im- 
pressions conveyed. It recommends close co-opera- 
tion between the industry and educational authorities 
to provide films more suitable for the instruction of 
school children. 

A similar experiment is being conducted by the edu- 
cation department of Edinburgh, Scotland, who are 
also holding conferences with the industry to ascer- 
tain how to encourage the serious use of motion pic- 
tures in education. 

Visual Instruction Bulletins 

The April issue of The Visual Talkie, published by 
Akin and Bagshaw of Denver, Colorado, contains in 
addition to announcements of local interest, worth- 
while articles. Titles of these are, "The Use of Mo- 
tion Pictures in Coaching Athletics," "The Motion 
Picture as a Teaching Aid," and, particularly interest- 
ing. "The Talking Filmslide." This device is described 
bv Mr. A. P. Tittle of the Colorado School of Mines. 

where it is used in an applied engineering course and 
has proved a very valuable aid in teaching because of 
its low cost, simplicity of operation, and the interest 
taken by the class in the subjects presented. 

♦ ♦ ♦ 

The Projector, the bulletin of the Quincy, Mass., 
Public Schools, carries in its April issue evidence of 
the increasing use of visual aids in that city, which is 
constantly adding one more school to the number of 
those who possess 100% visual equipment. Of the 
26 schools in Quincy, 22 use such aids regularly from 
the central library, it is stated. 

♦ ♦ ♦ 

The April 11, 1932, issue of Life Long Learning, a 
publication of the Extension Division of the Uni- 
versity of California, is devoted to announcements of 
visual instruction service as offered by the Division. 
In addition to service announcements, there are brief 
discussions of the questions, "Is Visual Instruction 
Economical," and "Sixteen or Thirty-five Millimeter 
Films". Mr. Robert S. Johnson is in charge of the 
Department of Visual Instruction of the California 
Extension Division. 

Philadelphia Schools Use 
Eighty Projectors 

Typical of the large public school visual education 
department is that of Philadelphia, where more than 
eighty Filmo projectors are already at work in the 
schools. Dr. James G. Sigman, Director of Visual 
Education, has a library of over 2,000,000 feet of 
16 mm. film, 450,000 feet of 35 mm. film, and 40,000 
glass slides at his disposal. In an article in the Phila- 
delphia livening Bulletin he was quoted as saying: 

"All the junior and senior high schools and 40 per 
cent of the elementary schools now have motion pic- 
ture projectors. All the schools have slide projectors. 
The department is still in its infancy, but is increasing 
the scope of its work annually and we hope to convert 
all the teachers to the belief that moving pictures are 
an excellent complement to their classroom work. 

"A new service which we have installed is the taking 
of pictures of outstanding events in the various schools. 
To date, this has been chiefly confined to sports. Last 

M.m, 19)2 

Page 143 

year we took 40 reds of movies of track meets, foot 
ball games and other happenings of interest to the 


List of Health Films Available 

Since the announcement of the List of Visual Aids 
in Health and Physical Education in the January is- 
sue of The Educational Screen, Mr. Franklin B. 

Hoar write- that he has received many requests for 
this list and that reprints are now available. This li>t 

was revised and appeared in the April issue of the 

Journal of Health and Physical Education, published 
by the American Physical Education Association, Box 
363, Ann Arbor. Michigan. Reprint- may be pur- 
chased at a very nominal cost by writing u> Mr. Elmer 
Mitchell. Editor >>f the Journal. 

S. M. P. E. Museum 

The Society of Motion Picture Engineers ha- estab- 
lished in the Los Angeles Museum a collection con- 
taining several thousand objects which show the 
evolution of the motion picture industry. 

Among the exhibit- represented are: Muybridge 
with his "Horse in Motion" experiments for Leland 
Stanford, various models of projectors including Edi- 

son, Edison Exhibition Model, Pathe, Amet, Eden- 
graph, Motiograph, Kinema-Kolor. 

e exhibit that represents about six years' work 
is a collection of 1,200 authentic specimens of film 
made by the pioneers. They vary from four milli- 
meters to four inches in width. There are 200 differ- 
ent color attempts recorded, as well as sound, third 
dimension, processes, and outstanding pictures, and 
the first piece of film made on the celluloid supplied 
by < ieorge Eastman to Edison in 1889, and transpar- 
ent paper used prior to the advent of celluloid. 

Round Table at N. U. E. A. 

A visual instruction round table was a feature of 
the 1932 conference of the National University Exten- 
sion Association, which was held in Minneapolis, Min- 
nesota, May 11-13, 1932. The round table meeting 
was held at noon on Thursday, May 12, and was well 
attended. The discussions centered around the prob- 
lems of visual aid extension service to the schools, as 
offered by several members of the N. U. E. A. Mr. 
Ellsworth C. Dent, Secretary of the Bureau of Visual 
Instruction, University Extension Division, University 
of Kansas, acted as chairman of the round table. Last 
year. Mr. Dent was appointed representative of the 
X. C. E. A. to national visual instruction organizations. 



Briefs From California 

The Visual Aid- Section of the California Teachers' 
Association, Southern Section, adopted a program of 
teacher training a- their main objective at their Spring 
(.(inference in 1931. The development of the program 
ha- been put in the hands of a recently formed com- 
mittee known as the Committee on Teacher Training 
of the Visual Aids Section. California Teachers' As- 
sociation S. S. with Mary Clint Irion of Los Angeles 
as chairman. The committee decided upon certain 
preliminary procedures. 

A. To ascertain just what i- being done in the way of 
training teachers in this field throughout the L'nited 
State- and in California in particular by writing let- 
ters to and interviewing deans of education, presidents 
of teacher:-' colleges, etc.. asking the following ques- 
tion- : 

1. 1- any training given in the use of visual aids to 
your teachers in training or through extension 
courses to teachers, supervisors, and administrat- 
or- in service? 

2. If so. does this training pertain to the pedagogical 
application of the various types of aids, or does 
it refer to the mechanical problems of the use of 


pictures and other visual aids, or both? 

3. If you have any such courses, will you please 
send us a copy of the syllabus of the course? 

4. Do you ex|>ect to do anything further than you 
are now doing in this field? 

5. Is it your belief that any further training than 
teachers in general now have is necessary ? 

B. To secure the advice and cooperation of the edu- 
cational leaders close at hand through personal inter- 

C. To submit to the various publications in the field 
accounts of successful experience in the use of visual 
tools, and articles of interest regarding the work of the 

D. To prepare a bibliography of visual aids for the 
use of instructors in teacher-training institutions who 
might wish to inform themselves more fully in this 

E. To consider the preparation of a handbook on 
visual aids. 

F. If the results of our survey so justify, to present 
to the State Hoard of Education a plea for the inclu- 

i Concluded on fat* 145 > 

Page 144 

The Educational Screen 



Department to Meet June 27-28 at 
Atlantic City 

THE first meeting of the recently merged Depart- 
ment of Visual Instruction of the N. E. A. and 
National Academy of Visual Instruction will be 
held in Atlantic City, New Jersey, on Monday and 
Tuesday, June 27 and 28. Plans are under way to 
make this the largest visual instruction meeting ever 
held in the United States. 

The sessions will begin Monday noon with a lunch- 
eon meeting, followed by papers and discussions of the 
topic, "Values of Visual-Sensory Aids by Types and 
Subjects". Dr. F. Dean McClusky, past president of 
the Academy, will preside. 

The next general session will begin with a luncheon 
meeting on Tuesday, followed by discussions of the 
timely topic, "Relating Visual-Sensory Aids to the 
Curriculum", and a short business meeting. 

The sessions have been scheduled so there will be a 
minimum of conflicts with the general programs of the 
N. E. A. The sessions of the Department will be open 
to anyone who may desire to attend but only qualified 
members will be eligible to participate in the business 

Advance information indicates that the special ex- 
hibits to be prepared by the New Jersey Visual Instruc- 
tion Association will contain many applications of 
visual aids to classroom procedure and will be of un- 
usual interest to all teachers and school executives who 
may attend the summer meeting. 

A number of special committees have been appointed 
by Dr. C. F. Hoban, President of the combined De- 
partment and Academy and have begun activity. The 
officials of the Department will appreciate suggestions 
and will be pleased to assist in solving the instructional 
problems of those who may request such service. 

New Jersey Association Extends Invitation 
to Department 

To the members of the Department of Visual Instruc- 
tion of the National Education Association combined 
with the National Academy of Visual Instruction — 

The New Jersey Visual Education Association will 
be glad to meet you and happy to greet you as you 
come to our spacious shores for your national meeting. 

At Atlantic City, "The World's Playground", you 
will enjoy fun and frolic, and attend inspiring, edu- 
cational meetings for much has been planned by the 
enthusiastic educators of our state and other states 
to make your week pleasant and profitable. 

The members of the New Jersey Visual Education 
Association desire to extend the hand of good fellow- 
ship to you at a reception, concerning which definite 
details will be announced at a later date. 

The New Jersey Visual Education Association 
commends all members of the merged associations on 
the purposeful use being made of visual aids in the 
conduct of the classroom. The fact that this mean- 
ingful movement is rapidly growing in a national way 
is ample evidence of the splendid service being ren- 
dered by you. 

Yours for successful "sessions at the Atlantic City 

GEORGE W. Wright, President, 
Nezv Jersey Visual Education Association. 

Hoban on Summer N. E. A. Program 

Dr. C. F. Hoban, Director of museum and visual 
instruction service for the Commonwealth of Pennsyl- 
vania and President of the Department of Visual In- 
struction of the N. E. A., is to address the General 
Session of the National Education Association at At- 
lantic City. Dr. Hoban is to be on the Thursday 
morning program. June 30, to discuss the subject, 
"Visual-Sensory Aids in a Progressive Educational 

Wide experience in his field, national and inter- 
national recognition of his achievements, able leader- 
ship of the visual instruction program of Pennsylvania 
and the ability to speak convincingly should certainly 
qualify Dr. Hoban to present his subject interestingly. 
President Hale is to be complimented upon her choice 
for this important mission, as well as upon her recogt- 
nition of the value of a discussion of visual instruc- 
tion on the general program. 

New Visual Aid Manual 

A new booklet. "Simple Directions for Making In- 
expensive Visual Aids", is now ready for distribution. 
It contains all of the material included in the Septem- 
ber-March issues of Visual Instruction News under 

M.iy. 1932 

Page 145 

that title, with some revisions and additions to com- 
plete the manual. 

The purpose of the manual is to provide helpful and 
timely information concerning many type- of visual 
aids which may be constructed in the classroom or 
laboratory by either teachers or pupils. The subjects 
treated include the following: 

Etched glass lantern slides 
Paper cut-out lantern slide- 

( leramic pencil lantern 

India ink lantern slides 
( ellnphane lantern slides 
Photographic lantern slides Blue prints 
Home made Stilltilms Septa prints 

Sources of materials 

Film slides 
The electric map 
Spatter work 
Pencil outlines of leaves 
Leaf prints from carbon 

The manual should he of interest and of value to 
all users of visual aids as well as to teachers of geog- 
raphy, the social sciences, history, elementary science. 
physics, chemistry, agriculture, fine art. industrial art. 

reading and spelling. It should be of great value, also, 

to those who may he students in visual instruction 


The price of the manual is 25c i*-r copy, postpaid. 
A discount of 20' , is extended to members of the De- 
partment of Visual Instruction and to those who de- 
sire ten or more copies for class use. Requests should 
he mailed to the Department of Visual Instruction. 
1S12 Illinois Street. Lawrence, Kansas 

News Briefs from California 

winded from pagt 14.i > 
sion of training in the uses of visual aids in the courses 
Of study of the teachers" colleges of California, 
(i. To be prepared to furnish definite help to teacher- 
training institutions on request. 

♦ ♦ ♦ 

The Automotive Section of the Vocational Educa- 
tional Association. Southern Section, had an oppor- 
tunity to see and hear a new three reel sound film. The 
New Ford V-8 From a Technical Standpoint at their 
meeting May 7. 1932, at the John Muir Technical High 
School in Pasadena. Mr. H. C. Jump, of the Ford 
Motor Company in Long Beach, gave a ten minute 
talk on the importance of using motion picture films 
in the teaching of automobile mechanics. 

♦ ♦ ♦ 

An editorial committee to collect and forward arti- 
cles to educational magazines has been appointed for 
the Visual Aids Section of the California Teachers 
Association, Southern Section, by Mr. James House, 
president of that organization. The chairman. Miss 

Membership Application Blank 

Office of the Secretary-Treasurer, 
Department of Visual Instruction & 
National Academy of Visual Instruction, 
1812 Illinois Street, Lawrence, Kansas. 


I herewith make application for n Active n Asso- 
ciate O Institutional a Contributing Membership in 
the Department of Visual Instruction of the National 
Education Association, combined with the National 
Academy of Visual Instruction, covering the period 
of one year from date. 

( heck below the preferred date for payment of dues. 

n Remittance attached n First of next month. 




Street ,. 

City & State 

I am O 
I am not n 

a member of the National Education 

NOTE — Make checks payable to the Department of 
Visual Instruction. 

Margaret White, of the Pasadena Visual Education 
Department, plans to select at once a small committee 
to aid in the work. 

♦ ♦ ♦ 

A recent exhibit of health materials for the use of 
classroom teachers was held at the offices of the nurses 
and dental hygienists of the school system in Pasa- 
dena. The exhibit included books available through 
the City Schools Library, all types of visual aids avail- 
able through the Visual Education Department, and a 
quantity of free material such as class and personal 
record charts, mimeographed rhymes with line draw- 
ings, etc.. which can be used only once. 

Through the courtesy of the Crown City Dairy, a 
large group of attractive and instructive health posters 
from the Southern California Dairy Council has been 
given to the Visual Education Department. 

The success of the exhibit was proven by the high 
interest which continues from every school although 
the exhibit is over. 

Page 146 

The Educational Screen 



Science Education (February) "Talking Pictures 
for Teaching Purposes," by W. W. McSpadden and 
Charles C. Raines is a welcome contribution to a sub- 
ject on which little has been written so far. As the 
authors state, "the purpose of this article is to dis- 
cuss the equipment necessary and to give such practi- 
cal advice as has been the result of more than a year's 
operation of talking pictures in the public schools of 
Austin, Texas." They advise the construction of an 
outfit utilizing present equipment for those who have 
more mechanical ability than funds. "Others can obtain 
the several units from various sources, assembling the 
whole with little difficulty, but if expense is not to be 
considered, a complete outfit may be purchased, with 
consequent saving in labor." 

The various units involved in a 16 mm. sound-on- 
disc installation are then discussed — the projector, a 
synchronized turntable, an electrical sound amplifier, 
a speaker, the motion picture screen — from the stand- 
point of one desiring to assemble his own outfit. 

The Historical Outlook (April) In "Pictures— 
Their Purpose and Use in the Teaching of History," 
Frances N. Ahl of the Glendale, California, High 
School, makes the significant statement that "of all 
the classroom tools that may be used for the vitaliza- 
tion of history pictures hold a pre-eminent place." 
She includes all types of pictures — wall pictures, paper 
prints, stereographs, slides and films. The article pre- 
sents briefly the purpose of pictures and different 
methods for their use. 

Journal of Education (March 7) "Power Develop- 
ment (Visualization)", appearing in the Character 
Workshop department conducted by Joseph E. Egan. 
stresses the importance of evolving a definite tech- 
nique to develop the definite powers of visualization 
which a child brings with him to the schoolroom his 
first day. The writer is firmly convinced that such 
development would result in the child's ability to learn 
rapidly, to reason, and to develop a comprehensive 

Hygeia (March) "Arrowsmith" is an extended 
review praising the successful filming of Sinclair. 
Lewis' medical novel of the same name. The produc- 
tion has been given a fine rating by most critics from 
the general and dramatic viewpoints. Now we find 
the scientific man's stamp of approval. 

Federal Council Bulletin (March) "The Church 
and The Motion Picture", by A. T. Poffenberger, Pro- 
fessor of Psychology, Columbia University, is an ab- 
breviated account of the author's original discussion 
of the subject elsewhere. The writer reviews for us 
again those discouraging aspects of the cinema that 
have persisted in the given years of this industry. He 
asserts that the cinema, like the tabloid, aims low. 
How dreadfully true, this assertion ! And the level 
is little, if any higher, than it was in the early nineteen 
hundreds. Technically, colossal strides ! Spiritually. 
still marking time ! Dr. Poffenberger . discusses the 
Church's place in untangling the situation. His re- 
marks are concise and to the point. But again, one 
cannot help remembering that such remarks have been 
as concisely and pointedly made often and often be- 
fore. Let us hope that the much prophesied day is 
not too far away when there will be financial means 
and sufficient ideals among enough picture producers 
to effect a telling step forward in this matter of better 

Movie Makers (April) "How To Plan a Social 
Welfare Film", by Arthur L. Gale, and "Film Fights 
Hay Fever", by Herbert J. Rinkel, M. D. are of in- 
terest to teachers and students who rrtake their own 
amateur films. 

National Board of Review Magazine (February) 
"How the Specialized Motion Picture Is Developed", 
by Dr. Wallace W. Atwood, President of Clark Uni- 
versity, begins with a statement made by Thomas A. 
Edison to the Countess of Warwick in 1911. The 
late Mr. Edison hoped to live to see the day when 
"films will be used to make education more interesting 
and vivid, and therefore more valuable." The late 
genius went on to indicate the scope of the film and its 
ability to draw the world closely together in an inti- 
mate experience and relationship. Dr. Clark then dis- 
cusses the use of the film in the teaching of geography. 
He explains his method in presenting the life of the 
Japanese and other peoples. This article is not a 
long one, but it comprises a surprising amount of sug- 
gestive material, and should be of real help to our 
readers. Dr. Clark succeeds in stimulating the imagi- 
nation of his readers, so that, although one finds no 
long discussion of the subject, he does find his thought 
leaping into a varied array of channels. 

M,m. 19)2 

Page 147 




Being the Combined Judgments of a National Committee on Current Theatrical Films 

(The Film Estimates, in whole or in part, may be reprinted only by special arrangement with The Educational Screen) 

Amateur Daddy i Warner Baxter, Marion 
Nixon t (Fox) Very human and appealing 
story with charming romance interest. Genial 
hem leaves) Ml engineering work to father 
a pal's four children beset with poverty and 
e\ il-intent loned neighbors. Well-acted, con- 

UgbJy worthwhile. 
A i;iM»d Y Very | i | j C Mature but good 

Beauty and the Boss (Marian Msrsh, War- 
ren William | i Warner i [tig business man 
demands of girls otily eltirieney during office 
i>ut Bomething else afterward. Heroine, 
at first incredibly innocent and efficient, is 
transformed by clothes and manages to marry 
unprincipled boss. Exaggerated and risque. 
A II unity Y — Unwholesome C — No 

Big Timer, The (Ben Lyon, Constance Cum- 
mfngst (Columbia) Another film of epidemic 
glorifying prizefighting, ("heap dialog by cheap 
people, two violent ring fights and a third in 
business office without gloves. First film with 
heroine at* prizefight manager. I^»w taste and 
low Meals throughout. 

■ieap Y— Doubtful C— No 

Hut Flesh (a Weak (Robert Montgomery, 
Nora Gregoi i (MGM) Sophisticated story of 
engaging, penniless old aristocrat with great 
aversion to work, and son just like him, both 
after wealthy marriage. Smooth acting, novel 
characters, clever dialog refreshingly free from 

racking and cheap suggestiveness. 
A Good of kind Y Mature C— No 

Careless Lady, The (Joan Bennett, John 
i Fox i Artificial plot, mediocre acting, 
ticated dialog. First half spent con- 
heroine that innocence is passe and 
she must get "experience." Second half spent 
yetting it in Paris, with hero chasing her con- 
stantly to insure moral ending. 
A — Me- 1 Y Unwholesome C — No 

Cohens and Keilys in Hollywood (Sidney, 
Murray) (Universal) Agreeable foolery by the 
(Id comedy pair, free from slapstick and vul- 
garity of their former pictures. Real human 
Interest story which travesties amusingly Hol- 
lywood production methods and the ups and 

of movie prosperity. 
A Fair Y — Amusing C — Amusing 

Deatry Rides Again (Tom Mix, Claudia 
Delli (Universal) Typical Tom Mix and Tony 
western with tine riding, clever gun-play and 
Artificial story of good 
hen blind to obvious treachery of partner, 
but gets revenge and girl. Acting crude ex- 
v horse but action thoroughly thrilling. 
A Hardly Y Good of kind C — Probably good 

Baplaren of the World (Medley of explore- 
lion tilmsi (Baapin) In novel manner, several 
famous explorers snow pictures of their trav- 
els in all corners of the earth, with their own 
vocal explanations. Some faking, but much 
rdinary photography, extremely inter- 
and varied subject-matter, ably and 
\ elv presented. Stimulating and valu- 

A Interesting Y Very interesting C Good 

Gay Caballero. The (George O'Brien. Victor 
McLaglen* (Fox) Lively western, with rather 
good plot on Robin Hood motif, fast and fu- 
nction. American pals pose successively 
as well-known bandit to help Mexicans and 
each other. Fine settings and photography. 
'>t excitement only objection for children. 
A Good of kind Y— Rather good C — Exciting 

Gees] Sport i Linda Watkins. John Boles) 

Another infidelity comedy exploiting 

Jigger life — about unsophisticated wife 

whose husband takes a little jaunt to Paris 

Estimates are given for 3 groups 
A — Intelligent Adult 
Y— Youth (15-20 years) 
C— Child (under 15 years) 
Bold faced type means "recommended" 

with mistress. Said wife meanwhile mingles 
with hubby's gay feminine friends, learns 
much, and achieves solution. 
A Hardly Y — Certainly not C — No 

Grand Hotel (Extraordinary cast) (MGM) 
A masterpiece of its kind, outstanding in al- 
most every way. Shows varied mosaic of life, 
its good and evil, joy and sorrow, success and 
failure, with great hotel lobby as main set- 
ting- Strong, finely acted, skillfully directed 
version of the novel. 
A Notable Y Unwholesome C— No 

It's Tough to be Famous (Doug Fairbanks 
Jr. i (First National) Exaggerated satirical 
farce about trials of genuinely modest hero 
forced to endure high-pressure publicity stunts 
which almost ruin happiness and home. Young 
Doug does some excellent work in rather sub- 
tle sole. Rest of acting obvious or mediocre. 
A— Passable Y— - Amusing C— Good 

Miracle Man, The (Chester Morris. Sidney 
Fox) (Paramount) Opens with smooth gang 
of crooks at work in city. Chance sends them 
to country town where they try to exploit 
local faith-healer. His true goodness and re- 
ligion triumph over them quite convincingly. 
Some very effective acting but too much 
Chester Morris. 
A— Good Y— Fairly good C— Hardly 

Misreading Lady, The (Claudette Colbert. 
Edmund Lowe) (Paramount) Light romantic 
comedy revamped from old stage play. Rich. 
bored society heroine sets out to win hero, 
who is at first indifferent to her. then adopts 
caveman tactics, and both fall genuinely in 
love at the end. Amusing minor-role of lu- 
A— Light Y— Better not C— Unsuitable 

Mouthpiece. The (Warren William. Sidney 
Fox) (Warner) Able, smooth philandering 
lawyer leaves honest law practice for greater 
wealth as gangland's legal defender. Innocent 
heroine's charm moves him to quit the dirty 
business and defy gangsters, but they "get" 
him. William's work exceptionally fine. 
A—Good of kind Y— Doubtful C— No 

Office Girl (English production) (RKO) 
Genuine light comedy, refreshingly different 
from Hollywood formulas. Quaint, leisurely, 
very human, engagingly acted, with some dis- 
tinctly original touches for humorous effect. 
Renate Muller is a heroine of notable ability 
and charm. 
A— Entertaining Y— Very good C— Good 

Play Girl (Loretta Young, Norman Foster) 
I First National) Story of shop-girl life, very 
human in spots, but cheapened by Winnie 
Light tier's brazen, risque dialog and distorting 
ordinary ideals. Shows love and marriage as 
-■-ful with lying and race-track gambling 
as the foundation. 
A— Cheap Y— Doubtful C— No 

Police Court (H. It. Walthall, Leon Janney) 
(Monogram) Second rate picture with Mihiui 
intent. Human-interest story of devoted little 
son of drunken father who was formerly 
great actor. Slow-moving action and mawkish 
sentiment at times. Well-acted but more 
depressing than entertaining. 
A— Mediocre Y— Perhaps C— Unsuitable 

Scandal for Sale (Charles Bickford) (Uni- 
versal) Another hectic newspaper film. This 
time hard-boiled tabloid-editor hero is un- 
m rupulous enough to let his own child die. 
nearly lose his fine wife, and send his best 
friend to death on transatlantic flight — all for 
"circulation." Slightly overdrawn. 
A — Depends on taste Y — Hardly C — No 

Sky Bride (Richard Arlen, Jack Oakte) 
(Paramount) Just another air-picture that 
strains after thrills and rather mawkish sen- 
timent. Hero can recover his lost nerve only 
by punching his devoted pal unconscious at 
intervals. Acting depressingly ordinary. Child 
dangling In midair under plane is the "big 
A—Worthless Y— Mediocre C— No 

So Big (Barbara Stanwyck) (Columbia) Fine 
screening of famous Ferber story of triumph 
of a woman's idealism and courage over hard- 
ships. Minor faults in make-up and in one 
or two acting roles, but most of cast is excel- 
lent and Miss Stanwyck's performance is not- 
ably fine. 
A — Very good Y — Very good C— Good 

Steady Company (June Clyde, Norman Fos- 
ter) (Universal) Rather wholesome little 
prizefight picture, with two overlong and vio- 
lent ring fights, otherwise showing human and 
humorous romance of fine little telephone girl 
and young truck-driver with "champ" ambi- 
tions, his best chance for success in life. 
A— Hardly Y— Passable < Hardly 

Symphony of Six Million (Irene Dunne. 
Ricardo Cortex) (RKO) Strong, human pic- 
ture of lower east side New York life. Son 
of humble home rises to medical fame, moves 
uptown to rich practice, but old home section 
and its crying need draw him back. Splendidly 
acted by whole cast. 
A Very good Y — Verygood C— Maturebutgood 

Tarzan the Ape Man (Johnny Weismuller) 
i MGM) Most fantastic, sensational thriller 
yet made. Striking African scenery and ani- 
mal photography. A masterpiece of technique, 
trick shots and effects perfectly done. Ignores 
probability and scientific truth to get maxi- 
mum thrills. Unusual and interesting. 
A— Notable Y— Thrilling C— Doubtful 

This Is The Night (Lily Damita. Roland 
Young) (Paramount) Light, flippantly sophis- 
ticated farce-comedy about bachelor in love 
with a wife whose husband returns suddenly. 
etc.. etc. Stale and feeble plot hampers the 
splendid comic skill of Roland Young and 
Charles Ruggles. the only redeeming features. 
A— Hardly Y— Doubtful C— No 

Wet Parade. The (All Star cast) (MGM) 
.Serious of liquor question, pre- 
and post-prohibition drunkenness, the saloon 
and the speak-easy, the farce of prohibition 
enforcement, and the comedy and tragedy of it 
all. Finely acted. Will stir a lot of public 
thought pro and con prohibition. 
A Better see it Y— Doubtful C— No 

World and the Flesh (George Bancroft) 
(Paramount) A wild tale of Russia a hi Hol- 
lywood, with the Russian Revolution as back- 
ground, with its accompanying immorality and 
bloodshed. Disorder and upheaval at every 
turn. Excellent acting by principals. Plot 
and action more or less incredible. 
A— Good of kind Y— Unwholesome C— No 

Young America (Tommy Conlon, Raymond 
Korzage) (Fox) Excellent juvenile, fine sup- 
porting cast, very human juvenile-court story 
make an appealing, thought-provoking pictureof 
real social value. Interesting to all, but parts 
may be too sad for sensitive children. Except 
for one or two falsities in motive and action, 
a great picture. 
V Kxcellent Y Excellent C Mature but good 

Page 148 

The Educational Screen 





Motion Picture Cameras for Church 
Use This Summer 

This is the time of year when it is particularly fitting 
to discuss the matter of cameras for church movie 
purposes. For one thing, we are approaching the time 
when Sunday School picnics and the like will soon be 
abroad in the land. And a Sunday School picnic is 
always an ideal subject for the amateur movie pho- 
tographer. If it is announced that movies are to be 
made at a picnic, you are sure to have a larger crowd 
than usual, and then again when the pictures are shown 
later on you will have a crowded house to see the 
movies. The movie-making feature at a picnic is al- 
ways productive of rare fun. All of us like to "be in 
the movies" even if we are not Hollywood actors. Be 
sure to take a motion picture camera along on the 
occasion of your next Sunday School picnic and see 
what fun everyone gets out of it. 

Of course, there is practically only one sort of movie 
camera for such purposes, and that is the 16 mm. am- 
ateur camera. You could use a hand-held semi-pro- 
fessional camera employing 35 mm. film, but the ex- 
pense of the film would be entirely too great. It is 
estimated that the cost of 35 mm. film for making any 
given picture is about six times that of 16 mm. film 
and there is very little reason for using 35 mm. film 
for picnics and similar functions. If your 16 mm. 
camera is equipped for using Kodacolor. you can get 
some nice effects by taking colored motion pictures. 
You probably would not want to take all of your 
movies at the picnic in color, but you could take some 
of them in this fashion, and this would add variety 
when you come to project the picnic pictures. 

Here is another thing that has to do with making 
motion pictures this summer. Almost every congrega- 
tion has several owners of 16 mm. movie cameras 
among its members. Why not ask these people to be 
sure to take their cameras along this summer on their 
vacations and bring back pictures of their travels and 
vacation experiences which they could show at a meet- 
ing of some one or other of the church organizations 
in the autumn? You will find that such a meeting 
will be a very interesting event and one which will 
bring a fine attendance. If the Sunday School has a 
ball team, be sure to make movies of some of the 
games, and you will find that the lads on the team will 
be mighty proud of their prowess as recorded by the 

camera and will want their older friends to be sure 
to see the movies- 

As a matter of fact, every clergyman, or at least 
every church, ought to have a 16 mm. motion picture 
camera nowadays, for there are so many things hap- 
pening all the time of vital interest to the church and 
congregation that should be recorded by motion pic- 
tures. It is generally possible to repay the cost of a 
camera in a comparatively short time by putting on 
motion picture entertainments and charging a small 
admission. These entertainments need not be given 
over entirely to home-made pictures, but a portion of 
the pictures shown should be made by local persons 
and relate to local scenes. Other interesting films can 
be secured on loan from film libraries at a very rea- 
sonable price and frequently can be secured on a free 
rental basis. By a judicious combination of local films 
and films secured from various other sources, verv in- 
teresting motion picture entertainments can be put on, 
and the resulting admission charges will soon defray 
the expense of a camera. 

St. Joseph Valley Larger Parish 
Completes Film Story 

A recent issue of the South Bend, Ind., News-Times 
carried a two-column article on the remarkable work 
of Rev. R. \Y. Leisher, Centerville, Michigan, in stag- 
ing a come-back in rural church units in the St. Joseph 
Valley Larger Parish in southwestern Michigan. The 
fact that the many and varied parish activities were 
being recorded with a Filmo 16 mm. movie camera 
was mentioned some time ago in this department. 
With regard to this parish film, the South Bend paper 
has the following to say : 

"Without doubt the recording of these (parish) ac- 
tivities last year on motion picture film was the 'big 
event' of the year. Two sets of machines are kept 
busy a good part of the time, cameras and projectors. 
The parish has its own newsreel service, and pictures 
of the big football games and other important events 
in reasonable reach are covered by the parish camera- 

"Work on the film, A Michigan Miracle, has just 
been completed by Mr. Leisher. The 8-reel film be- 
gins with Isaac McCoy's establishment of the Carey 
Mission in Niles 112 years ago, and the scenes that 
follow revive the story of the religious, educational. 

(Concluded on page 158) 

May, 19)2 

Page 149 

Visual Instruction in Indiana 

[Concluded from page 140) 

tlu- school can not purchase the necessary films and 
Hides they should be made available for rental. In 
Indiana the State University Service has aided ma- 
terially by purchasing available materials and offering 
the subjects to schools on a rental basis. Individuals 
who have introduced a worthwhile visual program in 
their respective schools have done much to pave the 
way for other schools. To those who have taken this 

tii'M step goes the responsibility of making the visual 
program a success. Members of this group should he 
ahle to disseminate information concerning correct 
procedure in establishing a visual program and mini- 
mum Standards consistent with available funds. This 
could be accomplished through a state-wide organiza- 
tion. Such an organization would familiarize teach- 
ers with the newer visual materials and pave the way 
for a uniform visual program throughout the state. 

Film Production Notes 

(Concluded from page 141) 

New Agriculture Films 

Preparation and Marketing of Dressed Poultry, In- 
spection mid Canning of Poultry, and Marketing Lire 
Poultry, are the subjects of three new poultry films 
sponsored by the Bureau of Agricultural Economics. 

These films were shown at the ^'orld Poultry Con- 
gress. London. England, as a single 5 reel subject en- 
titled. The Poultry Marketing Industry in the United 
States. For distribution in the I'nited States the same 
material has been made into three distinct films, which 
may be shown together or separately. 

Agricultural Explorations in Ceylon. Sumatra and 
Java, a 2-reel silent film, sponsored by the Bureau of 
Plant Industry, shows in their native surroundings 
some of the little-known and interesting fruits and 
ornamental plants which are now growing in this 
country as the result of the work of agricultural ex- 
plorers, who visit out-of-the-way places in search of 
plants for introduction and trial in America. This 
film is of general interest and should prove valuable, 
the department believes, in acquainting the public with 
new fruits and vegetables that may appear on Amer- 
ican markets in the near or distant future. It should 
be of special interest to college and high school stu- 
dents because it offers information about little-known 
subjects and regions. 

The reason for the Federal seed act and means used 

to keep out had seed are shown in the 2-reel motion 
picture How the Federal Inspection of Imported 
Protects the Farmer, also sponsored by the Bureau of 
riant Industry. This film belongs to that group of 
educational films that illustrate government activities. 
This particular film shows how the farmer is protected 
from loss resulting from poor seed and foreign weeds. 
It is of interest to farmers, im]>orters of seed and the 
public generally. 

Prospective borrowers of any or of all of these 
films should apply to the Office of Motion Pictures, 
Extension Service, l". S. Department of Agriculture. 

Scenic and Travel Library 

Ideal Pictures in New York City, of which M. I. 
Kandel is president, have a library of travel and scenic 
films, accompanied by descriptive talk. 

Among their subjects are: The Land of Islam, de- 
picting in detail the life of natives in Morocco; The 
Menace of Guatemala, which takes the audience 
through a town in the menacing shadow of the great 
active volcano, Agua, and shows some interesting 
native Indian types ; and When Winter Comes, a beau- 
tiful picturization of the white glory of winter, in- 
cluding some sequences of animals making ready for 
zero temperatures. 

Do You Know Your Tools? 

Photography is without doubt the most useful tool 
of the Visual Educator. 

Can you use this valuable medium properly, effi- 
ciently, artistically? 

authoritative texts on any photographic subject. 
The CAMERA CRAFT magazine brings you the 
latest news and instructive articles. 

Write for our free catalog giving a com- 
plete lilt of photographic books and a 
sample copy of Camera Craft Magaiine 

Camera Craft Publishing Company 

703 Market Street - - San Francisco, California 

Page 150 

The Educational Screen 






Director, Scarborough 


Scarborough-on-Hudson, N. Y. 

A Picture Study Lesson With the Opaque Projector 


THE OPAQUE projector is a great aid to me in my 
classwork. The following picture study lesson re- 
cently given to my 1A class illustrates its use. During 
this lesson, a picture, which had been studied the 
previous semester, was reviewed and a new one pre- 
sented for study and appreciation. The procedure of 
the lesson is briefly recorded below : 

"The first picture you are to see today' is one you 
have already seen and studied. Let me see how much 
you remember about this picture." 

Picture 1 
"What is the name of this picture?" 
Esther : "The Madonna of the Chair." 
"Can you tell me another name for Madonna?" 
George : "A Madonna is a mother." 
"Who are the people in this picture?" 
Sara Jane : "Jesus, Mary, and John." 
"A Madonna, then, is the mother of Jesus." 
"Why is the picture called "The Madonna of the 

Jack (running up to the curtain) : "Here is the 
chair back here and the mother is sitting in it." 
"Why is the picture round?" 
Irene: "It was made on the top of a barrel." 
"Tell the story about this picture." 
Marilyn : "The man who made this picture was out 
walking in the country, one day. He saw a mother and 
two children sitting under a tree. He thought they 
looked so nice that he wanted to paint them. He 
looked around for something to draw on and all he 
could find was an old barrel top. That's why the pic- 
ture is round." 

"So many of the lines are curved in this round pic- 
ture. Do you see any curved lines in the picture?" 

Barbara : "The scarf around mother's head is 

James: "Mother's arms are round at the elbows." 
Donald : "The baby's face is fat and round." 
Joseph : "Baby's arms and legs are curved." 
John : "Mother even had to bend her head to get 
into this round picture." 

"Does anyone remember who painted this picture?" 

Helen : "It was an Italian." 

"Yes, it was an Italian. His name was Raphael. 
Let's all say his name. Raphael lived long, long ago. 
Tell us the name of this picture again." 
Barbara : "The Madonna of the Chair." 
"The next picture you will see is a new one. I 
hope you will learn to like it as much as I do. It has 
always been a favorite of mine." 
Picture 2 
"This picture is called "Feeding Her Birds." It 
was painted by a Frenchman whose name was Millet. 
Say his name with me. Millet liked to paint pictures 
of country life better than anything else. Of all the 
pictures he made he liked this picture of the mother 
and her three children the best. They reminded him 
of a mother bird and her little birds. This mother is 
feeding her three little children just as a mother bird 
feeds her birdies. She has lined up her two little girls 
and their baby brother on the doorstep, and she sits 
in front of them on a lrrtle stool. In her lap she holds 
a bowl of porridge and feeds it to the children with 
a big spoon. Who do you think is going to get the 
first spoonful of porridge?" 

Barbara : "I think the little brother in the middle 
is going to get the first taste because he's got his 
mouth open." 

Ivy : "He looks just like a baby bird with his mouth 
open. Maybe that's why the picture is called "Feed- 
ing Her Birds". 

"You are right, Ivy. That is just exactly why 
Millet gave his picture that name." 

"Do you think the little sisters mind very much 
that their little brother gets his dinner first? Do they 
love their little brother? What makes you think so?" 
Loretta : "One little sister is smiling at him." 
Lorraine : "The other one is watching her brother." 
"What kind of shoes do these little children wear?" 
Frank : "They have wooden shoes on." 
"Count the wooden shoes for us." 
Jean : "There are six wooden shoes." 
"How many little white caps do you see?" 
Jean : "Three." 
"That is the way the peasant or country children 

May, 19}2 

Page 151 

dressed in France at the tim<- when this painter lived. 
Mother, too, wears a little cap on her head. Her skirt 
it kmg and full. So are the dresses of the little girls. 

"In back of the house is a garden. Father is busy 
working in it. Raymond, run up and look closely to 
KC what father is doing in the garden." 

Raymond: "lie is digging in the garden. From 
the hack of the room I thought that was a flower." 

"Here comes a hen running from the garden. I 
wonder what -he i- coming for." 

lames: "She wants something to eat. Maybe she 
thinks there will he some crumbs left over." 

"What kind of a day do you think it was when this 
picture was made?" 

Irene: "It was a sunny day." 

"What, in the picture, tells you it was a bright day?" 

Sara Jane : "There are shadows on the wall." 

Jean : "The sunshine makes mother's hair so bright." 

I .nretta : "The baby's hair is just like his mother's." 

"Tell again the name of the picture." 

James: "Feeding Her Birds." 

"You surely ought to be able to remember that 
name because you can read all the words at the bot- 
tom of the picture. Let us say the name of this 
Frenchman again." 

All: ".Millet." 

By using the opaque projector in this study, the pic- 
tun- were greatly enlarged and it was possible to 
notice the smallest details in each. The colors also 
showed up very clearly on the screen. The children 
enjoy this way of studying their pictures. 

Open House at Boston University 

( >n April 21, 22 and 23, Boston University School 
of Education held Open House, during which all 
Bourses were open to visitors. The "Visual Educa- 
tion" |>eriod was divided into two parts, the first being 
devoted to the discussion of "Sound motion pictures 
in public schools", with the demonstration of sound 
projectors, and the second part devoted to "Slides 
made by Pupils and Teachers." 

Dean Arthur H. Wilde of the School of Education 
foresees a demand for Directors of Visual Education. 
and has authorized the arrangement of a curriculum 
which will adequately and specially prepare teachers 
lor such positions. 

♦ ♦ ♦ 

A two-hour credit course, "Visual Instruction in 

Elementary and Secondary Schools." is on the 1932 

Summer Session program at the University of Kan- 

The course will Ik- elementary, including both 

lecture and laboratory periods. 

Lantern Slides 

Accurately Graded 
Photographically Perfect 


First Through Eighth Years 


First Six Years 


Elementary and Junior High 


Fourth Through Eighth Years 

We also carry a full line of projection apparatus, 
screens and accessories. Send for Catalogue. 

Your correspondence invited 

Eye Gate House, Inc. 

330 West 42nd Street New York, N. Y. 




Combination Air-Cooled 
Opaque and Stereopticon Projector 

Brings all worthwhile current data, publications, post cards 
and other illustrative material to hand for immediate use. 

You can also use stereopticon slides. 

Air-cooling device consists of suction blower drawing 
cool air over projected opaque material, — protecting ma- 
terial and hands of operator. 

See article this publication under "Among the Producers." 

Write for literature. 

Trans-Lux Daylight Picture 
Screen Corporation 


Page 152 

The Educational Screen 

Sound Picture and Program Distribution 
System of the Port Chester High School 

The Port Chester High School (N. Y.), recently 
completed, is the last word in modern design and mod- 
ern equipment. There are separate gymnasiums for 
boys and girls ; a special "corrective" gymnasium for 
the purpose of helping to correct physical defects; a 
cafeteria in the basement which serves lunch at cost; 
and an auditorium which will accommodate the entire 
student body. 

One of the most interesting features of the school's 
up-to-date equipment is the unified sound system. 
Realizing the growing need for complete and flexible 
facilities for sound reproduction, the School Board, 
in collaboration with its architects, and Electrical Re- 
search Products, Inc., laid out one of the most com- 
prehensive sound systems ever installed in a school. 
It comprises : Sound Pictures ; Announcing Svstem ; 
Radio Program Distribution System ; Non-Synchro- 
nous Reproduction System. 

Two amplifying channels are installed, so that any 
two programs can be reproduced simultaneously in 
different rooms, thus affording great flexibility. 

Centralized System Control 

For convenience in their use, the amplifiers and con- 
trol equipment are located in the principal's office, thus 

Built-in Range Finder 

with Automatic Focusing 

More Accurate Than Ground 
Glass Focusing 


The Universal Camera 

See Your Picture in Exact 

Focus Right Up to the 

Moment of Exposure! 

No more guesswork in focusing — -no more blurred 
pictures. Simply sight your subject through built- 
in range finder, turn lever attached to lens until your 
view is sharp and clear, then snap ! Faster, more con- 
venient than any other focusing camera. Even speed pictures caught 
instantly with perfect focus. 

7 Interchangeable Lenses 
LEICA is the most eco- 
nomical camera for educa- 
tional work. Only pocket- 
size, yet instantly converti- 
ble into speed camera, por- 
trait camera, telephoto 
camera, copying camera, 
micro camera, clinical 
camera, and many more. 
Efficient in and out of 
doors. New fast f:1.9 lens 
now makes night pictures 
possible too. Takes up to 
36 pictures on a single roll 
of standard cinema film. 
Enlargements up to 12x18" 
are marvelously sharp and 
clear. Used and endorsed 
by foremost educators. 
Write for Free Illustrated 

"The New Model I> LEICA" 

LEICA Focusing 
Copy Attachment 

makes LEICA the ideal copying 

camera for schools 
With this attach- 
ment you can make 
copies of maps, 
drawings, letters, 
books, micro- 
graphs, etc., quick- 
ly and easily. Any 
subject from ^4 " 
diameter up to 
any size can be 
LEICA Negatives 
will give you, 
clear enlarge- 
ments up to 12x18 

E. LEITZ, Inc. 

Dept. 107, 60 East 10th St., New York 

Screen Is Raised To Show Horn Used in Assembly Hall 

making it easy for the principal or others to supervise 
its use. At this point, the loud speaker circuits from 
all over the building terminate on an output control 
panel so that, by means of key switches, the loud 
speakers in any desired location can be connected. 
Likewise, all input circuits terminate on a panel so ar- 
ranged that input to the amplifiers can be obtained 
from any desired point. Since two amplifier channels 
are available, it is possible to distribute any two pro- 
grams simultaneously to two groups of listeners. 

Radio Program Distribution System 

Two Western Electric 10-A Radio Receivers permit 
the simultaneous reception of two different programs. 
A class in history can, therefore, be listening to a 
broadcast program of historical interest at the same 
time that a class in music is listening to an instructive 
musical program. 

Sound Picture Equipment 

The large auditorium, or assembly hall, is so 
equipped that it can be used for the showing of talking 
motion pictures. A standard Western Electric Sound 
System, such as is used in the larger theatres, is in- 
stalled in the projection room. The screen and the 
horns are also of the usual theatrical type. The pro- 
jection room itself, is so well designed that it could 
serve as a model installation. Two motion picture 
projectors are installed so that a program can be run 
continuously. As only one of the amplifying chan- 
nels is required for sound pictures, the second is avail- 
able simultaneously for other uses. 

Announcing System 

Another valuable use of the equipment is its appli- 
cation for announcing purposes. In this capacity, it is 
a great convenience since it permits an announcement 

May, 19)2 

Page 153 

tn be made throughout an) desired part or all of the 
building when, for any reason, it may not be desired 
tu assemble the student body in the auditorium. An- 
nouncements can, of course, be made through the 
microphone in the principal's office or through micro- 
phones plugged into any of the other outlet-, as de- 
sired. Should it be required at any time to distribute 
to utlicr locations lectures or programs being given on 
the auditorium stage, use can he made of the Stage 
microphone outlet. 

The Announcing System should prove of great 
value in times of emergency. While the volume of 
sound from the individual loud speakers can be con- 
trolled locally in the room to suit the needs of the 
classes, there i- no "< Mi" position on the panel, thus 
Insuring that the entire system is ready for instantan- 
eous service in emergencies when a timely warning 
ma\ he of extreme importance. 

Music Reproduction System 

( >n many occasions it is desirable to provide music in 
the classrooms, auditorium, gymnasium, cafeteria, or 
other rooms. To meet this need, a portable Electric 
Music Reproducer is used. It is mounted on a small 
rubber-tired truck which can be wheeled where needed 
and plugged into any of the input circuits leading to 

Let Us Bid or Estimate On Your 

YOUR BUDGET for VISUAL AIDS will go much farther when 
you purchase your material from us: 

Motion Picture Films Glass Slides — Filmslides 

35 mm. and 16 mm. Widths Sets for Every Subject 

Stereopticons, Cameras, Projectors, Screens, 

And All Accessories 

Talking Picture Equipment and Special Attachments. 

Write for Catalogs and quotations. 

If your material is obtained through competitive bidding, 
please include us in your bidders' list. 


622-30 /NINTH AVE .NEW YO'XK. 


the control room. The amplified music can then he 
distributed to any desired points. Some rooms in 
which the music reproducer is frequently needed have 
both input and output circuits to the control room, so 
that the portable music reproducer can be used in the 
same room in which the music is to be heard. This 
is a great convenience inasmuch as records can be 
played, parts repeated, and volume controlled without 


on Your Projection Equipment 

Equip your schools 


t h 


Priced to fit your budget 

500 watt pre-focused lamp base, highest quality double 
convex condensing lenses (4'/|" diameter), 2 1/2 " x '^" 
focal length objectives, 15 foot detachable cord, tilting 
device, receptable for glass slide and stillfilm carriers, 
slide carrier; highest quality metal stock and electrical 
equipment used throughout. 

Price $45.00 

(f. o. b. Los Angeles, Calif.) 

Results Guaranteed 


oTILLrlLM., IJNC^ 4701-4705 w.picoBivd. 

Los Angeles, Calif. 

Page 154 

The Educational Screen 

the necessity for making adjustments in the control 

The school is frequently visited by educators inter- 
ested in observing up-to-date methods and also by 

Music Reproducer in Use in Gymnasium Class 
committees gathering data for guidance in the design- 
ing of schools. To these visitors the flexibility, con- 
venience and general usefulness of the sound system 
will readily be apparent, as well as the new avenue 
for education, which is by no means a minor factor. 
It is being recognized more and more that a complete 
sound system is an indispensable feature of the modern 

Summer Courses in Visual Instruction 

Dr. Joseph J. Weber, Department of Education & 
Psychology, Valparaiso University, Valparaiso, Indi- 
ana, will give a course in Visual Instruction at the 
University of Texas, Austin, Texas, during the first 
Summer Session. This will be for a period of six 

♦ ♦ ♦ 

Special courses in Visual Instruction will be offere 
by the State Teachers College at Terre Haute, Indiana 
during the first and second summer terms, under the 
direction of H. A. Henderson of Indianapolis. Titles 
of these courses are, "Visual Instruction as Applied 
to the First Six Grades," and "Visual Instruction as 
Applied to the Junior and Senior High School." 
♦ ♦ ♦ 

Mr. George A. Stracke, who has been appointed to 
take charge of the visual work at the University of 
Arizona, will conduct a course this summer on "Vis- 
ual Education — Methods and Materials." Mr. Stracke 
is planning an exhibit of visual education material in 
connection with the teacher-training work of the Uni- 
versity. Firms who wish to place their visual aids in 
this exhibit may communicate with him in care of the 
Department of Agricultural Education. 



The Bicentennial Pageant of George Washington 


Arthur William Heintzelman 

Robert Nisbet 

Sears Gallagher 

Earl Horter 

William Auerbach-Levy 

Ernest David Roth 

Eugene Higgins 

Ralph Boyer 

Allen Lewis 

Levon West 

George Wright 

Kerr Eby 

F. Luis Mora 

Albert Sterner 

Samuel Chamberlain 

Louis Conrad Rosenberg 

John W. Winkler 

Robert Lawson 

Walter Tittle 

Childe Hassam 

AN INVALUABLE visual aid for teaching the life of George 
Washington has been created by twenty of America's most 
famous artists, assisted by a group of distinguished educators 
to insure historical accuracy. The Pageant consists of twenty orig- 
inal etchings depicting memorable scenes in Washington's life, 
from his boyhood at the Rappahannock River home to the close 
of his illustrious career at Mount Vernon. Each is an historical 
reconstruction, accurate in every detail, and representative of the 
finest work done in etching by contemporary American artists. 

Dr. Daniel C. Knowlton has prepared a comprehensive and 
practical thirty-page TEACHERS' MANUAL, analyzing the historical 
content and teaching values of each of the twenty prints, and in- 
cluding specimen lessons for the Elementary, Junior and Senior High 
School levels. 

This indispensable Washington material, consisting of the 
twenty etchings, skillfully reproduced in half tone, and including 
the TEACHERS' MANUAL, is now available at the nominal price 
of $7.50 net, delivery prepaid. Lantern slides made from the orig- 
inal etchings may also be obtained at $20.00 net per set, prepaid. 
Orders will be filled immediately or a descriptive circular sent upon 


Dixon Ryan Fox, Columbia 

University, Chairman 
Matthew Page Andrews 
Harry M. Ayres 
H. E. Bolton 
William E. Dodd 
Ralph H. Gabriel 
J. Montgomery Gambrill 
Daniel C. Knowlton 
John A. Krout 
William B. Munro 
Victor Hugo Paltsits 
Arthur M. Schlesinger 
F. E. Spauldinq 
N. W. Stephenson 
Ashley H. Thorndike 
John Taylor Arms 
President, Society of 

American Etchers 


Harry A. Ogden 

The George Washington Memorial Association 

386 Fourth Ave., New York, N.Y. 

May, 19)2 

Page 155 


to the Biggest 
and Best 
in Current 

Write today for free 
non-theatrical Cata- 
log 78. 





730 Fifth Ave. 
New York City 

ask about 

4r WEST 


Evolution Made 

Plain in 

Clarence Darrow's 


7 Reek 

Write for 

The Keystone Visual 
Readers Make Good 

One User Writes: 

"I believe it is the most simple and effective 
approach to beginning reading. Here, lowest 
ability groups are doing almost the standard 
work for highest ability groups." 

Reporting on the Results of a Controlled Experi- 
ment with High Ability Groups, Another Writes: 

"Consistently throughout the semester the 

Visual Group scored higher than did the 

The Visual averaged 20.3% higher during the 
semester, and finished on the 204 word vocab- 
ulary test with 18.4% more words than did 
the Group." 

Reporting on Use with Special Groups, Another 

"In some cases the gains were very consider- 
able, the child gaining four terms of reading 
ability where normally he would have been 
expected to gain only one term." 

The Keystone Visual Readers, with Accompanying 
Stereographs and Lantern Slides, Are a Specific 
Application of Visual Aids to a Definite Educational 

That's Why the Above Testimonials Are Specific, 
Positive, and Convincing. 

The Visual Aid Approach to Reading Is the Big- 
gest Opportunity for the Convincing Use of Visual 
Aids Yet Offered to Education by the Keystone 
View Company. 

Let Us Send You More Testimonials and Com- 
plete Information. 

Keystone View 

Meadville, Penna. 

Page 156 

The Educational Screen 


Where the commercial firms — whose activities have an important bearing on progress in the visual field — 
are free to tell their story in their own -words. The Educational Screen is glad to reprint here, within nec- 
essary space limitations, such material as seems to have most informational and news value to our readers. 

Combination Opaque and 
Stereopticon Projector 

"Little Wonder" Combination Projector 

The Trans-Lux Daylight Picture Screen Corpora- 
tion has a very practicable combination air-cooled 
opaque and stereopticon projector known as the "Little 
Wonder", made especially for use in the individual 

classroom with a 
Trans-Lux Screen. 
The air - cooling 
device consists of 
a suction blower 
drawing cool air 
over the projected 
opaque material. It 
not only protects 
the material, but 
keeps the back of 
the projector so 
cool that the oper- 
ator does not burn 
his hands. 

It is portable, — 
in that it weighs 
only 28 lbs., and 
has handles at the side. This adds considerably to its 
portability. It can be placed in the back of a car, 
along with the screen on the frame, and taken from 
school to school. 

It uses one (1) prefocal base 500 Watt lamp, — no 
adjustment is necessary. The stereopticon attachment 
has a cone shape lens holder which drops into a 
groove, — no adjustment necessary. This can be re- 
moved and a strip film attachment be inserted in its 
place. The projector is very compact, and very simple 
to operate. 

Opaque material is available for projection from 
books and magazines, post cards, sketches, objects, and 
even test questions can be presented in this manner. 

The Educational Department of The Trans-Lux 
Daylight Picture Screen Corporation, New York City, 
will be very pleased to send descriptive literature. 

Metropolitan Motion Picture Company 
Extends Activities 

The Metropolitan Motion Picture Company of De- 
troit, Michigan, producers of RCA Photophone indus- 

trial sound pictures, announces its association with the 
Atlas Educational Film Company of Chicago, The 
Alpha Motion Picture Corporation of Cleveland and 
the Aeolian Company of Missouri, located in St. Louis. 

The association extends the activities of the Metro- 
politan Company in the middle west and at the same 
time makes available to industrial organizations in 
these territories the finest of RCA Photophone sound 
recording equipment. This company is the oldest 
organization in Detroit engaged in the production of 
industrial motion pictures. The extension of its ac- 
tivities into the Chicago, St. Louis and Cleveland ter- 
ritories marks another step in the continued progress 
lit the company over a period of fifteen years. 

The Alpha Motion Picture Corporation is an out- 
growth of the Argus Company in Cleveland. For the 
past ten years, they have made available a specialized 
motion picture service to industrial concerns in and 
around Cleveland. The Aeolian Company of Missouri 
was established in St. Louis twenty-five years ago. As 
early as 1910 they distributed the products of the Vic- 
tor Talking Machine Company and later those of the 
RCA Victor Company, Inc. The Atlas Educational 
Film Company has been one of the outstanding pro- 
ducers of industrial and educational motion pictures 
in Chicago since 1913. 

Under the terms of the agreement, each company 
retains its separate ownership and identity, but co- 
operate on sales and production. 

New Leica Camera Has Automatic 
Focusing Control 

A new model Leica with built-in-range finder and 
automatic focusing lens is the latest revolutionary 
development to be introduced by E. Leitz, Inc., 
New York City. The range finder, previously a sepa- 
rate instrument, is now built into the camera itself 
and by an ingenious connection of the finest precision 
this range finder is actuated by the helical focusing 
mount of the lens. When taking a picture the subject 
is sighted through the range finder eyepiece, situated 
immediately to the left of the view-finder opening at 
the rear of the camera. Two images of the subject 
will be seen, and as the mount of the lens is turned 
the images will appear to separate or approach coin- 

May, 19 3 2 

Page 157 

cidence. Winn coincidence is established the lens is 
automatically in focus. The release then is pressed 
with every assurance of getting a perfectly -harp pic- 

In appearance the new camera, known as I.eica 
Model I >. dors nol differ greatly from the previous 
models. The range-finding mechanism is contained 
in a Mack metal housing on top of the camera, extend- 
ing from the shutter dial to the rewind knob. The 
view-finder retain-, it-, position and from the front is 
Hanked by the two small openings for the range- 
finder. The dimensions of the Leica are unchanged, 
and there is no appreciable increase in weight. 

Portable Movie Camera with Electric Motor 

To meet special demands for airplane motion pic- 
ture work and for outfitting scientific and exploring 
expeditions, the I '.ell & Howell Company has arranged 
to equip its portable 35 mm. F.vetno movie camera 
with an electric motor. Also an external film maga- 
zine carrying 4(X) feet of film can he added. In air- 
plane photography the motor feature is particularly 
desirable in that the pilot can place the camera with 
attached motor in an advantageous position and shoot 
pictures by remote control. 

Any Eyemo camera employing a band crank can 
be motor equipped. The motor is mounted on one side 
of the camera, engaging in the hand crank socket. The 
motor runs the film through at Speeds of from 24 
frames down to 4 frames per second, the speed being 

adjusted by the 
camera gover- 
nor. The motor 
weighs only 
3% p o u n d s, 
and the camera 
8^4 pounds. 

When an ex- 
t e r n a 1 film 
magazine is not 
attached, t h e 
film is run 
fro m a 100 
foot spool in 
the camera it- 
Eyemo Movie Camera with Attached Motor self, as for- 
merly. If desired the motor runs the entire 100 feet 
of film through without stopping. 

Either a 12 or 110-volt motor can be adapted to the 
camera. The 12 volt motor is particularly practical for 
airplane work as this current is available from the 
plane batteries. Current for the 12-volt motor can 
also be supplied by auto batteries on exploring expedi- 


Glass & Film Slides 

U. S. History — 20 units 
Ancient & Medieval History — 12 units 

Replete with Maps 

Write for bulletins describing this most 
up-to-date teaching material. 



"America's Oldest Producer of Educational 
Projection Slides" 

The motor is readily attached to the camera and just 
as readily detached. When it is not desired to use the 
motor, the camera can be Operated by spring drive 
while held in the hand — the usual manner of operation 
— or it can be set on a tripod and orated by hand 
crank. Thus a high degree of utility and flexibility is 
combined in a unit of surprisingly small weight. 

International Film Foundation Formed 

The International Film Foundation, self-described 
as an indejKMident non-profit organization for produc- 
ing and distributing educational films, was announced 
this week from its offices in New York City. It is 
stated that the organization is in no way controlled by 
or affiliated with any motion picture producer. It is. 
however, in some measure, an outgrowth of the edu- 
cational film department of the Fox Film Corporation, 
an activity recently discontinued. Dr. Wallace \\ 
Atwood. president of Clark University, is the newly 
elected president of the Foundation. 

The new organization intends to produce three types 
of films, both sound and silent, in the standard 35 
millimeter and 16 millimeter sizes. These will be the 
Specialized classroom teaching film, the non-curriculum 
film for auditorium use and a number of special fea- 
ture films for general distribution. 

The announcement of the Film Foundation is made 
simultaneous with the preliminary presentation at pre- 
view showings of The Cry of the World, a survey of 
the World War's aftermath assembled from the talking 
film archives of Fox Movietone News. The picture 
is to go into general circulation with its earnings to be 
devoted to the further activities and production of the 

Page 158 

The Educational Screen 

Victor Announces Cameras at 
Reduced Prices 

Victor Animatograph Corporation, Davenport, Iowa, 
in announcing its new Model 3 and 5 Cameras and its 
new price policy, calls particular attention to the fact 
that these models are not old carried-over merchandise 
that is being offered at close-out prices, but new and 
improved products. 

On the Model 5 Victor (the original visual focus- 
ing, 3-lens turret 16 mm. camera) there has been a 
reduction of approximately 22^ per cent in price. 
All of the previous well-known features of the Model 
5, such as visual focusing, 5 speeds, 3-lens turret, 
etc., have been retained. The new features included 
are : attached winding crank which may also be em- 
ployed for hand cranking ; graduated "Adjustafinder" 
for accuracy in "finding" and centering the image at 
different distances ; combination visible-audible film 
footage meter of high accuracy ; film loop guard which 
is said to make impossible loss of the film loop ; im- 
proved carrying handle ; and a gold-flecked brown lava 
finish with polished chrome trim. Standard lens equip- 
ment on the Model 5 Camera is the 1", F 2.9 Hugo 
Meyer Trioplan. 

The Popular Model 3 Victor, which was the first 


is serving the 
world with 
the best en- 

Ask your 
dealer about 
our 16 mm. 


^ru* 1 

information on the 
greatest and best se- 
lection of current pic- 
tures can be secured 
by addressing Dept. 
E, Columbia Pictures 
Corp., 729 Seventh 
Ave., New York City. 
Write for Free Cata- 
log 112-B. 

16 mm. camera to be equipped with multiple operating 
speeds, including slow motion, is being offered with 
the new collapso-carrying strap, chrome plated chain- 
attached crank and crank clip, and with 20 mm. F 3.5 
Fixed Focus Dallmeyer Lens at a price reduction of 
nearly 35 per cent. 

Both the Model 3 and 5 Victors can be supplied with 
any choice of lens or lenses. Lenses of all makes, 
speeds and focal lengths are interchangeable on the two 

Church Department 

(Concluded from page 148) 

and agricultural growth of St. Joseph Valley. The 
film is dedicated to Isaac McCoy, Fathers Allouez and 
Marquette, and Robert de La Salle." 

Our impression is that many thoughtful clergymen 
all over the United States who are personally inter- 
ested in the recrudescence of the rural church will be 
interested in viewing this film, especially that portion 
of it which has relation to the present-day activities 
of the parish. 



OF AUGUST 24. 1912 

Of The Educational Screen and Visual Instruction News, published 

monthly except July and August, at Morton, III., for April 1, 1932 
State of Illinois, County of Cook, ss. 

Before me, a notary public in and for the State and county afore- 
said, personally appeared Nelson L. Greene, who. having been duly 
sworn according to law, deposes and says that he is the editor of The 
Educational Screen, and that the following is, to the best of his 
knowledge and belief, a true statement of the ownership, management 
(and if a daily paper, the circulation), etc., of the aforesaid publica- 
tion for the date shown in the above caption, required by the Act of 
August 24, 1912, embodied in section 411, Postal Laws and Regulations, 
printed on the reverse of this form, to-wit : 

1. That the names and addresses of the publisher, editor, manag- 
ing editor, and business managers are: 

Publisher, The Educational Screen, Inc., 64 E. Lake Street, Chi- 
cago, 111. 

Editor, Nelson L. Greene, 64 E. Lake Street, Chicago, III. 
Business Manager, Ellsworth C. Dent, 1812 Illinois St., Lawrence. 

2. That the owner is: (If owned by a corporation, its name and 
address must be stated and also immediately thereunder the names and 
addresses of stockholders owning ov holding one per cent or more of 
total amount of stock. If not owned by a corporation, the names and 
addresses of the individual owners must be given. If owned by a 
firm, company, or other unincorporated concern, its name and address, 
as well as those of each individual member, must be given.) 

The Educational Screen, Inc., 64 E. Lake Street, Chicago, 111. 
Herbert E. Slaught, 5548 Kenwood Ave., Chicago. 
Nelson L. Greene, 5836 Stoney Island Ave., Chicago. 
Dudley G. Hays, 1641 Estes Ave., Chicago. 
Frederick J. Lane, 6450 Kenwood Ave., Chicago. 
Marguerite Orndorff, 1617 Central Ave., Indianapolis, Ind. 

3. That the known bondholders, mortgagees, and other security 
holders owning or holding 1 per cent or more of total amount of bonds, 
mortgages, or other securities are: (If there are none, so state.) None. 

4. That the two paragraphs next above, giving the names of the 
owners, stockholders, and security holders, if any, contain not only 
the list of stockholders and security holders as they appear upon the 
books of the company but also, in cases where the stockholder or se- 
curity holder appears upon the books of the company as trustee or 
in any other fiduciary relation, the name of the person or corporation 
for whom such trustee is acting, is given ; also that the said two para- 
graphs contain statements embracing affiant's full knowledge and be- 
lief as to the circumstances and conditions under which stockholders 
and security holders who do not appear upon the books of the com- 
pany as trustees, hold stock and securities in a capacity other than 
that of a bona fide owner : and this affiant has no reason to believe 
that any other person, association, or corporation has any interest 
direct or indirect in the said stock, bonds, or other securities than 
as so stated by him. 

5. That the average number of copies of each issue of this pub- 
lication sold and distributed, through the mails or otherwise, to paid 
subscribers during the six months preceding the date shown above 
is . (This information is required from daily publications only.) 

(Signature of editor, publisher, business manager or owner.) 
Sworn to and subscribed before me this 1st day of October, 1931. 

(My commission expires August 28, 1932 t 

May, 19)2 

Page 159 

A Field Trip into History 

makes the subject vivid. . .interesting 

By presenting many subjects as living realities, 
Eastman Classroom Films stimulate the pupils 9 
imagination and desire to learn 

It takes a long flight of the imagina- 
tion to recreate the new, strange 
ways and living conditions under 
which our forefathers established a 
European civilization on this continent 
and brought our nation into being. 

How welcome, then, is the authentic 
motion picture of early historical events. 
How quickly it crystallizes vague con- 
ceptions into vivid understanding. How 
much easier it makes the comprehension 
of history — not only the part actually 
shown on the screen, but the whole 

No wonder so many schools have wel- 
comed the Eastman Classroom Films on 

George Washington, His Life and Times — 
an accurate, moving presentation of 
colonial life, revolutionary days and the 
beginnings of the Republic. 

Such a picture spurs children's imag- 
inations into activity . . . makes the 
whole subject of history a vital thing. 
And what this picture accomplishes in 
history, other Eastman Classroom Films 
accomplish in geography, science, na- 
ture study, health, and other fields. 

Eastman Classroom Films and equip- 
ment are not expensive. Write for com- 
plete information. Eastman Teaching 
Films, Inc. (Subsidiary of Eastman 
Kodak Company), Rochester, N. Y. 


His Life and Times 

A Series of Eastman Classroom Films 

This motion picture, the only one on Wash- 
ington's life made at the request and with 
the cooperation of the George Washington 
Bicentennial Commission, is doubly valua- 
ble for teaching history and for patriotic 
activities. It gives an accurate picture of 
colonial life, frontier conditions, the causes 
and military action of the Revolution, and 
the early days of the Republic 

eastman Classroom Films 

Page 160 

The Educational Screen 


A Trade Directory for the Visual Field 


Bray Pictures Corporation (3, 6) 

729 Seventh Ave., New York City. 

Carlyle Ellis (1, 4) 

53 Hamilton Terrace, New York City 
Producer of Social Service Films 

Columbia Pictures Corp. (3, 6) 

729 Seventh Ave., New York City 

(See advertisement on page 158) 

Eastman Kodak Co. (4) 

Rochester, N. Y. 

(See advertisement on outside back cover) 

Eastman Teaching Films, Inc. (1, 4) 
Rochester, N. Y. 

(See advertisement on page 159) 

Edited Pictures System, Inc. (1, 4) 

130 W. 46th St., New York City 

General Electric Company (3, 6) 

Visual Instruction Section, 
Schenectady, N. Y. 

Herman Ross Enterprises, Inc., (3. 6) 
630 Ninth Ave., New York City 

(See advertisement on page 153) 

Ideal Pictures Corp. (1, 4) 

26 E. Eighth St., Chicago, 111. 

Modern Woodmen of America (1, 4) 
Rock Island, 111. 

Pinkney Film Service Co. (1, 4) 

1028 Forbes St., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Ray-Bell Films, Inc. (3, 6) 

817 University Ave., St. Paul, Minn. 

Society for Visual Education (l, 4) 
327 S. LaSalle St., Chicago, 111. 

(See advertisement on page 130) 

United Projector and Films Corp. (l, 4) 
228 Franklin St., Buffalo, N. Y. 

Universal Pictures Corp. (3) 

730 Fifth Ave., New York City 

(See advertisement on page 155) 

Williams, Brown and Earle, Inc. (3, 6) 
918 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Y. M. C. A. Motion Picture Bureau (1, 4) 
347 Madison Ave., New York City 
300 W. Adams Bldg., Chicago, 111. 



Ampro Projector Corp. (6) 

2839 N. Western Ave., Chicago, 111. 
(See advertisement on inside front cover) 

Bell & Howell Co. (6) 

1815 Larchmont Ave., Chicago, 111. 

(See advertisement on inside back cover) 

Eastman Kodak Co. (4) 

Rochester, N. Y. 

(See advertisement on outside back cover) 

Edited Pictures System, Inc. (1) 

130 W. 46th St., New York City 

Ideal Pictures Corp. (1, 4) 

26 E. Eighth St., Chicago, 111. 

Regina Photo Supply Ltd. (3, 6) 

1924 Rose St., Regina, Sask. 

United Projector and Film Corp. (1, 4) 
228 Franklin St., Buffalo, N. Y. 

Victor Animatograph Corp. (6) 

Davenport, la. 

Williams, Brown and Earle, Inc. (3, 6) 
918 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 


Da-Lite Screen Co. 

2721 N. Crawford Ave., Chicago 
(See advertisement on page 133) 

Williams, Brown and Earle, Inc. 
918 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 


C. W. Briggs Co. 

628 Callowhill St., Philadelphia. Pa. 

(See advertisement on page 157) 

Eastman Educational Slides 
Iowa City, la. 

Edited Pictures System, Inc. 
130 W. 46th St., New York City 

Eye Gate House Inc. 
330 W. 42nd St.. New York City 

(See advertisement on page 151) 

George Washington Memorial Assn. 
386 Fourth Ave., New York City 
(See advertisement on page 154) 

Ideal Pictures Corp. 

26 E. Eighth St., Chicago, 111. 

International Artprints 

64 E. Lake St., Chicago, 111. 

Keystone View Co. 
Meadville, Pa. 

(See advertisement on page 155 > 

Society for Visual Education 
327 S. LaSalle St., Chicago, 111. 

( See advertisement on page 130 1 

Spencer Lens Co. 
19 Doat St., Buffalo, N. Y. 

(See advertisement on page 129) 

Stillfilm Inc. 
1052 Cahuenga Ave., Hollywood, Cal. 

(See advertisement on page 153 ) 

Williams, Brown and Earle, Inc. 
918 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 



Keystone View Co. 
Meadville, Pa. 

(See advertisement on page 155) 


Bausch and Lomb Optical Co. 

Rochester, N. Y. 

E. Leitz, Inc. 
60 E. 10th St., New York City 

(See advertisement on page 152) 

Regina Photo Supply Ltd. 
1924 Rose St., Regina, Sask. 

Society for Visual Education 
327 S. LaSalle St., Chicago, 111. 

(See advertisement on page 130 1 

Spencer Lens Co. 

19 Doat St., Buffalo, N. Y. 

(See advertisement on page 129) 

Stillfilm Inc. 
1052 Cahuenga Ave., Hollywood, Calif. 

) See advertisement on page 153 » 

Trans-Lux Daylight Pict. Screen Corp. 
247 Park Ave., New York City 
( See advertisement on page 151 ) 

Williams, Brown and Earle Inc. 
918 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 



indicates firm supplies 




indicates firm supplies 




indicates firm supplies 
sound and silent. 




indicates firm supplies 




indicates firm supplies 




indicates firm supplies 
sound and silent. 





Visual Instruction News 



The Study of Greece— Ancient and Modern 

An Experiment in Visual Education in Chemistry 

Visual Education in The Federal Government 

Air Map of Cleveland 

What Should a Course in Visual Instruction Include 

■ .^rt^s^'r;:.*^^;^; 

Single Copies 25c 
• $2.00 a Year • 


19 3 2 






▼ ISI 

MODEL AS with 400 Watt Biplane Filament lamp, 
standard black finish, nickel plated parts, extra reel, 
cord, brush, oiler and black carrying case — $175.00. 
MODEL AD (illustrated above) with 400 Watt Biplane 
Filament lamp, DeLuxe bronze finish, chrome-plated 
parts, automatic built-in pilot light, extra reel, cord, 
brush, oiler, DeLuxe carrying case — complete $200.00. 

TilE AMPRO CORPORATION^, 2839 N. Western Ave., Chicago. 
Gentlemen : Kindly send me literature describing 400 Watt Ampro. 




City State 

ISIT the Ampro dealer. Have him run a strip of heavy, 
dense underexposed reversal film through The New Ampro 400 
Watt Precision Projector. See for yourself how brilliant, snappy 
and enjoyable such film can be. The above pictures illustrate 
the amazing difference between heavy film and the Ampro-pro- 
jected image therefrom. 

The new thrill of super brilliance brought to 16 mm. movies by 
The New Ampro 400 Watt Precision Projector is due largely to 
the greatly increased amount of illumination passed by the Ampro 
rotary shutter, a special Ampro feature and something entirely 
different in 16 mm. design. 

Other Ampro features are: PERFECT AND PERMANENT STEADI- 
FINISH. Ampro is light in weight, easy to move from room 
to room, and instantly set up and put away. All School buyers 
should make this convincing test. Try a reel of school film if 
you like, and see its real clarity and brilliance as revealed by 
the Ampro precision projector. The coupon will bring you further 
descriptive literature. 




piRjojiKCir© ip- 


June, 19 } 2 

Page 163 

Educational Screen 

Combined with 

Visual Instruction News 
JUNE, 1932 




Herbert E. Slaught, Prat. 
Frederick J. Lane, Treat. 
Nelson L. Greene, Editor 
Ellsworth C. Dent, Manager 
Evelyn J. Baker 
Josephine Hoffman 
Otto M. Forkert 

Dudley G. Hays 
Stanley R. Greene 
Joseph J. Weber 
R. F. H. Johnson 
Marion F. Lanphier 
F. Dean McCluslry 
Stella Evelyn Myers 


Editorial 1 64 

The Study of Greece — Ancient and Modern. 

Gladiss D. Spangler 1 66 

An Experiment in Visual Education in Elementary College 
Chemistry. B. S. Hopkins and H. G. Dawson 1 69 

Visual Education in the Federal Government. 

Margaret A. Klein 1 7 1 

Film Production Activities 1 73 

The Geography of Cleveland from the Air. 

W. M. Gregory ..... 1 74 

Department of Visual Instruction Notes. 

Conducted by Ellsworth C. Dent I 76 

News and Notes. Conducted by Josephine Hoffman 1 78 

Among the Magazines and Books. 

Conducted by Marion F. Lanphier 1 79 

The Film Estimates I8I 

The Church Field. Conducted by R. F. H. Johnson 1 82 

School Department. 

Conducted by Dr. F. Dean McClusky 1 84 

Among the Producers 1 90 

Here They Are! A Trade Directory for the Visual Field... 1 92 

Contents of previous issues listed in Education Index. 

General and Editorial Offices, 64 East Lake St., Chicago, Illinois. Office 
of Publication, Morton, Illinois. Entered at the Post Office at Morton, 
Illinois, as Second Class Matter. Copyright, June, I932, by the Edu- 
cational Screen, Inc. Published every month eicept July and August. 
$2.00 a Year (Canada, $2.75; Foreign, $3.00) Single Copies. 25 cts. 

Page 164 

The Educational Screen 


THIS is the third issue of The Educational 
Screen combined with Visual Instruction 
News, and the last of the school year. In ac- 
cordance with our practice for the past ten years, there 
will be no other issue until September, and we shall 
await with resignation the usual summer crop of letters 
beginning "Where is my July number?" 

THE September issue may appear under a new 
name. Two months ago we invited suggestions 
and have enjoyed a considerable response. The 
suggestions have ranked all the way from "very good" 
to "impossible." The invitation is still open in the hope 
of arriving at the "best." If a representative consensus 
of opinion can be discovered among the visualists at 
the Atlantic City meeting, it should be fairly decisive 
as to the right name for the one monthly magazine in 
the visual field. 

FOR some ten years past the subject of visual in- 
struction has been denied, or at least has not 
achieved, a place on the regular program of the 
annual meetings of the National Education Associa- 
tion. The regrettable omission is to be rectified at the 
coming session at Atlantic City. Visual instruction will 
be formally discussed by Dr. C. F. Hoban, who is presi- 
dent of the Visual Instruction Department of the N. 
E. A. and a notably able and interesting speaker. 
Therefore, the first presentation of the subject before 
the N. E. A. will be not only official but effective, which 
should be cause for gratification to the whole field. 

GENERALLY speaking, the efforts of national 
visual organizations for the last dozen years 
have been limited to semi-annual gatherings of 
a few score advocates of the visual idea in education. 
These meetings have been distinctly enjoyable and in- 
tensely interesting to the few hundred faithful individ- 
uals who have supplied practically the entire attendance 
through the whole period. The "printed proceedings" 
of these sessions were always announced but seldom 
printed. Hence actual results from these meetings, as 
an influence on the educational field at large, have been 
exceedingly tenuous, if discernible at all. Concrete 
progress in visual instruction has been made largely by 
thousands of live teachers, working more or less inde- 
pendently, of whom probably 99% never attended any 
of the annual sessions. 

The summer of 1933 offers the Visual Instruction 
Department of the N. E. A. a golden opportunity. 
If careful estimates are even approximately correct, 

something like half the nation will visit the Chicago 
Exposition sometime during the last six months of 
next year. Some hundreds of thousands of them will 
be teachers. A vivid demonstration of visual instruc- 
tion can be put before the eyes of millions. Why 
talk at hundreds when millions can be shown? 




I :: :: I 



I, II Class- 
rooms for low- 
er and upper 
grades respec- 
tively. Sound- 
proof, but wired 
to make all 
sounds within 
room audible in 
public thor- 
ough-fares and 
in visitors' gal- 

AA Blank 
walls for black- 
boards, screen, 
maps, charts, 

BB Teacher's 

CC Table for 
projection ap- 

DD Sand- 
table, refer- 
ence-table, or 
display table. 

EEE Stor- 
age cases and 
shelves, not 
over 3 feet high. 
Top usable for 

VV Visitors' 
Gallery, with 
seats and ele- 
vated, sloping 

Dotted lines 
show walls 
made entirely 
of glass. 

The classroom-demonstration-unit, described in some 
detail in our May editorial, is sketchily drawn above. 
Skilled teachers, an assured body of pupils, an expertly 
designed curriculum of consecutive classes for several 
months — operating in full sight and hearing of a public 
of fifty millions — can put visual instruction where it 
belongs in the national consciousness. It can do more 
in ten weeks than the past ten years have done toward 
this great end. 

Nelson L. Greene. 

June, I9i2 

Page 165 


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Page 166 

The Study of Greece 

Ancient and Modern (Grade 6B) 

The Educational Screen 


THE STUDY of Greece in the sixth grade is 
problematic from several standpoints. Anything 
ancient is likely to be engulfed in boredom, as far 
as the child is concerned. In the first place, then, this 
natural barrier of age must be considered. Distance be- 
comes a second factor for ponderance. Not only is 
Greece so removed actually from the lives of our chil- 
dren but the fact that little or nothing comes to us to- 
day from that country to be studied makes research 
difficult for the elementary mind. Work must be done 
so that it commands interest, which in turn insures 

The inauguration of a proper background was ac- 
complished entirely through the use of visual aids. 

'if 1 


, <fMltJ»"»* ^ 

Acropolis with Odeon of Herode Atticus on Slope 
(From Stillfilm "Monuments of Ancient Greece") 

After a display of several prints and after a showing 
of the Stillfilms on Modern and Ancient Greece, the 
children were stimulated sufficiently to go to books for 
sources of information on our subject. 

We are told that the next step following the stimu- 
lation of interest and the demand for a response, is 
the actual self-expression of knowledge in a definite 
form. My children were interested sufficiently to sug- 
gest the construction of a miniature Acropolis, but the 
element of time prohibited such an undertaking. Be- 
cause of the splendid pictures we were able to obtain 
of the Parthenon, the class finally decided to build the 
one master temple. This thing of beauty, we know, 
was noted for its accuracy in line and measurement, 

its truth in design and proportion and its emphasis on 
figure and form. 

The arithmetic which developed from this project 
occupied the class over two weeks. The art work nec- 
essary for its completion, centered upon the columns, 
borders and particularly the frieze. The construction 
of a poster back of the Parthenon became one distinct 
lesson as well as the fashioning of the statue of 
Athena. In its entirety, this project would have been 
absolutely impossible had it not been for the intensive 
use of every visual aid procurable. The fact that this 
year's class has lived more completely the life of an- 
cient Greece than did my children of last year, can be 
attributed to the ever-increasing supply of visual ma- 
terial. The benefits derived by the workers from this 
study have been definite and many, foremost, per- 
haps, being my own conversion to the presentation of 
ancient Greece to an eleven-year old ! 

Objectives In the Study of Greece 

A. Definite Problems. 

1. What effect did the physical features of 
Greece have upon her history? 

2. How is our life influenced by the life of the 
ancient Greeks? 

3. What is meant by the "Age of Pericles"? 

B. To develop an appreciation of the contribution 
to civilization that has been made by other peo- 
ples of the world. 

C. To lead the child towards the recognition of the 
interdependence of peoples. 

D. To further develop the ability to understand the 
privileges and responsibilities of the citizens of 
the United States. 

Procedure Followed In the Study of Greece 

A. Presentation of the stillfilm "Ancient and Mod- 
ern Greece" to introduce the subject. (No check 
was given after this first showing; the film 
merely utilized as a bird's eye view.) 

B. Study of maps for location, geographic peculiar- 
ities and relief aspects. (Small maps showing 
harbors, city states and trade routes were made 
by each member of the class.) 

1. Location of cities, Athens, Corinth and 
Sparta, was followed by individual reports as 
to life and habits. 

June, 19)2 

Page 167 

2. Concentration on Athena as the most typical 
and most interesting of city-states. 

C. Brief reports were then given on the religion of 
the early Greeks which so greatly influenced all 
their undertaking-.. 

1. Study of the picture- of different Gods and 

2. Study of Oracles (centered around the wall- 
print of the Oracle of Delphi). 

D. Different r e p o r t s on: 

1. Olympic (Unites — (a) The wallprint of a 
Greek College in ancient times motivated a 
Study of early sport; (1m Pictures of Mara- 
thons; (c) Pictures showing the development 
of a perfect physique. 

2. Boats and Chariots — The study of boats was 
made in connection with many pictures and 
related to the maps of trade and Greek colo- 
nies. The members of the group sketched 
small maps showing the extent of the Grecian 
empire and its trade routes. 

3. Greek Theatres — The study of the wallprint 
of a Greek theatre led to the study of the 
early Grecian philosophers. Voluntary re- 
ports were given with pictures exhibited. 

4. Greek Temples — The study of Greek archi- 
tecture and art centered about the research 
on the Acropolis. Many flat pictures, glass 
slides and the stillfihn on the "Monuments of 
Ancient Greece" were here utilized. The 
three types of columns were studied. 

a. The Parthenon was studied intensively. 
The class attempted to reproduce this 
temple on the scale of 30"x24". The chil- 
dren constructed the base of the temple, 
used twenty- four columns, included an 
inner chamber, two friezes, a cardboard 
statue of Athena and a poster on the 
Acropolis. This actual building became 
the motivating force in the solution of 
many problems in measurements, as well 
as the spark that lired many an art lesson 
and composition. Our oral English cen- 
tered about the building of the Parthe- 
non, as did our spelling. The children 
learned one song about Greece and wrote 
several original poems. 

b. Lincoln Memorial was studied as a pres- 
ent-day tribute to the glories of ancient 
Greece. (Actual photographs studied.) 

5. Good Citizenship — The present day Boy 
Scout Oath is very similar to the Athenian 
boys' oath of loyalty. 

E. A brief study of Greece today became the last 
step in our study. Pictures of life in Athens 
today, consideration of Olympic game activities 
since the World War, and reasons why Greece 
is no longer a world power became the conclud- 
ing features in our procedure of research. 

Outcomes From the Study of Greece 

I believe the outcomes from this study of Greece 
very closely approximate the objectives desired. I 
shall state them briefly : 

A. A knowledge of ancient Greece, its place in 
world history and its influence on all civilization. 

B. An elemental understanding of Greece today 
and its place among world powers. 

C. An appreciation of the privileges and responsi- 
bilities of the citizens in the United States for 
the heritage which is ours. 

These outcomes are fairly specific. There are many- 
desired elements of a more general nature which should 
grow out of a well-planned activity. Work habits, 
health habits, good citizenship, skill in all the tool sub- 
jects, appreciation of the finer things in life; all these 
elements have been striven towards and approached, I 
believe, in varying degrees. 

Visual Aids Utilized 

A. Flat Pictures 

a. Wall Prints (colored, about 24"x32") of 
Greek College, Greek Theatre, Oracle of 
Delphi, The Acropolis Restored. 

b. Study Prints and Small Pictures of (1) The 
Acropolis as it is today ; different temples and 
views; (2) Different pictures of life in both 
ancient Athens and modern Athens (Cos- 
tumes and Customs) ; (3) Pictures of statues 
of different Gods and Goddesses ; (4) Greek 
Theatres, Boats, Chariots and Soldiers; (5) 
Pictures of different types of architecture, 
emphasizing column types and decorative 

c. Maps (Relief, Present Political) 

B. Glass Slides (listed) 

Athens (5), Corinth (3), Erechtheion (5), 
Marathon (2), Theatre of Dionysus (6), My- 
cenae (2), Thermopylae & Mt. Parnassus (3), 
Olympia (4), Parthenon (8). National Museum 
(4). Miscellaneous Places (6). 

C. Still films (3 reels) — (1) Ancient and Modem 
Greece; (2) Modern Greece; (3) Monuments 
of Ancient Greece. 

Method of Using Visual Aids 

The flat pictures used in the study of Greece be- 

Page 168 

The Educational Screen 

came the starting point for all research. The larger 
wallprints were used to introduce the subject. The 
smaller prints were examined in a close study. One 
picture of the Parthenon became an actual model, and 
was the primary stimulus toward the erection of the 
temple. The maps were used intensively, as each mem- 
ber of the class reproduced the physical features of 
Greece. One map was the basis of a review lesson, 
with questions concerning exact location and geo- 
graphic peculiarities. Questions were listed on the 
board relating to one particular set of pictures dealing 
with the various temples of the Acropolis. The copies 
of the frieze on the Parthenon were dissected as care- 
fully as possible, becoming a project in art. The pic- 
tures of the Greek Gods and Goddesses motivated a 


Piraeus Athens, Seaport 
(From Stillfilm "Ancient and Modern Greece") 

series of oral reports dealing with the religious life 

of these early people. 

The use of the glass slides proved a big assistance 

in the comprehension of Greek life on the Acropolis. 

These slides were utilized and checked in four distinct 

ways : 

A. Questions were placed on the board and dis- 
cussed before the showing of the slides. Conse- 
quently, the children would be very watchful for 
the aspects in the picture deemed of greater im- 

Oral reports were often required covering dif- 
ferent phases of work seen. 
Sometimes, after the showing of slides or a still- 
film I ask volunteers to talk on any points of 
interest. It is often surprising to receive a 



wealth of material, just as different portions of 

a picture may appeal particularly to different 

D. The fourth check utilized is a test of either the 

completion or the true-false type. 
The stillfilms were used in three distinct ways. In 
the first place, the study of Greece as a whole was in- 
troduced with the showing of the films on "Ancient 
and Modern Greece". Very little was said about the 
film following this first showing. General questions 
were answered and then the study progressed with the 
presentation of maps and flat pictures. The stillfilm, 
however, on the "Monuments of Ancient Greece" was 
used as the core of our research work in relation to the 
Acropolis and the building of the Parthenon. This 
film was run six different times, each display reveal- 
ing new elements and interesting detail. Upon this 
completion of our study the introductory film was re- 
shown. This second review was greeted enthusiastic- 
ally and a myriad details were recounted and enlarged 
upon. Our final check test of a completion nature 
followed this last showing. It seemed to clinch the 
work in a complete summary. 

My group of 6B pupils studied the country of 
Greece for approximately seven weeks. The project 
was made vital and real to them solely through the 
constant and repeated use of visual aids. I feel that 
that study was of worth principally because of the 
curiosity and interest displayed by the group mem- 
bers. I know that certain phases of the study are 
bound to remain with those children, because of live 
participation in the building of a symbol of ancient 
Greece, as conceived by these small folks themselves 
The visual appeal has always proved the most effec- 
tive. The use of visual aids, then, becomes not only 
elemental in the stimulation of interest and the possi- 
bility .of research but a prime factor in self-expression 
as well. Visual instruction in this project was respons- 
ible for the inspiration, the research, and the outcome 
I truly feel that these children will never need to 
use the time-worn expression, "It's all Greek to me !" 
in the same manner that I may have used it in my earl 
ier school life. 

Geographical Conference Address 

Mr. Abraham Krasker, president of the Massachu- 
setts Branch of the Department and director of the 
visual instruction program of the Quincy Public 
Schools, spoke before the New England Geo- 
graphical Conference, Clark University, Worcester 
Massachusetts, at the annual conference on Thursday 
May 21. A digest of his paper will appear in an early 
issue of this magazine. 

June, 19}2 

Page 169 

An Experiment in Visual Education in 
Elementary College Chemistry 

(Concluded from the May Issue) 


IN ADAPTING our plan of teaching to the use of 
motion pictures, it is natural that certain problems 
should be encountered. Perhaps the first and most 
fundamental problem involves the question of time. 
We were convinced by our previous experience that 
satisfactory educational results could not l>e obtained 
unless the films were displayed during the regular lec- 
ture periods. But how could time be found for the 
display of pictures in lectures which were already 
over crowded with material? We found the answer 
in a distinct modification of the lecture plan. The 
lecturer had formerly been accustomed to make draw- 
ings on the blackboard and to use charts for explana- 
tory purposes. These were replaced with lantern 
slides aiid by this plan better drawings were possible 
and the time needed to make the drawings was saved. 
In displaying the motion pictures it was very neces- 
tor the lecturer to make preliminary explanation, 
but the utmost care was needed to avoid duplica- 
tion. If the lecturer is thoroughly familiar with 
the details of the film, it is possible for him so to 
adjust his explanations as to make clear the lesson 
of the film and at the same time to avoid needless 
Repetition. This i- not an entirely simple task to 
the lecturer who has been accustomed to making 
the entire explanation in his own way. but careful 
Manning will solve the problem. When motion 
pictures are properly presented, it is our opinion 
that they do not take more time than the old 
method. We believe a good film will permit the 
thorough presentation of, a topic in less time than is 
usually consumed without such aids. 

It is important in avoiding delays to secure close 
Bo-operation between the lecturer and the operator. 
We found that a complete understanding between 
these two persons could be secured if the film was 
studied jointly with a record of the time required 
for the display of each of the scenes. After deter- 
mining in this manner how much of the reel could 
be shown or how much time was required for those 
scenes which were essential, a rehearsal in the exact 
form to be used is well worth while. In addition, 
if a code of signals is used, there is little likelihood 
that a delay will be caused by misunderstanding 
or even by an emergency change in plan during the 
gress of the lecture. 

In our usual lectures the students are not re- 
quired to take notes, and some of, our best students 
take no lecture notes at all. In general, however, 
the students attempt to take rather full memoranda 
• i all that is said in lecture. The introduction of 
the methods of visual education produced a new 
problem in note taking. When lantern slides were 
being used the side lights in the lecture room were 
left burning and this permitted the taking of notes. 
But when motion pictures were shown the entire 
room was darkened, so note taking was impossible. 
As a result it was necessary to depend entirely upon 
memory, and in a surprising number of cases it was 
evident that very little was remembered. 

The most serious difficulty which we encountered 
in our attempt to teach chemistry by motion pic- 
tures came from the fact that the scenes changed 
so frequently that the student observer retained no 
clear cut mental impression of what he had seen. 
When the picture involved a new process or re- 
quired the observer to retain a series of definite 
mental impressions, it was evident that the great 
majority of the students were failing to respond. 
This is due largely to the fact that the changes 
come so rapidly that the mind is unable to grasp 
the outstanding features of the display. One im- 
pression follows another so fast that the memory 
fails to retain them and only vague and indefinite 
impressions result. The lecturer must always re- 
member that the film and its story are familiar to 
him, so that a presentation which may seem to him 
to be complete and deliberate, may seem to his stu- 
dents to be hurried, incomplete and lacking in clear- 

It is no easy matter to overcome this difficulty, 
especially when the lecturer desires to embellish 
his lecture with a liberal showing of attractive pic- 
tures and so proceeds at top speed in order to save 
time. There are at least two plans which may be 
used successfully in the attempt to impress defi- 
nitely the important lessons of the film. First, if 
the projector is stopped at critical points in the 
display so that the lecturer has time to point out 
the outstanding facts of the picture, a more lasting 
mental impression will result. The time required 
for this process ought not to be great, nor should 

Page 170 

The Educational Screen 

the interruptions be too frequent. A second and 
perhaps a better plan for regular use is to employ 
motion pictures for review purposes after the student 
has had the opportunity to study the process in detail 
from his textbook. To carry out this plan it is sug- 
gested that the lecture be delivered with lantern 
slides and other aids of this sort but without mo- 
tion pictures ; then in preparation for his regular 
recitation the student studies the description from 
his textbook ; at the scheduled hour for his recita- 
tion his instructor goes over the principles of the 
process and the student has an opportunity for ask- 
ing questions on points which may not be perfectly 
clear to him. After these repeated contacts it may 
be assumed that he is somewhat familiar with the 
process. If at the next lecture the first few minutes 
of the time is allotted to the display of the motion 
picture of this same process, it is certain that the 
educational value of the film will be much greater 
than could be expected if the picture is shown with- 
out thorough previous preparation. 

At the inception of our experiment in the use of 
visual aids no statement was made to the class call- 
ing their attention to this new feature. The displays 
were given as a regular part of the lecture work, 
and no attempt was made to stress the educational 
value of the pictures. As the weeks went by it be- 
came evident that the students were coming to re- 
gard these pictures as a pleasant relief from the 
routine of chemical lectures, but that they were not 
making any definite effort to learn chemistry from 
the pictures. This we have attributed largely to 
the fact thai in the minds of the students a movie 
is an entertainment whose value is to be measured 
by the pleasure it affords. As a Consequence the 
educational value of our pictures was largely 
missed. To counteract this tendency the instructors 
were urged to ask questions upon the pictures and 
in the formal written tests some stress was placed 
upon this material. It is evident that if visual edu- 
cation is to become a potent factor in teaching 
chemistry those directing the work must be alive 
to the tendency to regard movies as entertainment 
only. This is not a difficult matter if its early symp- 
toms are detected and steps taken to establish the 
educational importance of the films. 

The most difficult task in connection with an ex- 
periment of this type is the interpretation of the 
results. It is especially difficult in the present in- 
stance to draw any very definite conclusions from 
the experience of this one semester's work. On the 
side of what might be called the intangible results, 
it was quite evident to the observers that visual edu- 
cation was popular with the students. They wel- 

comed the pictures eagerly, showed keen interest 
in their display and upon at least one occasion they 
remained after the dismissal bell was rung even at 
the risk of, being late to the next hour classes. It 
was evident also from the questions asked that the pic- 
tures aroused interest in the chemical processes and 
made them much more real than they could have been 
otherwise. We regard this as an important point, be- 
cause so frequently students at this stage fail to 
establish any connection at all between the discus- 
sions in the chemistry classroom and the important 
commercial and domestic affairs of every day life. 
If the use of motion pictures will give to our stu- 
dents a proper perspective of the functions of chem- 
istry in connection with our complicated modern 
life, then we believe that they will do much to take 
away the sting of the academic and to establish a 
notion of the practical and useful. 

A study of the tangible results of the semester's 
work in the form of grades is highly desirable. The 
group of students selected for this study was just 
beginning the second semester's work, which is de- 
voted to a study of the metals. The course known 
as Chemistry 5 includes students in Agriculture 
(60%), in Home Economics and Premedical Courses 
(40%). Women composed 25% of the total enroll- 
ment, mostly in Home Economics. The total enroll- 
ment in the course was 297, and these were divided 
into two identical lecture sections. Three checks 
upon the accomplishment of these students were 
possible (1) with a contemporary class in Engineer- 
ing (293 students) ; (2) with a contemporary class 
of Chemists, Chemical Engineers and Chemistry 
majors (191 students) ; and (3) with similar classes 
of preceding semesters. Of these three groups, the 
first two had identical previous training so far as 
college chemistry was concerned ; and the classes of 
previous semesters had identical training except 
with respect to the systematic use of lantern slides 
and motion picture films. 


Number Av. Av. 

With- Final Final Percent Percent 

1930-31 drawn Exam. Grade Failure A and B 

Chem. 4 22 75.0 80.0 7.3 48.0 

Chem. 6 9 78.9 84.1 3.4 59.1 

Chem. 5 21 73.9 80.1 6.9 50.1 

Chem. 5 19 76.6 80.0 6.8 44.4 

Table I 
Table I shows the five year averages of these 
groups of students. It is to be noted that the educa- 
tional accomplishments of the Agricultural and 
Medical students of Chemistry 5 are closely parallel 

(Concluded on page 172) 

June, 19)2 Page 171 

Visual Education in the Federal Government 


WHAT part does Uncle Sam play in visual 
education and what is the place of this phase 
of education in the work of the Federal 
government? These arc questions that should concern 
every visual education worker. 

Because every phase of our existence is actually 
reached by the government, either directly or indirect- 
ly, the visual presentation of the many facts disclosed 
by the government's research offers a wide selection 
of material which would be of interest to teachers as 
well as to the general public. 

The expenditure of funds for the purpose of pre- 
senting the results of the government's research in 
popular form has been authorized. At present the 
methods used for this purpose include exhibits, mo- 
tion pictures, slides, film strips, posters, and publica- 

Since thi> is the last issue of The Educational 
Screen combined with Visual Instruction News for 
the current school year, I shall not try to describe in 
detail the visual material of the various departments. 
I shall try to introduce this phase of the government's 
work by telling in a general way which government 
agencies are now concerned with visual presentation 
of facts. Future articles on the work of the govern- 
ment in the field of visual education will include com- 
plete descriptions of the work of the individual agen- 
cies and the kind of material available as well as the 
means for obtaining it or, at least, of viewing it. Al- 
though there is a great deal to be done before we can 
boast of an extensive line of government graphic ma- 
terial, the fact remains that there is at present some 
very good material available which should be familiar 
to every student of visual education. 

The Smithsonian Institution has some very good 
permanent exhibits which are educational in nature. 
Since thousands of school children visit Washington 
annually, it would be well for teachers to be familiar 
with these exhibits and in turn acquaint the pupils with 
them so that they might view them while they are in 
Washington. There are historical exhibits in the his- 
torical section of this institution that are for the ex- 
clusive use of this museum and consequently there 
would not be the opportunity to view them any place 
except in Washington. 

The American Red Cross, although not a govern- 
ment agency, is so closely allied to the government that 
its exhibits may be included in the government list. 
This organization has many attractive posters as well 

as a number of instructive exhibits on display in its 
building in Washington. 

The Department of Agriculture has probably de- 
veloped more phases of the visual education work than 
any other government agency and it has also developed 
them more extensively. The Extension Division, which 
is the division in charge of the work, produces through 
its various sections motion pictures, slides, film strips, 
charts, posters, and educational exhibits. An excel- 
lent photographic service with expert photographers is 
not only one of the services connected with these sen- 
sory aids but also provides photographic illustrations 
for many articles on agricultural subjects. 

The Department of Agriculture has its own motion 
picture laboratory where scenarios are written and all 
the production work is done. The films are lent free 
except for transportation charges. Information con- 
cerning the films can be secured by writing to the 
Office of Motion Pictures, U. S. Department of Agri- 
culture, Washington, D. C. In addition to producing 
pictures, this section performs a service that is quite 
helpful to other government agencies not so well 
equipped for film work. The service I refer to is the 
demonstrations of motion picture equipment and vari- 
ous kinds of projectors to which representatives of 
other government agencies are invited. 

The office of the educational exhibits. Department 
of Agriculture, has a well trained corps of artists, 
electricians, carpenters, and many kinds of experienced 
mechanics. Each exhibit is carefully planned and the 
method of presentation selected which is best suited to 
the subject material of the exhibit. Interesting facts 
concerning dairying and stock raising, poultry farm- 
ing and forest conservation, improvements that have 
been developed in the interest of farming, agricultural 
economics, and new ways and right ways of solving 
agricultural problems are all portrayed in an interest- 
ing and novel manner. The "talking exhibit" is one 
of the recent developments of the Department of Agri- 
culture's exhibit section. By means of certain mechan- 
ism, a little pig, a very fine hen, one of the best bred 
cows, or the mild little sheep will inform an audience 
in a very scholarly and instructive discourse how to 
test cows, or how to raise the best kind of sheep. 

Since the summer vacation will soon be here and 
also the summer fairs and expositions, it is quite timely 
to bring to the attention of teachers and others inter- 
ested in visual education, the fact that the educational 
exhibits of the Department of Agriculture are part of 

Page 172 

The Educational Screen 

many of these fairs and expositions. Write to the Of- 
fice of Exhibits, U. S. Department of Agriculture. 
Washington, D. C, and they will tell you whether 
their exhibits will be part of the fairs in your vicinity. 

A list of motion pictures may be secured from the 
Bureau of Mines, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The 
Bureau of Reclamation, Department of Interior, 
Washington, D. C. also has some motion pictures 
which may be borrowed for transportation charges. 
Charts and posters may be secured from the Govern- 
ment Printing Office, Washington. D. C. at a very 
small cost. Material that will be of interest to social 
science classes may be secured from the U. S. De- 
partment of Labor, Washington, D. C. 

The research work in visual education has also re- 
ceived some consideration from the government. The 
motion picture division of the Department of Com- 
merce has conducted considerable research concerning 
the use of motion pictures in the schools and the re- 
sults have been tabulated and published. Although the 
government's publications cannot be classed as visual 
material the subject material will be quite useful to 
teachers or anyone who contemplates making posters, 
charts, or maps or for carrying out visual projects 
with the use of the sand table. Lists of publications 
may be secured free by writing to the agency in which 
you are interested. 

In the future articles planned for this department, 
many phases of visual education will be discussed and 
complete descriptions of the material available as well 
as the visual education work of the individual agencies 
will be discussed. New material will also be listed so 
that teachers will have an up-to-date file of the visual 
education work of the government. 

Visual Education in Chemistry 

(Concluded from page 170) 

to those of the Engineering students in Chemistry 
4, while the Chemists (Chemistry 6) make some- 
what better records. Below the line is given the 
record of the experimental group of last semester 
with whom we used visual education methods. 
W'hen the accomplishment of this group is com- 
pared with that of the preceding five years we see 
some improvement in the average final examination 
grade but a distinct decline in the percent of stu- 
dents who win A and B grade. 


Number Av. Av. 

Number With- Final Final Percent Percent 

Enrolled drawn Exam. Grade Failure A and B 

Chem. 4 291 16 80.5 81.3 3.3 50.9 

Chem. 6 193 14 77.8 80.9 4.5 49.7 

Chem. 5 297 19 76.6 88.0 6.8 44.4 

Table II 

In Table II we can compare the accomplishment 
of students using visual education with others of 
equal training who did not use these methods. 
From this table alone it might be concluded that 
students who are taught by visual education meth- 
ods are not as successful as those who used other 
methods. A comparison of Tables I and II indi- 
cates that no definite conclusions can be drawn from 
these data. 

Chemistry 5, June 1931 

Average Grade Average on 

Number per Question in Visual Educa- 

Enrolled Final Examination tion Question 

Lecture A 148 7.78 7.28 

Lecture B 149 7.55 6.18 

Table III 

Table III shows the results of an attempt to 
definitely determine the value of visual education so 
far as this group of students is concerned. Each 
lecture section had its own final examination, and 
in each there were two questions which were based 
specifically on some of the pictures which were 
shown during the semester. It is to be noted that 
the average grade upon the answers to these ques- 
tions is less than the average grade per question 
received upon the examination as a whole. 

We believe that no definite conclusion can be 
drawn from this experiment regarding the educa- 
tional value of motion pictures in the teaching of 
general chemistry. It is probably better to allow 
each one to draw his own conclusions. There are, 
however, several points which should be kept in 
mind. This is our first experience with systematic 
visual education methods, and we are fully con- 
scious that we have made mistakes which can be 
avoided in the future. Furthermore our experience 
has been far too limited to permit us to pass judg- 
ment upon this new form of education. We believe 
that others may profit from the mistakes which we 
have made and the disappointments which follow 
a study of the semester's achievements. We wish 
to affirm our faith in the educational value of mo- 
tion pictures and to express our belief that visual 
education will furnish a valuable method for the 
training of the youth of the future. From our ex- 
perience so far we are satisfied that including mo- 
tion pictures in chemical lectures will not relieve 
the lecturer of his responsibilities, but it will re- 
quire him to adjust himself to a new situation. If 
this can be done successfully, then we believe that 
general chemistry will at least become less painful 
and it may even become more practical and more 
definitely educational. 

June, 19)2 

Page 173 


The aim of this new dtpartment is to keep the educational field intimately acquainted with the 
increaiing number of film productions eipecially suitable for use in the school and cburcb field. 

Begin Production on Series of World's 
Fair Motion Pictures 

Astonishing progress in industry during the past 
one hundred years brought about through man's 
ingenuity and development of scientific methods 
will be vividly dramatized in a series of silent and 
talking motion pictures being produced by national 
industries in connection with A Century of Progress 
International Exposition to be held in Chicago in 
1933. The films will be loaned to schools, churches, 
clubs and other responsible organizations without 
cost by Atlas Educational Film Company. 

Unusual and wonderful buildings of the Exposi- 
tion will be shown, and thousands of interesting 
exhibits will be used to best interpret the progress 
of the past century. Thus in the first of the film 
series, a one reel picture showing advancement in 
the food industry, will be shown. Life in old Fort 
I dearborn, Chicago's early fortress, in the beginning 
of the nineteenth century, also will be shown. In- 
cidents of, fort life, such as preparation of basic- 
foods, trading with friendly Indians, and activities 
of the soldiers will be photographed with particular 
care given to reproduction of historic details as they 
actually existed one hundred years ago. History 
will repeat itself under the vigilant eye of the mo- 
tion picture camera. Then will follow the many 
steps in food manufacture that led to the modern 
and scientific methods now used. 

So it will be with films to follow in the series. 
Dramatic episodes will portray progress and 
achievement in numerous industries, from food to 
furniture. The amazing contrast between the old 
and the new will be shown, vividly and colorfully, 
and the progress that no other century in the his- 
tory of mankind has witnessed will be recorded for 
the benefit of the many thousand educational and 
civic institutions in all parts of the United States 
and also in other parts of the world. 

Some idea of the vast amount of advance prep- 
aration and record breaking accomplishment of A 
Century of Progress will be given with the showing 
of the numerous buildings' and exhibits that have 
been completed for more than a year previous to 
the official opening of the Exposition. A touch of 
the spectacular will be introduced with thrilling 

scenes of the fair grounds taken from the air at 
night, with fantastic and brilliant electrical lighting 
effects displayed that no other World's Fair has 

Production on the first film in the series is already 
under way and will be ready for distribution in the 
early summer. The series will be available in both 
silent and sound editions in both 16 mm. and 35 
mm. sizes. 

Pupil's Health Play Recorded by Camera 

A motion picture entitled Grandfather Molar, show- 
ing the presentation of a dental health play by pu- 
pils of the Eugene Field School, Chicago, was given 
its premier showing recently before the bureau 
chiefs of the Chicago Board of Health, with the 
president of the board, Dr. Herman N. Bundesen, 
at the movie projector. 

The movie depicts the story of the preparation 
of the dental play — how the desire for producing 
the play grew out of a motion picture health lesson, 
how a scenario was selected, and scenes and prop- 
erties built or collected — and then shows the play 
itself as it was given in the school auditorium. 

The picture was made with an amateur movie 
camera by W. F. Kruse, head of the Educational 
Department of the Bell & Howell Company, and 
Dr. L. W. Morrey, in charge of the dental service 
of the Chicago Board of Health. It was produced 
under the joint sponsorship of the Chicago Board 
of Health and the Chicago Dental Society. 

The film will shortly be made available for show- 
ing to teachers and pupils the country over. Ap- 
plications for securing the film on loan may be 
addressed to the Chicago Dental Society, 185 N. 
Wabash Ave., Chicago. It is planned to loan it 
free to responsible schools and organizations on 
payment of transportation charges. 

New Sound Productions 

The Metropolitan Motion Picture Company has 
completed a four-reel 16 mm. sound motion picture 
for the Leonard Refrigerator Co. entitled After Half 
A Century, which depicts the different operations and 
precision methods used in building both the cooling 
units and the cabinets. 

{Concluded on page 177^ 

Page 174 

The Educational Screen 

June, I9i2 

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Page 176 

The Educational Screen 



Interesting Summer Program Planned 

The first meeting of the combined Department of 
Visual Instruction of the National Education Associa- 
tion and National Academy of Visual Instruction will 
be held in Atlantic City, New Jersey, on Monday and 
Tuesday, June 27 and 28, 1932. The sessions will be 
held in the Solarium of the Hotel Jefferson, preceded 
by registration from 9:30 to 11:30 A. M., Monday. 
The program has been so arranged that it will not 
conflict seriously with the general sessions of the 
N. E. A. 

All sessions of the combined Department and Acad- 
emy will be open to anyone who may be interested and 
there are no registration fees. Only those who are 
members will be eligible to participate in the business 
meeting but the suggestions of those who are not mem- 
bers, presented through appropriate committees or by 
members, will be given careful consideration. 

The following is a detailed program of the session, 
which will be followed as closely as possible. Those 
who expect to attend the luncheon meeting on Mon- 
day should make reservations by mail, directing them 
to the local chairman, Mr. A. G. Balcom, Assistant 
Superintendent of Schools, Newark, New Jersey, and 
should call for tickets as early as possible after the 
opening of the registration desk on Monday. 

First Session 
Luncheon, 12:15 P. M., Monday, June 27 
Theme — Looking Forward in Visual Education 

(Program organized by F. Dean McClusky, Director 

The Scarborough School, Scarborough, New York) 

Presiding — George W. Wright, President, New Jersey 

Visual Education Society. 
Address — "The General Value of Visual-Sensory Aids 
in Teaching as Demonstrated by Research," Dan- 
iel C. Knowlton, Professor of Education, New 
York University. 
Address — "The Major Values in Visual Instruction," 
Ben D. Wood, Professor of Education, Teachers 
College, Columbia University. 

Second Session 

2 :30 P. M., Monday, June 27 

Theme — Values of Visual-Sensory Aids by Types and 

Presiding — John J. Jenkins, Director of Visual In- 

struction, Bronxville Public Schools, Bronxville, 
New York. 

( Each speaker will be limited to ten minutes 
for presentation) 

I. The Value of Visual-Sensory Aids 

1. In Teaching Reading to Adults — Winthrop 
Talbot, Chairman of the Section in Adult Edu- 
cation, New York Society for the Experimental 
Study of Education, New York City. 

2. In Teaching Arithmetic and Spelling — Claire 
Zyve, Principal, Fox Meadow School, Scars- 
dale, New York. 

3. In Science Teaching — William Lewin, Central 
High School, Newark, New Jersey. 

4. In Industrial Arts — Leonard A. Williams, Di- 
rector of Visual and Industrial Education, 
State Teachers College, St. Cloud, Minnesota. 

5. In the Social Studies — Lawrence R. Winchell, 
Rutgers University, New Brunswick, New 

II. The Value of Types of Visual-Sensory Aids 

6. The Object-Specimen-Model — Kathryn Grey- 
wacz, Curator, Trenton Museum, New Jersey. 

7. The School Journey — Raymond Riordon, Di- 
rector, Raymond Riordon School, Highland, 
Ulster County, New York. 

8. Pictorial Materials — Winifred Crawford, Di- 
rector of Visual Instruction, Montclair, New 

The New Jersey Society of Visual Education will 
give a reception to members of the combined Depart- 
ment and Academy and their guests, Monday evening, 
in the Solarium of the Jefferson Hotel. 
Third Session 
1 :30 P. M., Tuesday, June 28 
Business Meeting 

Presiding — C. F. Hoban, Director, The State Museum 
and Visual Education, Department of Public In- 
struction, Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. 
I. Reports of Committees 

A. Plans for Merged Organizations and Publicity 
— John A. Hollinger, Director, .Department of 
Elementary Science & Visualization, Pitts- 
burgh, Pennsylvania. 

B. Membership and State Organizations — Daniel 
C. Knowlton, Professor of Education, New 
York University. 

June, I9i2 

Page 177 

C. Core of a Visual-Sensory Aids Program Wil- 
ber Emmert, Instructor in Visual Education 
and Science. State Teachers College, Indiana, 

D. Standing Committees -by the respective 

E. Resolutions — A. G. Balcotn, Ass't Superin- 
tendent of Schools. Newark. New Jersey. 

II. Suggested Methods tor Informing the School 

People of the Country on the Following Declara- 
tions : 

\ Experimental studies, research, and surveys 
have revealed definite and important values 
for visual-sensorv aids. 
B. A knowledge of these visual-sensory aids and 
a technique for their use requires special prep- 
( . The contribution that visual-sensorv aids make 
to improved instruction justifies a requirement 
that every teacher in training in the public 
schools of the United States take a laboratory 
course in visual-sensorv aids. 
I). Some means should be developed to train 
teachers in service in this course. 

III. Suggestions for the Minneapolis Meeting (Feb- 
ruary. 1933) 

IV. Objectives for Next Year — 

V A program of teacher training. 
B. Relating visual-sensorv aids to the curriculum. 

V. Report of the Secretary- Treasurer — Ellsworth C. 
Dent, Bureau of Visual Instruction. University 
Extension Division, University of Kansas, Law- 
rence, Kansas. 

VI. New Business 

Officers of the Combined Department and Academy 

President — C F. Hoban, Director. The State Museum 
and Visual Education, Department of Public In- 
struction, llarrisburg, Pennsylvania. 

First Vice-President — F. Dean McQusky, Director of 
Scarborough School. Scarborough - on - Hudson, 
New York. 

Second Vice-President — W. W. Whittinghill, Assist- 
ant Director of Visual Instruction, Detroit. Mich- 

Secretary-Treasurer — Ellsworth C. Dent, Bureau of 
Visual Instruction, University Extension Division, 
Lawrence, Kansas. 

I-ocal Chairman — A. G. Balcom. Director of Visual 
Instruction, Newark City Schools, Newark. New 

Film Production Notes 

ncluded from page 175) 

Radio Magic, a one reel sound motion picture fea- 
turing a new short wave length radio receiver, has just 
been produced for the Stewart-Warner Corporation of 
Chicago by the Atlas Educational Film Company in 
co-operation with the Metropolitan Motion Picture 
Company of Detroit. 

The film traces briefly the development of the radio 
from the small crystal set to the present Stewart- 
Warner creation which offers the last word in radio 
reception. The film then describes, by means of ani- 
mated drawings, the route traveled by both long and 
short radio waves- in relation to the earth's surface. 
Reception of programs from foreign stations, ships at 
sea, police radio messages, communication between air- 
port Operator and pilot, and finally an S.O.S. message 
from a sinking steamer are all dramatically pictured 
and described. 

Many dealers are planning the use of copies of the 
film for showing before educational institutions. 

Modern Dairying in Hawaii Filmed 

While Hawaii is on the edge of the tropics where 
good milk is seldom found, modern dairying has 
been instituted with the latest equipment, patent 
feeds, imported mainland herds and utmost sanita- 
tion, according to Clarke Irvine, world traveler, 
writer and cameraman who is finishing the produc- 
tion of a one-reel educational film called Modern 
Dairying in Hawaii, which will lie ready for release 
in both 16 and 35 mm. this summer. 

This dairy which is featured, is the Hygienic, 
formery the Hibiscus, purchased and remodeled 
completely by Col. Charles E. Davis, retired army 
surgeon who was an early aggressive for pure milk- 
in New York. He wrecked the old buildings and 
replaced them with modern steel and concrete con- 
struction, imported a herd from the middle west and 
gave Hawaii a taste of genuine golden Guernsey 
milk, with cream that has to be pulled from the 
bottle with a spoon! 

Col. Davis has set a precedent in Honolulu, im- 
porting scientific feed as worked up by the univer- 
sity experimenters. Various other modern ideas 
have been incorporated in the dairy, and all of this 
is pictured together with wonderful tropical scen- 
ery, the broad Pacific, and the "pleated" mountains 
that tower behind the dairy's 1400 acre tract. 

Irvine, who toured with The Birth of a Flower lec- 
turing in the South Seas and Orient, is preparing 
to make several one reel features of Hawaiian 
scenes and customs, for educational purposes. 

Page 178 

The Educational Screen 






Chicago Summer School of the Air 

The Chicago Daily News Broadcasting Station, 
WMAQ, will embark on a new educational venture 
this summer. It will provide instructional work 
for children of elementary and junior high schools, 
which will center about the Social Studies, Geog- 
raphy, Literature, Mathematics and General Sci- 
ence. This will be an extension of the educational 
work it does during the regular school term, and 
will be given by the same staff of broadcasters, who 
are thoroughly familiar with the school curriculum. 

While in no sense will this work take the place 
of that done by the teacher in the classroom, it will 
provide that supplementary instruction that is so 
valuable in giving background and understanding 
to the work of the schools. 

It is not presumed that satisfactory instruction 
can be given exclusively by radio. It will require 
some mature person to direct the children in their 
application and activity during the period of the 
broadcast and during the period of study for carry- 
ing out suggestions and reference study between 
broadcasts. This requires a local leader for the 
group, whether that group consists of one or a num- 
ber of children. The Parent-Teacher organizations 
have always been interested in school extension 
and vacation experiments ; many of the churches 
maintain vacation schools; many former and pres- 
ent teachers are interested in developing local spec- 
ial classes for children during vacation periods ; 
librarians maintain story hours, YMCA's conduct 

Work-books have been prepared giving the les- 
sons or units to be covered during the summer 
school session; outlines, references and suggestive 
study are given for each grade or subject taught. 
As the work progresses reports will be asked for 
from the leader, also papers and samples of the pu- 
pil's work, for correction or comment. A final 
achievement test will be given for those who 
desire it. 

It should be distinctly understood that no grade 
promotion should be expected. The satisfaction 
that should come to a parent and to the pupil in the 
"Summer School of the Air," of time well spent, 
of new and better attitudes, skills and knowledge 

secured and of deficiencies made up should be suf- 
ficient reward. 

Directory of Agricultural Films 

An extensive directory of 16 mm. motion picture 
films available in the field of Agriculture has just 
been issued by the Library Division of the Bell & 
Howell Company. This compilation should be of 
particular value to county agricultural agents, agri- 
cultural societies of every kind, and teachers and 
students generally. Many individual agriculturists, 
who to an increasing extent are adding the 16 mm. 
movie projector to the radio, iceless refrigerator, 
and similar up-to-date furnishings of the modern 
electrified farm home, will find the directory de- 
cidedly useful. 

Twenty-seven mimeographed pages, 8j^xll 
inches in size, are devoted to listing the films. To 
these pages are added a number of interesting arti- 
cles on "The Motion Picture in Rural Activities". 
"Advantage of 16 mm. Film", etc. The directory 
is bound in a cover and may be had on request to 
Bell & Howell Company, 1801 Larchmont Avenue, 
Chicago, with 8c in stamps to cover mailing. 

Visual Activities in New York City Schools 

The New York High School of Commerce have 
a miniature museum which contains exhibits show- 
ing the various stages of a commodity from its raw- 
form to the finished product. Although products 
from all over the world are displayed, they are do- 
nated by the New York offices of such companies 
as : The American Brass Company, Cluett, Peabody 
and Company, the Consolidated Gas Company, the 
Edison Company, and the L. E. Waterman Com- 
pany. Universities and the Philadephia Museum 
are also contributors. 


At one of its recent meetings, the DeWitt Clinton 
High School Pan American Club and many of their 
invited fellow Pan Americans from the clubs of 
other schools heard the thrilling story of Comman- 
der George M. Dyott's South American adventures, 
which were simultaneously shown in a motion pic- 
ture of extraordinary interest and beauty. Dr. 
Hymen Alpern, head of Clinton's Spanish Depart- 
ment, stressed the value of such a program in mak- 
ing students conscious of the rest of America. 

June, 19)2 

Page 179 



Atlantic Monthly (May) "But Is It Art," by Wil- 
liam Orton, now Professor of Economics at Smith 
College, repeats the question that "has been asked 
before." He states, by way of introducing his 
splendid discussion that "years and years ago when 
Mary 1'ickford was just Gladys Smith and the 
prince of pantomime was 'doing' the London halls 
with Fred Karno, D. W. Griffith was thinking it 
over, hopefully. And certainly there have been 
movies now and then that deserved an affirmative 
answer. But technique has never yet stood still 
long enough to get the question finally disposed of. 
Xow we have sound — such lots of it — with color on 
the way. Mass entertainment becomes more mas- 
sive, its finances more gigantic, its publicity ma- 
chine more formidable, day by day. Radio, linked 
up with the movies and what is left of vaudeville, 
has now captured the entire concert management 
business ; and here is the RCA-Rockefeller combina- 
tion building what it calls 'a city of art' .... 
The question is still open. Is it art?" 

The author has stated his argument beautifully, 
emphasizing the very serious element so frequently 
overlooked in such discussions, — that of speed in 
technical development. While the block system 
racket and similar commercial ramifications are to 
be blamed for the present state of the cinema, it is 
seriously true that time has not permitted much 
but a breathless and somewhat bewildering keep- 
ing in step with the terrific pace in technical evolu- 
tion. The author then asks "Who cares? I do. 
And who am I? I am one of many thousands, mark 
you, Mr. Movie Producer (though I suppose mere 
thousands are nothing to you) — who have learned 
somehow to know good from bad, true from false, 
in more things than clothes, food, and tobacco. You 
will find us everywhere — from college classrooms 
and faculty clubs to the fur trades, the hat trades, 
the needle trades, of New York, Rochester, Chicago, 
Cincinnati, and points west. I admit you have the aces 
— as a class we are not rich, but other trades than 
yours find us worth cultivating. We are not high- 
brow. We are not socially important enough to 
make discrimination a disguise for snobbery. We 
read detective tales (and how we have jacked up 
their quality, by the way !) along with Thomas 
Mann and Artsibashev ... I think you would 
feel at home with us, Mr. Movie Producer — or you 

would have done so ten years ago, before you took 
yourself and your bank account so seriously. 

For what we want is not so much the aesthetic — that terra 
has an anaemic sound to modern ears — as the real, the sig- 
nificant, the vital. And to us most of what you offer is as 
dead as last Sunday's mutton. The cinema must fulfill the 
prerequisite that applies to all art in any medium whatever: 
namely, the discovery of something to say, and a way of 
saying it, uniquely fitted to the particular means of ex- 

The development of the silent picture in eliminating the 
tedious and ridiculous captions* and telling a true story of 
movement in direct and often beautiful picturization was 
full of promise. But the accession of sound set the whole 
industry back upon the wrong road — the road of imitation. 
Here we have a special case of a general and very interest- 
ing problem — the relation of technique to art in an age of 
applied science. In the thirteenth century there was no such 
problem — for the simple reason that technique was almost 
entirely manual. 

Professor Orton points out that while accumu- 
lated wealth was essential then, as now, there was 
no monetary gain to be made. The great ages of 
art had no need to produce profit so that "the work 
people . . . derived an advantage largely denied 
to workpeople today." The author also indicates 
that the social pattern of, those centuries, based on 
the fact of manual technique, protected art. 

Professor Orton, in his commentary upon the 
cinema as entertainment asserts that : 

Bad taste, false sentiment, and downright vulgarity abound 
in endorsed pictures — to say nothing of the unendorsed pic- 
tures which go merrily on. The European movie, technically 
inferior as it often is to the American, is far more stimulat- 
ing, because it is free both to deal seriously with important 
social issues and to make fun of things in general — including 
such sacrosanct affairs as marriage and divorce. The Ameri- 
can movie, its system clogged and constipated with a sticky 
diet of stale ideas, has rendered itself almost incapable of 
either good drama or good farce. 

In Section V of his article the writer surveys 
specifically the points at which the movie industry 
has developed a beginning of individual technique. 
The interest that individuals and small groups of 
individuals, even in Hollywood, have shown in a 
purely technical aspect of the cinema is a possible 
door through which salvation may come. Professor 
Orton feels that a genuine cinematic technique de- 
veloped as such. may. in turn, be compelled to find 
something significant to say. 

He then discusses cinematic technique itself that 
may, of its own momentum, push the film forward 

Page 180 

The Educational Screen 

into the realm of meaning. Cinema consists of three 
elements ■ — image, movement, sequence. There fol- 
lows a scholarly presentation of each of these ele- 
ments, with the analogies drawn from the other arts 
and with the special work of technical artists in the 
film field. It is summed up as an art "that is only 
just struggling into the Hollywood consciousness." 

The seventh and last section of this stimulating 
exposition concerns itself with some vital sugges- 
tions as to the "tabloid tastes" of the American 

The American cinema for many years has based its policy 
upon the) appeal to the mob mind. It is now paying the 
penalty — the financial penalty — of having done so. So long 
as new shocks, new stunts, can be produced every week, idle 
curiosity may sustain interest; but the shocks and the stunts 
become more and more expensive as they become less and 
less effective, and eventually the public is seized with apathy 
while the industry is in the grip of financial elephantiasis. 
As a matter of fact, the industry has produced some of the 
best narrative films ever made anywhere within the past year 
or so. But it has gone on so long advertising bad work and 
good work alike in shrieking superlatives that the appeal no 
longer 'registers.' If the movie industry were to consult the 
librarians as to what people read in America, it might get 
some inkling of its own mistake. America is not so com- 
pletely tabloid-minded as Hollywood thinks it is. 

Child Welfare (April) "Movies and Life," by 
Mary Lue Cochran, is a challenging survey of the 
outstanding evil appeals to children offered by the 
movies. Or, perhaps, one should say appeals that 
have results from one standpoint or another. We 
know, well enough, that the crime pictures, the at- 
tractively presented "easy lady," the powerful and 
magnificently accoutred gangster-chief, and those 
films packed with the minute details of criminal 
safe-guards against ultimate detection, offer sug- 
gestions of charm to youngsters who fail to see the 
subtle associations of these films which prove to 
the adult that their evil heroes and heroines are not 
so lucky after all. Above all, as the writer points 
out, we know that many a sensitive child's emo- 
tional' balance and nervous resistance are brutally 
shocked by the horror-film, becoming more and 
more prominent in a cities schedule of film offerings. 
Not of less danger, though it be less specific in its 
emphasis, is the happy-ending film, giving its false 
standards to youngsters of imaginative and dra- 
matic turns of mind. Miss Cochran closes her dis- 
cussion with a suggestion that "exposing children 
to good" is not a difficult, nor a fruitless task, for 
parents and teachers. It takes time, for the advisor 
must know her film, but the child, when wisely ad- 
vised, is far more apt to prefer the good than the 
poor or harmful film. 

This is a thoughtful and directly written appeal 

by one who is an authority in the field and, at pres- 
ent, engaged in a research project for the Bureau 
of Juvenile Research of the Yale Institute of Hu- 
man Relations in cooperation with the Judge Baker 
Foundation of Boston. 

The Historical Outlook (May) "Social Science 
and the Education Sound Picture," by Dr. Howard 
Gray, Research Associate, Electrical Research 
Products, Inc., explains the steps in the process of 
applying sound films to the social sciences. The 
aims and contents of the social sciences are defined 
and illustrated. Then the author presents the se- 
lected subjects to be treated in sound films, together 
with a listing of the standards used to prevent re- 
peating many faults of the silent educational films. 

National Board of Review Magazine (April) 
"Testing Responses to Instructional Films," by 
Prof. Kirtley F. Mather of the Geology Department 
at Harvard University, presents the research made 
by the University to establish "fact not fancy" in 
appraising the value of the motion picture in edu- 
cation. An eight-chapter (relatively new) textbook 
and a series of eight audio-film were prepared, 
neither form of material referring to the other, but 
both organized from the same basic material. The 
author then describes the method of the project as 
it is unfolding. The results when completed will 
be published in this magazine. 

School Executives Magazine (May) "The Teach- 
er Turns Movie Producer," by Louis M. Bailey, 
discusses the use of educational films made by 
teaching experts in their own departments. This 
is an excellent article to sound the depths of the 
possibilities and the range of subject matter to be 
treated profitably in films. 

New York State Education (April) Air. Alfred 
W. Abrams continues his valuable series of articles 
in this publication with "Analysis of a Picture." Ac- 
companying the account is a picture of Mt. Assini- 
boine, which he uses to illustrate the characteristics 
which make the picture satisfactory both as to com- 
position and content, and to suggest pertinent ques- 

(May) In this issue Mr. Abrams discusses "Some 
Standards for Selecting Wall Maps," which are 
"distinctly visual aids to instruction and learning." 
In the first place, most maps which are used in class 
exercises are not legible to each member of the class. 
The author points out ways in which legibility can 
be achieved. He also urges the use of a large num- 
ber of special maps needed for special purposes, un- 
lettered maps and physical maps. 

fume, 19} 2 

Page 181 


Being the Combined Judgments of a National Committee on Current Theatrical Films 

(The Film Estimates, in whole or in part, may be reprinted only by special arrangement with The Educational Scream) 

As Yon Desire Mr (Greta Garboi M(iMi 
Accurate screening of the stage play, with 
Carbo doing typical work as alluring, sensual 
cabaret Ringer, turned wanton by war. mem- 
Dty of former happy marriage gone. Struggle 
t<> win back old personality and position in- 
teresting and fairly convincing. 
A Good of kind Y — By no means C— No 

4 >ngreaa Dances (Lilian Harvey, Conrad 
V..i<it i il\ A. -UKA> Charming. elaborate 
comedy -operetta of days of Metlemich. Na- 
poleon and Congress of Vienna, gorgeously 
mounted and beautifully acted. Great histor- 
ical interest. Probably too continental in 
spirit, manner and style of comedy for gen- 
eral appreciation A notable picture. 
\ Excellent Y -Fine of kind C— Beyond them 

Devil's Lottery (Elissa Landi) (Foxi Sensa- 
tional and sophisticated story about four win- 
ners of huge sweepstakes prices, all week- 
ending at country estate. Sudden wealth 
brings un happiness and disaster to all con- 
I Neither skillful nor impressive, save 
bits of good character acting. 
A— Hardly Y— Doubtful C— No 

Doomed Battalion. The (Luis Trenkert (Uni- 
versal! Vivid picture of a bit of the great 
war in the high Alps, splendidly told and 
notably acted by largely foreign cast. Extra- 
ordinary photography. Hero and heroine un- 
usually fine. (I rim. human, and convincing. 
A— Notable Y— Very good C— Very exciting 

Famous Ferguson Case. The (Joan Blondelb 
I Pint National) One of the poorest newspaper 
pictures to date. Clumsy direction and 
ehoppasVop narrative make a passable story 
too vague for interest. Dialog often cheap 
and mostly mediocre, with no notable acting 
to save it. Supposed propaganda for clean 
A — Mediocre Y— Mediocre C— No interest 

Heart of New York (George Sidney) (War- 
ner t A story made up merely of low-comedy 
and vaudeville stuff horrible English by bur- 
lesque Jewish characters, exaggerated plot and 
action, etc. Waste of George Sidney. Inane 
hut harmless, and laughable for many. 
A— Hardly Y — Probably funny 

C — Probably funny 

Hell's House (Junior Durkin. Pat O'Brien) 
i Capitol) Serious picture of Reform School 
problem, sincerely played and directed. Much 
human and dramatic value in little hero's 
misdirected devotion to a crook, as well as 
wholesome and stimulating propaganda on 
reform school conditions. 
A— Rather good Y — Good C— Better not 

Huddle (Ramon Novarro, Madge Evans) 
(MGM) Sturdy young Italian goes from steel- 
worker's home to Yale, suffers long and often 
for his crudity, but sheer grit and nerve make 
him finally a football hero. Much good com- 
edy and light romance well acted. 
A— Fair Y— Probably good C— Probably good 

Law and Order (Walter Huston) (Univer- 
sal) Violent Western of toughest frontier days. 
Perhaps makes record for hardboiled lawless- 
ness, heavy shooting, and killings that include 
almost entire cast. Huston convincing as 
peace-loving, iron-hearted U. S. marshal who 
quells the chaos. 
A— Hardly Y— Perhaps C— Doubtful 

Lena Rivers (Charlotte Henry) (Tiffany) 
Good, wholesome story of unhappiness that 
taints the life of an illegitimate child— with 
much character interest, live humor, genuine 
l>athos Acting is sincere but some of It so 
amateurish as to bar the picture from de- 
served success. 
A— Fair Y— Fairly good C— Little interest 

l.etty Lynton (Joan Crawford. Robert 
Montgomery) tMGMi Perhaps sexiest film to 
date. Wealthy heroine, let go by long suf- 

Estimates arc given for 3 groups 

A— Intelligent Adult 
Y— Youth (15-20 years) 
C — Child (under 15 years) 

Bold faced type means "recommended" 

fering mother, enjoys sex orgies around world. 
Meets clean hero, "true love.'* poisons last 
lover, and perjury by mother, maid and hero 
brings happy ending. 

A— See it and think Y— Pernicious C — No 

Love Affair {Dorothy Markaill) (Columbia) 
Improbable story designed merely to let Doro- 
thy Mackaill show how to be rich, gay and 
physically alluring. Heroine even seduces 
hero. Thoroughly unhealthy story about peo- 
ple leading unhealthy lives with wealth, booze 
and liaisons as features. 
A Hardly Y— Pernicious C — No 

Man Wanted ( Kay Francis, David Man- 
ners) (Warner) Rich play-boy husband, hard- 
working editor wife, love each other genuinely 
but lead independent lives. Hero becomes sec- 
retary to editor — hence her divorce and his 
broken engagement needed for happy ending. 
Unconvincing and sophisticated, but not of- 
A— Hardly Y— Unwholesome C — No 

Night Court (Walter Huston. Phillips 
Holmes) (MGM) Elaborate and highly sensa- 
tional picturlzation of crooked, immoral, un- 
scrupulous judge, and methods of tricky court 
procedures. Finely played by Huston and 
an able cast. Opinions will differ as to ef- 
fect on the public mind. 
A— Well to see it Y — Unwholesome C — No 

Night World tl,ew Ay res, Mae Clarke) (Uni- 
versal) Hero's mother killed his father for in- 
fidelity and hero becomes sodden drinker. 
Night club life at its worst — promiscuous 
love-maktng, booze, knockouts to jaw, Ave 
gang killings. Marriage mentioned once for 
comic effect and to insure moral ending. 
A— Trash Y— Pernicious C— No 

Partners (Tom Keene) (RKO-Pathe) Lively 
and fairly wholesome Western about the 
search for murder of an old peddler, suspicion 
points to hero, but peddler's little grandson 
solves the problem. A bit above average of 
its kind. 
A — Hardly Y — Probably good C — Probably good 

Radio Patrol (Robert Armstrong. Lila Lee) 
(Universal) Propaganda for high duty of 
police force toward community welfare, but it 
is heavily cluttered up with crude romance. 
brutal murder, and hero turning grafter. 
Chief merit an engaging role by Russell Hop- 
ton as pal of hard-boiled hero. 
A— Perhaps Y— Doubtful C— No 

Rich Are Always With Us, The (Ruth Chat- 
terton) (First National) Silly title for rather 
good story, beautfully acted by leads, with 
star's mannerisms much less marked. Smooth 
highly sophisticated dialog that avoids offen- 
sive sexiness, playing up strongly the insta- 
bility of marriage. Skillfully made picture. 
A — Interesting Y — Decidedly not C— No 

Roadbouse Murder, The (Eric Linden. Doro- 
thy Jordan) (Radio) Unobjectionable murder- 
mystery-thriller full of hokum and stock de- 
vices, undistinguished in acting and direction. 
but with fairly original central idea. Lively, 
carelessly made story with burlesque touches. 
that does not worry about being convincing. 
A— Hardly Y— Fair C— No 

Sinners In the Sun I Carole Lombard, Ches- 
ter Morris) (Paramount) Cheap, tawdry stuff 
about an engaged pair whose movie-wisdom 
decides that only money can make marriage. 
So they separate — sexy heroine becomes kept 
mistress — bulldog-jawed hero a gigolo — when 

tiring of it, come back to each other for 

happy ending. 

A— Trash Y— Pernicious C — No 

Society Girl (James Dunn, Peggy Shannon) 
(Fox) Rather human and above average prize- 
fight picture with less fighting than usual. 
II. -r... in love with society girl, loses his buddy 
manager, the girl, and championship fight, but 
in the end wins both back. Quite unobjec- 
A— Fair of kind Y— Fair C —Perhaps 

State's Attorney (John Barrymore) (Radio) 
Disappointing hash made from previous legal- 
hero films — political aspirations complicated 
hy illicit love, hard-drinking hero performing 
prodigies now for, now against crooks, and 
with Barrymore overacting throughout. Waste 
of time and talent. 
A— Disappointing Y— No C— No 

Strange Case of Clara Deane (Wynne Gib- 
son) (Paramount) Heroine, devoted to incur- 
ably crooked husband, even to the point of 
taking long jail turn with him, and thus los- 
ing her own daughter forever, is beautifully 
played by Wynne Gibson. A depressing but 
appealing story. 
A—Interesting Y— Fairly good C— No 

Straggle. The (Hal Skelly) (U. A.) Sup- 
posedly propaganda against prohibition by the 
once great director, D. W. Griffith. Merely a 
depressing hash of melodramatic hokum, cen- 
tering around a husband returning to drink, 
degenerating into a bum and would-be mur- 
derer of his own daughter. Futile and worth- 

A— Mediocre . Y— No C— No 

Trial of Vivlenne Ware, The (Joan Bennett) 
(Fox) The sensational newspaper and radio 
thriller, now screened for any possible further 
profits. Hectic murder-trial-mystery trying 
every device, old or new, to get a thrill. Much 
hokum, crude and noisy humor, but not sexy. 
A — Crude Y— Thrilling C — No 

Two Seconds (Edward Robinson) (First Na- 
tional) Lurid, sexy drama about the sordid 
love of contemptible taxi-dancer, who gets 
hero drunk enough to marry her. Gruesome 
consequences follow—hero kills pal accident- 
ally, the girl intentionaly, and is finally elec- 
trocuted. Largely false and improbable. 
A— Hardly Y— Unwholesome C— No 

Westward Passage (Ann Harding) (RKO- 
Pathe) Light, more or less unconvincing, but 
rather entertaining divorce-problem story, 
charmingly played by Ann Harding, with able 
support. Devoted couple separate after con- 
stant quarrels — she marries old friend — but 
gets second divorce and remarries first love. 
A— Fairly good Y— Doubtful C— No 

When a Feller Needs a Friend (Jackie Coop- 
er. Chic Sale) (MGM) Wholesome, appealing 
blending of comedy and pathos with Jackie 
Cooper notable as little lame boy coddled by 
his parents into an inferiority complex which 
wise training by old Uncle Jonas helps him 
overcome. Healthy theme. 
A— Good Y— Very good C -Good but sad 

While Paris Sleeps (Victor McLaglen) (Fox) 
Long-lost father, supposed dead as war hero- 
escapes prison to find daughter Imperilled by 
Paris underworld. Saves her at cost of life, 
without revealing identity. Some human bits. 
but buried under hectic action. Acting very 
A— Mediocre Y— Worthless C— No 

Woman in Room 13. The (Elissa Land!) 
(Fox) Smoothly played divorce-and-trial story. 
Heroine, married to contemptible husband, 
finally leaves him for hero. Becomes inno- 
cently Involved with philandering villain, but 
proper ending is achieved. Some excellent 
acting in rather convincing story. 
A— Fairly good Y— Perhaps C— No 

Page 182 

The Educational Screen 






Unto the Least" 


THIS is a true story of motion pictures in a 
' church. 

The Bible Class Teacher in a large church in a 
Southern city wanted to use such pictures as were 
available in her class teaching. She encountered 
some opposition to bringing motion pictures into 
the church but after the first chapter of The King of 
Kings was shown all objections were withdrawn. The 
member who had registered disapproval most vig- 
orously said in great humility that for the first time 
in his experience the life of Jesus took on reality. 
Thereafter pictures continued to be used in that 
church on one day of the week until the supply of 
suitable material was exhausted. 

Soon after the programs started a young man 
from another church of the same denomination 
called on the Bible Class Teacher. He had a small 
club of young boys, aH of the underprivileged class. 
They did not go to Church or to Sunday School and 
the young man was seeking ways and means to lead 
them into paths of usefulness and good citizenship. 
He had heard of the motion picture shows in the 
larger church and he wanted to bring his boys in 
to see the pictures at an hour when projector and 
films were not in use. The Bible School Teacher 
gave willing consent, so every afternoon as long as 
the pictures lasted, the young man brought his 
group of street urchins in to see the "movies" and 
to listen to stories of the life and works of the Great 

One day when the picture shows had ended one 
of the boys, evidently appointed spokesman for the 
crowd, asked their friend if he thought "fellers like 
us are fit to join the Jesus Man's Church." They 
were told that "Of such is the Kingdom of Heaven." 

And so, on an Easter Sunday, these boys pre- 
sented themselves at the altar, their faces scrubbed 
and shining with joy, their clothes clean and 
patched, as their friend had never before seen them, 
and were admitted to church membership. This 
was two years ago and these boys are finding with- 
in the church guidance, activity and "the opportunity 
for growth and work. 

The contribution made by motion pictures in this 
instance can be multiplied literally times without 

Interesting Monograph on Projected 

Pictures in Worship 

A monograph, "How to Use Projected Pictures 
in Worship," has been prepared by Rev. H. Paul 
Janes, director of the division of visual aids of the 
Presbyterian Board of Christian Education, Phila- 
delphia. In its 24 mimeographed pages it treats of 
both the theory and practice of showing pictures in 
the church. Mr. Janes has done fine work in pre- 
paring and presenting projected picture church 
services, and he draws upon this experience to state 
some very interesting observations. He keeps his 
feet on the ground at all times, even when essaying 
excursions into discussions of theory. 

His statement of the standpoint of the church with 
relation to the theater struck us as particularly ex- 
cellent. In this regard he says : 

"There is rightly much prejudice against imita- 
tion of the theater. There is very little in common 
between a theater program and a church service. 

"The theater is the purveyor of novelty and fan- 
tasy. The church is the place of the great and 
lasting realities. 

"To the church men go to meditate on these 
realities. How futile it is to try to introduce there 
the technique of the fanciful ! 

"This does not mean that the theater should be 
allowed to monopolize anything which the church 
can use. If we should conclude that nothing can 
be used in the church which is used in the theater 
we could do nothing but close all churches at once. 
The church must learn to use what can be useful 
to it in a way which will be helpful." 

Relative to motion picture projectors, he says : 
"Most religious film is available on either 35 mm. 
or 16 mm. standard-sized film. The rental of 16 
mm. film is from one-third to one-half that of 35 
mm. film. Where the, distance of projection in a 
room is not over seventy feet, 16 mm. projectors are 
quite adequate and only an expert can distinguish 

June, 19)2 

Page 183 

between a picture projected on a 16 mm. projector 
and on an expensive 35 mm, machine." 

And he might have added that with some of the 
high-grade, late model 16 mm, projectors much 
longer throws are easily negotiated. Pictures up to 
16 feet wide are projected by 16 mm. machines of 
the most modern type. 

The monograph is on pages 8j4xll inches in size 
and is hound in a cover. Copies may he hail for 25 
cents on request to Mr. Janes. 

Some Figures on Church 
Movie Activities 

That churches are increasingly embarking upon 
motion picture activities in all parts of the country 
is evident to even the most casual observer of the 
church field. However, it has not been so clear as 
to what direction these activities have been taking 
— that is, to just what uses movies are being put by 
the various movie-using churches; whether films 
are being used for Sunday evening services, for 
auxiliary gatherings, or for fund raising, and 
whether the churches are themselves making 

We are indebted to the Bell & Howell Company 
for information along these lines based upon a ques- 
tionnaire sent out to various clergymen. The ques- 
tionnaire was sent to 16 mm. equipment users, and 
over 50 per cent of the churches reporting owned 
both projectors and cameras. About 30 per cent 
of the churches reporting indicate that they have 
made use of films for major services. At least 50 
pec cent use pictures for Sunday School, and the 
same percentage employ them to stimulate interest 
in auxiliary gatherings. The same percentage, also, 
indicates use to arouse interest in missions, while 
nearly 75 per cent of the churches have used films 
for raising funds. 

Practically half of the churches show pictures of 
their own activities, and numerous clergymen use 
a movie camera to make pictures of their travels, 
so as to live them over with their congregations by 
means of illustrated lectures after they return home. 
N'umerous churches make films of local town hap- 
penings, others of church organization events, 
while a few make movies of religious subjects — un- 
doubtedly meaning by this, pictures of religious 
pageants, etc. 

The use of rental films is coming into increasing 
favor, and industrials and scenics available on a free 
loan basis are especially welcomed. 


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Page 184 

The Educational Screen 


Director, Scarborough School, Scarborough-on-Hudson, N. Y. 

Chicago University to Produce Educational Sound Motion Pictures 

TALKING motion pictures, newest and most adapt- 
' able tool of the educator, will make the new educa- 
tional plan of the University of Chicago generally 
available this autumn to all interested institutions and 
groups in the country. This unprecedented extension 
of the University's resources in faculty and equipment 
to all high schools, colleges, universities, and adult 
education organizations was announced recently at the 

This development in the use of educational talking 
pictures will be achieved through the combined efforts 
of the University and the American Telephone and 
Telegraph Company, through various of its subsidiar- 
ies. Erpi Picture Consultants, Inc., a research group 
composed of educational psychologists, and specialists 
in the various fields of science and scholarship, which 
for the past four years has been conducting a compre- 
hensive study of the production and use of talking 
pictures in education, will provide the expert knowl- 
edge essential to the program. The Bell Telephone 
laboratories and the Electrical Research Products. Inc., 
will contribute the technical skill. 

All the pictures produced at the University will be 
integrated with its actual courses. They will constitute 
the first effort to combine regular class room material 
and the talking motion picture medium on a large scale. 
Although the University will use the entire series in 
its work, the series will be so arranged that other edu- 
cational institutions and organizations will be able to 
use it either in whole or in part. 

It is expected that the first unit in the program will 
be a series of twenty pictures in the physical sciences. 
The tentative list of titles is as follows : 

1. The Solar System Reactions 

2. The Changing Surface of II. Electrochemistry 
the Earth 12. Heat and Work 

3. Beneath the Earth's 13. Electricity 

Surface 14. Interference of Light 

4. States of Matter 15. Sound 

5. Combustion and Cor- 16. Weather and Forecasting 
rosion 17. Composition of the 

6. Chemical Equilibrium Atmosphere 

7. Carbon and Its Com- 18. Energy, Work and 
pounds Power 

8. The Carbon Cycle in 19. Eclipses of the Sun and 
Nature Moon 

9. Time and the Calendar 20. Decoding the Information 
10. Velocity of Chemical in a Beam of Light 

Through the talking motion pictures, the University 
will be able to offer educational institutions from high 
schools to the university level essential elements of its 
new plan, and the services of its leading teachers and 
research men, thei- laboratory facilities supplemented 
by whatever they need from the visible or invisible 
world. Facilities specially developed at the University 
for the new general courses, such as the extensive 
demonstration laboratories and museums, expensive to 
duplicate, will be made generally available through the 
talking films. 

Large possibilities are foreseen for the talking pic- 
tures in the rapidly expanding adult education move- 
ment, and in this aspect of the program the University 
is particularly interested. The adult education groups 
are desirous of obtaining ideas and material of high 
educational level on which to base their programs. 
The syllabi developed for the general courses provide 
outlines and reading lists for guidance in independent 
study, and already are in wide use for adult education 
work. The combination of the syllabi and the talking 
pictures, together with specially prepared material to 
be provided for the pictures, are expected to be of 
especial service in stimulating the cultivation of inter- 
ests among those outside the colleges. 

Such an experiment in the physical sciences course 
as "the dance of the molecules" — the thermal agitation 
of molecular action — must now be demonstrated to 
each student, who observes through an ultra-micro- 
scope the action of colloidal particles. Attendance of 
a laboratory technician is required to explain the phe- 
nomenon as the student makes his observations. Sound 
films, however, will eliminate this tedious method in 
such types of experiments, enabling a more effective 
as well as an economical method of demonstration. 
Failure of delicate experiments will be eliminated 
through the use of the talking pictures, and the film 

presentation will be a perfect demonstration. 


The factor of motion which the pictures provide 
will be particularly helpful in clarifying other forms 
of experiments, such as those dealing with electrical 
phenomena. It will be possible, for example, to illus- 
trate the action of a transformer by tracing the flow 
of electrons in association with the magnetic field, with 
considerably increased effectiveness over such devices 
as charts. 

June, 19)2 

Page 185 

Illustration of natural processes, such as the de- 
velopment of deltas, demonstrated on a stream table 
at the University, can be achieved in the hhns, eliminat- 
ing the necessity of duplicating the equipment else- 
where. Such famous experiments as Michelson's 
determination of the speed of light can be brought to 
any class room in the country with the talking pictures. 

The pictures will be a valuable tool for teachers, 
and there is no possibility that they will be substi- 
tutes for teaching, nor any miraculous method of 
inculcating knowledge. The University particularly 
through its School of Education, has been devoted to 
experiment in educational methods, and the develop- 
ment of new ideas and techniques. One of the pri- 
mary reasons why production of the series of sound 
pictures is to be undertaken is the desire to experiment 
with the possibilities of talking motion pictures in 
education. When the pictures are ready for use next 
autumn the University will be availing itself of practi- 
cally every possible means of disseminating educational 

New Film on Mechanical Drawing 

The first educational motion picture made expressly 
to teach Mechanical Drawing has been recently pro- 
duced in San Diego, California, by Floyd W. Cocking 
of the Roosevelt Junior High School, as author, and 
James H. House of the Visual Education Department 
of that city, as Director. It is a 16 mm. film of 480 
feet, or about 20 minutes running time. 

Here is an excellent example of truly educational 
film made by educators themselves, with nothing more 
elaborate in the way of equipment than a standard 
Filmo Camera and regular drawing outfit. 

The film gives brief correlation' of drafting to in- 
dustry and then takes up the study of drafting by 
means of photographed demonstration showing use of 
instruments, drafting technique, layout of a plate, 
choice of views in drafting, and the actual construc- 
tion of typical drawings. 

During a recent review of this film in the Bureau 
of Visual Instruction of the Chicago Public Schools, 
an opportunity was presented to test the reaction not 
only of the instructors present, but also of several 
junior high school boys. From the comments of the 
boys, while the film was being shown, it was evident 
that even in such a short and condensed presentation, 
knowledge was acquired in a most interesting and ef- 
fective way. The method of sharpening the pencil, 
the determining of the location of a line to be drawn, 
by placing the pencil point and then bringing the angle 
ruler up against it, and similar points, were vividly 
described by the boys after the film had been shown. 

An Introduction to Mechanical Drawing is a notably 


Glass & Film Slides 

U. S. History — 20 units 
Ancient & Medieval History — 12 units 

Replete with Maps 

Write for bulletins describing this most 
up-to-date teaching material. 



"America's Oldest Producer of Educational 
Projection Slides" 

good piece of work. It will interest anyone, young or 
old, and should be of definite teaching value in any 
course on Mechanical Drawing anywhere. The film is 
available only by purchase from the author, who will 
be glad to supply terms, prices, etc., on request to him 

We shall have the pleasure, in an early issue, of 
presenting the author's own account of a teaching test 
made with this film in the San Diego Schools. 



Technical and Nontechnical 

With Synchronized Sound or Silent 

The General Electric Company, through itt Visual 
Instruction Section, has produced many educational 
pictures of both a technical and nontechnical nature. 
These films are intended for exhibition in the interest 
of education, public welfare, and commercial develop- 
ment. They deal with the electrical industry, its ac- 
complishments, and its relation to other industries. 
General Electric filrns — 35- and 16-mm. silent and 
35-mm. sound — are lent free of charge except for 
transportation costs. Write to the nearest of the fol- 
lowing General Electric offices for a copy of Motion 
Picture Catalog, GES-402B. 

1 River Road. 925 Euclid Ave.. 

Schenectady. N. Y. Cleveland. Ohio 

1405 Locust St.. --- ... 

Philadelphia. Pa. 329 Ald * r St.. 

230 S. Clark St. Portland. Oregon 

Chicago. 111. m Spring St.. N. W.. 

200 S. Main St.. Atlauta, Ga. 

Salt Lake City, Utah 

1801 N. Lamar St.. Special Distributor— 

Dallas. Texaa 'Department of Visual Instruction. 

84 State St.. University of California. 

Boston, Mass. Berkeley, Calif. 

•A small service charge la made for films entered from this office. 


Page 186 

The Educational Screen 

What Should a Course in Visual Instruction Include? * 


kylORE than two hundred courses in Visual Instrue- 
'▼■ tion will be offered this summer in teachers' col- 
leges and universities in the United States. These 
courses are listed under different headings, about one- 
third of which are "Visual Education" or "Visual 
Instruction" ; one-eighth are "Visual Methods in Pri- 
mary Reading"; one-eighth are "Visual Methods in 
Teaching Geography"; the remainder are based on 
"History," "Social Science," "General Science," or 
are included in a general course in "Method." The 
visual method in teaching procedure has been found 
applicable to every subject in the curriculum. 

The time is past when the director of a course in 
Visual Instruction needs to take time in arguing the 
effectiveness of the "sense" methods of teaching. This 
is done for him in practically every educational depart- 
ment. The teacher in training is constantly admon- 
ished to get away from the lecture method and a fixed 
textbook assignment followed by an oral examination. 
He is urged to socialize the recitation and to encourage 
creative thinking. This can only be done effectively 
when the child has a background of sense experience. 
It has become very apparent to educational leaders 
that teachers must be trained in the use of educational 
tools and devices that can bring these sense experiences 
to the classroom. Therefore the course in "Visual 
Instruction" should be first of all a laboratory course. 
The instructor of such a course should not only be 
familiar with the various types of visual aids but also 
be able to teach their use, manipulation and care. 

A well equipped laboratory for a course in visual 
instruction should contain: a blackboard, bulletin 
board, maps, models, museum collection, projection 
apparatus including two or three types of stereopticon 
machines, direct and indirect projectors, strip or film 
slide projector with picturols, a 16 and a 35 mm. mov- 
ing picture machine, talking picture machine, several 
types of screens, organized sets of slides for primary, 
intermediate and high school subjects, slide-making 
material, stereographs and stereoscopes, sand table, 
commercial catalogs from the various educational 
equipment concerns, necessary material for making 
posters, cartoons and graphs, and flat pictures applic- 
able to the teaching of definite lessons to be mounted 
and cataloged by the students. 

Each of the above should be thoroughly discussed 
as to its value and use and the mechanical manipulation 
mastered. In addition to these the place of the school 

"Reprinted from the April issue of The Indiana Teacher. 

exhibit, school journeys and dramatization should be 
given careful attention. 

In order that the students of this visual method of 
teaching may derive full benefit from the course it is 
necessary that each one should do some supervised 
practice teaching following the recognized psycho- 
logical lesson procedure : 

1. Motivate by bringing some known experience be- 
fore the child. 

2. Create interest by relating this known to new and 
hitherto unknown experiences. 

3. Give the student a concrete and meaningful vo- 

4. Assign tasks and sources of information for re- 
search work. 

5. After the research work has been done, hold a 
conference with the class allowing the students to pre- 
sent and discuss pictures, objects, drawings and any 
other evidences of things they have learned and to 
bring up questions of things they would like to know 
or do. 

Of course it is much better if this teaching can be 
done with regular classes of children but the visual 
instruction class can be used very satisfactorily. 

Since the subject-matter differs widely in the lower 
grades from that of the upper grades, it is much better 
to have a separate course in Visual Instruction for 
grade teachers and for Junior and Senior High School 

The following are a few of the reference books 
which should be accessible to the students : 

"Visual Instruction in the Public Schools." Anna 
V. Dorris ; "Picture Values and Visual Aids," Doctor 
J. J. Weber; "Fundamentals in Visual Instruction." 
William H. Johnson ; "Exhibit Planning," Evart G. 
Routzahn ; "The Child and the World," Margaret 
Naomburg; "The Educational Screen" and other mag- 

Finally the director of a course in Visual Instruc- 
tion should keep before the dlass the following pur- 
poses : 

1. To give a background of correct imagery for 
descriptions outside the child's experience. 

2. To raise problems the answers to which may be 
found by reading, i. e., to motivate silent reading. 

3. To make the lesson vivid and interesting. 

4. To focus the attention of the entire group upon 
a given subject for socialized class discussion. 

5. To create an atmospheric background for the 
teaching of appreciation and literary interpretation. 

June, 19)2 

Page 187 


to the Biggest 
and Best 
in Current 

Write today for free 
non-theatrical Cata- 
log 78. 





730 Fifth Ave. 
New York City 


Evolution Made 

Plain in 

Clarence Darrow's 


7 Reels 

Write for 


The Keystone Visual 
Readers Make Good 

One User Writes: 

"I believe it is the most simple and effective 
approach to beginning reading. Here, lowest 
ability groups are doing almost the standard 
work for highest ability groups." 

Reporting on the Results of a Controlled Experi- 
ment with High Ability Groups, Another Writes: 

"Consistently throughout the semester the 

Visual Group scored higher than did the 

The Visual averaged 20.3% higher during the 
semester, and finished on the 204 word vocab- 
ulary test with 18.4% more words than did 
the Group." 

Reporting on Use with Special Groups, Another 

"In some cases the gains were very consider- 
able, the child gaining four terms of reading 
ability where normally he would have been 
expected to gain only one term." 

The Keystone Visual Readers, with Accompanying 
Stereographs and Lantern Slides, Are a Specific 
Application of Visual Aids to a Definite Educational 

That's Why the Above Testimonials Are Specific, 
Positive, and Convincing. 

The Visual Aid Approach to Reading Is the Big- 
gest Opportunity for the Convincing Use of Visual 
Aids Yet Offered to Education by the Keystone 
View Company. 

Let Us Send You More Testimonials and Com- 
plete Information. 

Keystone View 

Meadville, Penna. 

Page 188 

The Educational Screen 

Visual Instruction in 
Summer Schools of 1932 

(Courtesy of Keystone View Company) 



State College for 
Women, Monte- 

State Teachers Col- 
lege, Montgomery 

University of Ala- 
ama, University 


University of 
Arizona, Tucson 


A. and M. College 

State Teachers Col- 
lege, Conway 

San Jose State 

Courses Instructor (or Dep't) 

Visual Education H. W. James 

Visual Education 

Methods in the Use 
of Visual Aids 

W. M. Menchan 
W. C. Crosby 

Visual Education George A. Stracke 

Special Methods 

Visual Aids in Pri- 
mary Reading 

State Teachers Col- 
lege, Fresno 

Chico State Teach- 
ers College, 
Mount Shasta 

San Francisco State 
Teachers College 

Stanford University, 
Palo Alto 


University of Colo- 
rado, Boulder 


State Teachers Col- 
lege, Tallahassee 


State College for 
Women, Mill- 

State Teachers Col- 
lege, Americus 


Western 111. State 
Teachers, Maoomb 


Ball State Teachers 
College, Muncie 

State Teachers Col- 
lege, Terre Haute 

University of Indi- 
ana, Bloomington 

Intermediate Grade 

Rural Education 

mary Curriculum 

The Principal and 
His School 

Principles and New- 
er Phases of 



Reading in the Ele- 
mentary School 


The Principal and 
His School 

Methods in Visual 

Visual Aids in 


Primary Methods. 
Geography Meth- 
ods, History 

Visual Education 

Primary History, 

Geography and 

James H. Hutch- 

Training School 

Albion H. Horrall 

Elsie Toles 
Emily De Vore 

Walter Bachrodt 

Lewis B. Avery 

Mr. Livingston 
Mr. Meigs 

Mrs. Stewart 

Grace Carter 

Walter Bachrodt 

Rupert Peters 
Rupert Peters 

G. H. Webber 

Mrs. J. C. Hinson 

Principles of Teach- Lillian M. Dinius 

ing, Elementary 

Principles of Teach 

ing, High School 
Visual Instruction 

Visual Education 

D. T. Cushman 
H. A. Henderson 
Hugh W. Norman 


University of Iowa, 
Iowa City 

Grinnell College, 


University of Kan- 
sas, Lawrence 

State Teachers Col- 
lege, Emporia 

State Teachers Col- 
lege, Pittsburg 


University of Ken- 
tucky, Lexington 
Boston University 
Boston College, 


State Teachers Col- 
lege, St. Cloud 


Washington Uni- 
versity, St. Louis 


State Normal Col- 
lege, Chadron 

New Jersey 

Rutgers University, 
New Brunswick 

Use of Visual Aids College of Educa- 
in Teaching tion and Exten- 

sion Division 
Visual Aids A. P. Twogood 

Visual Instruction Ellsworth C. Dent 

in Elementary and 

Secondary Schools 
Visual Education J. P. Drake 

Jane M. Carroll 
Ethel Moore Peck 

Visual Education 

Classes Primary 

Intermediate Grades Daphne Cross 

Visual Instruction Louis W. Clifton 

Primary Education 
Visual Methods 
Teaching Art 

through Visual 


Principles of Vis- 
ual Instruction 

Visual Aids in 

Principles of 



Methods in Social 

Teresa R. Flaherty 
Joseph Hennesey 
Alfred F. Burke 

Leonard A. Wil- 

Leonard A. Wil- 

Frank Lee Wright 
S. C. Gribble 

C. H. Bright 

Methods Course in Lawrence R. 

Visual Education Winchell 

Administration of Lawrence R. 

Visual Aids Winchell 

New York 
Buffalo State 

Teachers College 
Cornell University, 

State Normal 

School, New Paltz 

Geography Methods Charles D. Cooper 
Frank E. Lutz 
Dorothy Giddings 

Visual Aids in 

Primary Methods 

State Normal 
School, Oswego 

State Normal 
School, Potsdam 

New York Univer- 

Geography Methods 
Use of Visual Aids 
Geography Methods 
Primary Reading 
History Methods 
Geography Methods 
Primary Reading 
Visual Aids in 

Methods in Visual 

Teaching Elemen- 
tary Science 
Teaching of Gen- 
eral Science 
Teaching and Su- 
pervision of His- 
tory in Elemen- 
tary Schools 
Teaching of History 
in Secondary 

Gertrude Nichols 
John J. Jenkins 
Isabella Hart 
Marietta Odell 
Marion Mahar 
Mary Rowley 
Anna Murtaugh 
John H. Shaver 

John H. Shaver 

Lewis M. Dougan 

Ellsworth S. 

C. M. Bennett 

Daniel C. Knowl- 

June, 1952 

Page 189 

Visual Aids and 
Visual Methods 
as Applied to the 
Teaching of His- 
tory and the < Itli 
er Social Studies 

North Carolina 

rsity of North Primary Methods 
Carolina, Chapel 


Cleveland Teachers 


Agricultural and 
Mechanical Col- 
lege, Stillwater 


State Teachers Col- 
leges at 

t Stroudsburg 
Lock Haven 
Slipperv Rock 
West Chester 

Allegheny College, 

Buckncll University, 

Dnqutsne Univer- 
sity. Pittsburgh 

Elizabcthtown Col- 
Ickc Elizabeth- 

Immaculata College, 

Mary wood College, 

Misericordia Col- 
lege, Dallas 

Seton Hill College, 

Temple University, 

Daniel C. Knowl- 

Sally Marks 

Primary Reading Mary Cameron 
Geography Methods C. Langdon White 

Visual Education J. C. Muerman 


•Sensory Aids 
•Sensory Aids 
•Sensory Aids 
-Sensory Aids 
■Sensory Aids 
■Sensory Aids 
-Sensory Aids 
■Sensory Aids 
-Sensory Aids 
-Sensory Aids 
•Sensory Aids 
-Sensory Aids 

Visual Education 
Visual Aids 
Visual Education 

Visual Education 

Visual Aids in 

Methods in Visual 

Visual Education 

Projection Appara- 
tus and Illustra- 
tive Material 

South Carolina 

Universtiy of South Visual Aids 
Carolina, Columbia 


East Tenn. State 

Teachers College, 
• Johnson City 

H. H. Russell 
Newton Kerstctter 
H. S. Manson 
Elwood Heiss 
Ruth Barrett 
Wilbcr Etnmert 
L. J. Ulmer 
Cornelia Cornish 
Paul Chandler 
L. C. Krebs 
R. A. Waldron 
H. M. Sherman 
G. E. Hamilton 

L. Paul Miller 

I. A. Hemel 

Lavinia Wenger 

Sister Maria Alma 

Sister M. Sylvia 

Sister Mary Im- 
Helen Schmadel 
S. G. Livingood 
John T. Garman 

A. R. Childs 

Visual Aids in Ina Yoakley 

Primary Grades P. W. Alexander 

Intermediate Grades Letha Shewmaker 
Marie Harrison 


University of 
Texas. Austin 

North Texas State 
Teachers College, 


State Teachers Col- 
lege, I .a Crosse 

State Teachers Col- 
lege. Milwaukee 

Visual Instruction J. J. Weber 
Visual Instruction Hugo J. .P. Vitz 

Tell Us About Your 

Visual Aid Requirements . . . 

Most of the Bureaus of Visual Instruction purchase their visual 
material from us. They prefer dealing with us . . . 

because our prices ere low . . . 

because our material is excellent and veriegeted . . . 

because our terms of payment are unusually liberal . . . 

because our service is prompt and whole-heartedly 

Write for li*U and catalogs on the type of material you need. 
Whether you want 16 mm. films ... 35 mm. films ■ ■ . lantern 
slides . . . filmslides . . . projectors, narrow or standard, silent 
or talking . . . stereopt icons . . . screens ... or any and all 
accessories . . . communicate with . . . 

Herman Ross Enterprises, Inc. 

622 Ninth Avenue New York, N. Y. 

"Ian Second 16mm. Exposition 

Second annual 16 mm. national motion picture 
exposition will be held at the Hotel Victoria, New 
York City, the week of Sept. 19 under the manage- 
ment of A. D. V. Storey, executive secretary of the 
Board of Trade. The exposition committee includes 
Julius Singer of Show-At-Home Movie Library, 
Joseph Dombroff of Willoughbys, H. O. Bodine, A. 
1 ). V. Storey and G. P. Foute of the Raven Screen 
Co., who is president of the 16 mm. Board of Trade. 

Problems in 

Dorothy Blotter 

Louise W. Mears 
Grace Gottschall 

Lantern Slides 

Accurately Graded 
Photographically Perfect 


First Through Eighth Years 


First Six Years 


Elementary and Junior High 


Fourth Through Eighth Years 

We also carry a full line of projection apparatus, 
screens and accessories. Send for Catalogue. 

Your correspondence invited 

Eye Gate House, Inc. 

330 West 42nd Street 

New York. N. Y. 

Page 190 

The Educational Screen 


Where the commercial firms — whose activities have an important hearing on progress in the visual field — 
are free to tell their story in their own words. The Educational Screen is glad to reprint here, within nec- 
essary space limitations, such material as seems to have most informational and news value to our readers. 

Da-Lite Announces New Type Screen 

The new projection lamps and the greater illumina- 
tion they afford has made possible the much desired 
large picture in the school room despite the difficulty in 
totally darkening the room. Hence a larger than ordi- 
nary screen is now much to be desired and the Da-Lite 
Screen Company, pioneer builders of theatre and non- 
professional screens offer a most unique product in the 
form of the Da-Lite De Luxe Challenger. 

This new screen is the tripod type, the tripod being 
very staunch and rugged. The screen case is fastened 
to the tripod with a pivot connection thereby keeping 
the screen case and tripod a complete unit. When the 
screen case is swung to a horizontal position with the 
tripod standing erect, the lower edge of the screen is 
45" from the floor which is the most desirable height for 
school room use. The erection of the screen is accom- 
plished with a crank operated worm and gear mechan- 
ism located and housed on the back of the tripod. This 
mechanism operates with practically no effort at all 
and quickly raises the projection surface, from the 
case, up to the desired height. 

The Da-Lite De Luxe Challenger may be conven- 
iently stored in a corner by simply leaving the tripod 
in a standing position and swinging the screen case to 
the vertical where it latches firmly into place, or the 
entire unit can be completely collapsed into a small, 
compact bundle and be entirely out of the way. 

It is being furnished in two sizes, both with the very 
fine Da-Lite glass bead surface which is known to have 
the most desirable reflecting qualities of any screen sur- 
face yet available. The two sizes are 45 by 60 inches 
and 52 by 72 inches. 

History Slide Series 

Two new series of slide units on History are avail- 
able from the C. W. Briggs Company of Philadelphia. 
One series comprises 20 units on United States His- 
tory arranged by Edward F. Paddock and Louis 
Walton Sipley. This series has been prepared to close- 
ly follow the recommendations of the Committee of 
Eight on teaching of history. The series has been 
broken up into units corresponding to approved meth- 
ods both in area and emphasis. 

The second series comprises 12 units on Ancient 

and Medieval History arranged by Mr. Sipley to corre- 
late with any standard text. The 12 units cover (1) 
Egypt, (2) Assyria, Babylonia, Persia and the He- 
brews, (3) The Rise of Greece, (4) The Golden Age 
of Greece, (5) The Graeco-Oriental World, (6) Rise 
of Rome, (7) The Roman Empire, (8) The Decline of 
Rome, (9) Romano-Teutonic Europe, (10) The Feu- 
dal Age, (11) Age of the Renaissance and (12) The 

Both series include a great number of maps drawn 
specially for this work. Both series are available in 
both glass slides and in filmslides. Glass slides are in 
color or plain, filmslides in black and white only. 

Morgana Color Process for 
Filmo Cameras and Projectors 

Filmo cameras and projectors designed for taking 
and showing color motion pictures by the Morgana 
Color Process are announced by the Bell & Howell 
Company. This company states that it considers Mor- 
gana the best two-color additive process that has ap- 

In this process color is not inherent in the film itself 
but is obtaiqed by special filters in the camera and pro- 
jector in conjunction with special mechanism. Dif- 
ferent types of mechanism are employed in the camera 
and projector respectively, the projector mechanism 
embodying a radically new principle never before 
applied to motion picture technique. It is this unique 
projector mechanism that is largely responsible for 
the outstanding results obtained, which include a total 
absence of the flicker which has heretofore seldom 
been dissociated from two-color additive processes. 

The Morgana Color Process was invented by Lady 
Williams of Pontyclun, South Wales. While the 
Process does not parallel the advantages of three color 
systems, we are informed, it has these major distin- 
guishing features: (1) Regular panchromatic reversal 
film is used. (2) Duplicates may be made just as from 
panchromatic reversal film exposed for black and 
white movies. (3) Any Filmo lens may be used. The 
filters in the camera are behind the lens seat. (4) Pic- 
tures may be taken under adverse light conditions. 
Merely open the lens one stop to allow for the two- 
color filters. (5) Screen pictures 10 feet wide may be 
shown with a Filmo projector. 

June, 19)2 

Page 191 



Portable, small, efficient 

. the B & L Balopticon Model B is an inexpensive 
still picture projector. 

YOU expect visual instruction to produce better 
educational results. And you can count on the 
RIGHT equipment, the properly built and efficiently 
operated projectors, to bring your schools REAL 
ECONOMIES in money, and an equally valuable 
conservation of teaching effort. 

Take the Balopticon Model B. It is inexpensive 
and practical. It is portable and can be quickly 

Write tor complete details today. 

taken from classroom to lecture hall, laboratory or 
auditorium, thus doing the work of many machines. 
It saves money on equipment and operating costs, 
saves time, and lasts for years of constant service. 

The simple operation, convenient size and pro- 
jection efficiency of the Model B, conserves the 
teacher's time, eliminates unnecessary effort during 
the illustrated lesson and effectively improves the 
educational result. 

The coupon is for your convenience. 



Send me at once complete information on the B & L Balopticon Model B. 




Page 192 

The Educational Screen 


A Trade Directory for the Visual Field 


Bray Pictures Corporation (3, 6) 

729 Seventh Ave., New York City. 

Carlyle Ellis (1, 4) 

53 Hamilton Terrace, New York City 
Producer of Social Service Films 

Columbia Pictures Corp. (3, 6) 

729 Seventh Ave., New York City 

(See advertisement on page 183) 

Eastman Kodak Co. (4) 

Rochester, N. Y. 

(See advertisement on outside back cover) 

Eastman Teaching Films, Inc. (1, 4) 
Rochester, N. Y. 

Edited Pictures System, Inc. (1, 4) 

130 W. 46th St., New York City 

General Electric Company (3, 6) 

Visual Instruction Section, 
Schenectady, N. Y. 

(See advertisement on page 185) 

Herman Ross Enterprises, Inc., (3. 6) 
630 Ninth Ave., New York City 

(See advertisement on page 189) 

Ideal Pictures Corp. (1, 4) 

26 E. Eighth St., Chicago, 111. 

Modern Woodmen of America (1, 4) 
Rock Island, 111. 

Pinkney Film Service Co. (1, 4) 

1028 Forbes St., Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Ray-Bell Films, Inc. (3, 6) 

817 University Ave., St. Paul, Minn. 

Society for Visual Education (1, 4) 

327 S. LaSalle St., Chicago, 111. 

(See advertisement on page 162) 

United Projector and Films Corp. (1, 4) 
228 Franklin St., Buffalo, N. Y. 

Universal Pictures Corp. (3) 

730 Fifth Ave., New York City 

(See advertisement on page 187) 

Williams, Brown and Earle, Inc. (3, 6) 
918 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

Y. M. C. A. Motion Picture Bureau (1, 4) 
347 Madison Ave., New York City 
300 W. Adams Bldg., Chicago, 111. 



Ampro Projector Corp. (6) 

2839 N. Western Ave., Chicago, 111. 
"**« advertisement on inside front cover) 

Bell & Howell Co. (6) 

1815 Larchmont Ave., Chicago, 111. 

(See advertisement on inside back cover) 

Eastman Kodak Co. (4) 

Rochester, N. Y. 

(See advertisement on outside back cover) 

Edited Pictures System, Inc. (1) 

130 W. 46th St., New York City 

Ideal Pictures Corp. (1, 4) 

26 E. Eighth St., Chicago, 111. 

Regina Photo Supply Ltd. (3, 6) 

1924 Rose St., Regina, Sask. 

United Projector and Film Corp. (1, 4) 
228 Franklin St., Buffalo, N. Y. 

Victor Animatograph Corp. (6) 

Davenport, la. 

Williams, Brown and Earle, Inc. (3, 6) 
918 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 


Da-Lite Screen Co. 
2721 N. Crawford Ave., Chicago 

(See advertisement on page 165) 

Williams, Brown and Earle, Inc. 
918 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 


C. W. Briggs Co. 
628 Callowhill St., Philadelphia, Pa. 

(See advertisement on page 185) 

Eastman Educational Slides 
Iowa City, la. 

Edited Pictures System, Inc. 
130 W. 46th St., New York City 

Eye Gate House Inc. 

330 W. 42nd St.. New York City 

(See advertisement on page 189) 

Ideal Pictures Corp. 
26 E. Eighth St., Chicago, 111. 

International Artprints 
64 E. Lake St., Chicago, 111. 

Keystone View Co. 
Meadville, Pa. 

(See advertisement on page 187) 

Society for Visual Education 
327 S. LaSalle St., Chicago, 111. 

(See advertisement on page 162) 

Spencer Lens Co. 
19 Doat St., Buffalo, N. Y. 

(See advertisement on page 161) 

Stillfilm Inc. 

4701 W. Pico Blvd., Los Angeles, Cal. 

Williams, Brown and Earle, Inc. 
918 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 



Keystone View Co. 
Meadville, Pa. 

(See advertisement on page 187) 



Bausch and Lomb Optical Co. 
Rochester, N. Y. 

(See advertisement on page 191) 

E. Leitz, Inc. 
60 E. 10th St., New York City 

Regina Photo Supply Ltd. 
1924 Rose St., Regina, Sask. 

Society for Visual Education 
327 S. LaSalle St., Chicago, 111. 

(See advertisement on page 162) 

Spencer Letts Co. 
19 Doat St., Buffalo, N. Y. 

(See advertisement on page 161) 

Stillfilm Inc. 

4701 W. Pico Blvd., Los Angeles, Cal. 

Williams, Brown and Earle Inc. 
918 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 



indicates firm supplies 36 



indicates firm supplies 35 



indicates firm supplies 36 
sound and silent. 



indicates firm supplies 16 



indicates firm supplies 16 



indicates firm supplies 16 
sound and silent. 




Visual Instruction News 



Possibilities of Visual-Sensory Aids in Education 
The Mounted Picture as an Aid In Geography 
Programming in Visual Education 

What* Is Being Taught in Courses in Visual Instruction 
The Doctors Say, "Use Stereoscopes" 

Single Copies 25c 
• $2.00 a Year • 


1 O I O 




Xew 400 Watt 16 Projectors 

The Leading Instruments for Visual Education in Schools 

THE coming school season 
finds visual education an 
integral part of our educa- 
tional system. The extensive 
libraries of 16 mm. safety 
motion picture film are now 
available at nominal cost, 
and the subject matter has 
been edited to the end that 
the teacher finds the motion 
picture an effective aid in 

Whether your subject is 
botany, physics, history, biol- 
ogy, civics, science, or what- 
ever it might be, you will 
find motion pictures holding 
the interest of your classes. 
Your pupils will have a more 
vivid grasp of your subject. 
With less effort your teach- 
ing efficiency will be gratify- 
ingly increased. 

The Ampro Projectors lead 
in the school field because 
they have been designed to 
meet the needs of teach- 
ers. The operation is simple 
enough to permit any pupil 
to operate the projector. It 
is rugged enough to stand 
much more than ordinary 
abuse. The illumination is 
unsurpassed, and sufficient 
for auditorium as well as classroom use. 

Model AD. DeLuxe, illustrated above, with 400 Watt Biplane 
Filament Lamp, seal grain gold bronie finish, Chrome Plated 
Parts, automatic pilot light, 2" Bausch & Lomb Projection Lens, 
DeLuxe bronie Carrying Case, accessories and I reel $200.00 

Model AS, Standard, with 400 Watt Biplane Filament Lamp, 
seal grain black finish, nickel plated parts, 2" Bausch & Lomb Pro- 
jection Lens, black carrying case, accessories and I reel $175.00 

Both models operate on either alternating or direct current 
100-125 Volts. 

Write for free descriptive circular. 

A Partial List of 

Schools Using 

Ampro Projectors 


Makers of Precision 
Instruments Since 1914 

Louann High School, Louann, Ark. 

Emerson School, Burbank, Calif. 

Channing School, Palo Alto, Calif. 

Ft. Lewis School, Hesperus, Colo. 

Lamar Public Schools, Lamar, Colo. 

Centennial High School, Pueblo, 

St. Thomas Seminar,/, Hartford, 

Board of Education, Chicago, III. 

St. Mary's School, Chicago, III. 

St. Procopius College, Lisle, III. 

Blane Jr. High School, Muncie, Ind. 

Central School, Middlesboro, Ky. 

Senior High School, Owensboro, 

Baptist Bible Inst., New Orleans, 

Friends School, Baltimore, Md. 

Abbot Academy, Andover, Mass. 

Harvard Medical School, Boston, 

Board of Education, Detroit, Mich. 

Y.M.C.A. 9th & Cedar, St. Paul, 

Dept. Visual Instruction, Kansas 
City, Mo. 

Board of Education, Hackensack, 
N. J. 

Westside High School, Newark, 
N. J. 

Gettysburg College, Gettysburg, 

Board of Education, Morgan, Utah 
Reel School Student Body, Avenal, Calif. 
Jefferson Union High School, Daley City, Calif. 
Visual Education Dept., Pasadena City Schools, Pasadena, Calif. 
Roosevelt Jr. High School, Canon City, Colo. 
Central Jr. High School, New Britain, Conn. 
Dept. of Visual Education, City Hall, Atlanta, Ga. 
Flower Tech. High School, 3545 Fulton Blvd., Chicago, III. 
Museum of Science & Industry, Chicago, III. 
Illinois School for the Deaf, Jacksonville, III. 
North Side High School, Ft. Wayne, Ind. 
Roosevelt High School, Des Moines, Iowa. 
Argentine High School, Kansas City, Kans. 
Polytechnic Institute of Brooklyn, Brooklyn, N. Y. 
Theo. Roosevelt High School, New York City. 
University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio. 
Madison School of Visualization, Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Rhode Island School of Design, Providence, R. I. 


2839 N. Western Ave., Chicago, Illinois. 

Gentlemen : Please send me descriptive 
400 watt Ampro projectors for schools. 

literature on the new 


.... State 

Sfptcmlnr, 19)2 

Page 195 

Educational Screen 

Combined with 

Visual Instruction News 






Herbert E. Sleught, Prat. 
Frederick J. Lane, Treat. 
Nelion L. Greene, Editor 
Elliworth C. Dent, Manager 
Evelyn J. Baler 
Josephine Hoffman 
Otto M. Forlert 

Dudley G. Hays 
Stanley R. Greene 
Joseph J. Weber 
R. F. H. Johnson 
Marion F. Lanphier 
F. Dean McClusky 
Stella Evelyn Myers 

Editorial I96 

Possibilities of Visual-Sensory Aids in Education. 

C. F. Hoban I98 

The Motion Picture as an Aid in Geography. 

Frances Malucky 200 

Programming in Visual Education. S. D. Horning 203 

"What Is Being Taught in Courses in Visual Instruction?" 

George A. Stracke 204 

The Doctors Say, "Use Stereoscopes." B. W. Keely 205 

Government Activities in the Visual Field. 

Conducted by Margaret A. Klein 206 

Department of Visual Instruction Notes. 

Conducted by Ellsworth C. Dent 207 

News and Notes. Conducted by Josephine Hoffman 208 

Film Production Activities 2 1 I 

Among the Magazines and Books. 

Conducted by Marion F. Lanphier 2I2 

The Film Estimates 2I4 

School Department. 

Conducted by Dr. F. Dean McClusky 2I5 

Among the Producers 22 I 

Here They Are! A Trade Directory for the Visual Field 222 

Contents of previous issues listed in Education Index. 

General and Editorial Offices, 64 East Lake St., Chicago, Illinois. Office 
of Publication, Morton, Illinois. Entered et the Post Office at Morton, 
Illinois, as Second Class Matter. Copyright, September, 1 932, by the Edu- 
cational Screen, Inc. Published every month except July and August. 

$2.00 a Year (Canada. $2.75; Foreign, $3.00) Single Copies, 25 cts. 

Page 196 

The Educational Screen 


TEACHING visual ways to teachers has been a 
sine qua non of substantial progress for the visual 
field from the beginning. Pitiful indifference and 
laggard efforts in this direction — on the part of 
Training Schools, Departments of Education and 
Normal Colleges throughout the country — have 
given visual instruction an infancy two decades 
long, and at least a decade too long. 

Such advance as has been made must be credited 
largely to the forward-thinking and energetic minor- 
ity of the teaching world. It was the progressive 
few who possessed the vision, conviction and initia- 
tive sufficient to embark alone upon the effort to 
realize these values in their own classrooms. The 
major strength of the field still resides in those iso- 
lated individuals who are doing things with visual 

They were necessarily self-taught, were heavily 
handicapped in their lonely struggle, and spent 
years of precious time in repetitive trial and error, 
knowing little or nothing about their colleagues who 
were earnestly and patiently making the same trials 
and errors. The number of such workers has greatly 
increased through the years, yet the present thou- 
sands are still but the pioneers of what is to be in 
visual instruction. They made countless mistakes, 
but achieved countless values. 

There is now hope of getting beyond the stage 
of the solitary pioneers. We are beginning what 
should' have begun ten years ago — teaching the 
teachers. The number of teacher-training courses 
in visual methods shows a gratifying increase every 
year. Such courses will pass on to the rank-and-file 
what the pioneers have learned. They will provoke 
study and experiment on a national scale. They 
will stimulate comparison and evaluation, selection 
and elimination, synthesis and coordination, until 
the motley mass of miscellaneous results achieved 
by pioneer theory, research and practice can evolve 
into sound, systematic method. 

In this issue, therefore, we are particularly glad 
to offer articles that give more than usual emphasis 
to the teacher-training idea. We shall continue 
such offerings in coming issues whenever and 
wherever worthwhile material can be found. The 
vital need of the field is the dissemination of what 
is known by thousands among the tens of thousands 
who want to know. Teacher-training courses, ade- 
quate in quality and number, will do this more 
effectively than any other means at hand. Such 
courses will gradually transform mere acquiescence 
into action, and the real future of visual instruction 
can begin. 

THE EFFORT to emphasize teacher-training will 
not interfere in the least with our settled policy 
of supplying concrete accounts of the actual work- 
ings of visual instruction in individual classrooms. 
Exactly how one teacher uses visual aids in teach- 
ing a specific topic of a particular subject can hardly 
fail to interest and benefit other teachers of the 
same subject. This issue carries such material and 
more is coming. It is a great satisfaction to us 
that more such material is in our hands and in 
preparation this September than we have ever had 

at the opening of a school year. It is significant not 
only of increasing visual activities in schools but 
of growing interest on the part of the teachers in 
passing on their experience to their colleagues. 

THE MOST complete bibliography yet put out on 
the visual aids field was doubtless that by Dr. 
J. J. Weber, published by The Educational Screen 
nearly three years ago. Dr. Weber is renewing his 
activities in the field, which will be welcome news 
to many. Among other things, he has prepared a 
supplement to his former work which will go far 
toward covering the publications on the subject 
since the appearance of his former work. The new 
material will be presented in forthcoming fall 

WITH REGRET we announce that, due to 
temporary illness of its editor, the Church 
Department is necessarily omitted in this issue. It 
will be resumed in October. 

THIS ISSUE marks a further change in The Edu- 
cational Screen combined with Visual Instruc- 
tion News. Our page size increases to standard 
dimensions, which should please not only adver- 
tisers but readers as well. 

At the suggestion of many of our subscribers, 
we also adopt the common magazine practice of 
identifying all the writers of one issue in a single 
paragraph rather than weighting article headings 
with titles, position and address of the author. Con- 
tributors to this September issue are given below. 

Contributors to this Issue 

Harlan L. Harrington, Principal, John Hancock and 
Lincoln Schools, Qnincy, Mass. 

C. F. Hoban, Director, Museum and Visual Education 
Department, Stale Department of Public Instruc- 
tion, Harrisburg, Pa., President of the Visual In- 
struction Department of the National Education 

S. D. Horning, Teacher, Pasadena City Schools, Pasa- 
dena, Calif. 

B. W. Keei.y, Specialist in visual instruction at Des 
Moines, Iowa, closely in touch with visual work in 
schools throughout the State. 

ADELINE Keller, Teacher, Betsy Ross School, Forest 
Park, 111. 

Margaret A. Klein, Director, Children's Bureau, U. S. 
Department of Labor, Washington, D. C. 

Frances Maluckv,, Educational Assistant, Educational 
Museum, Public Schools, Cleveland, Ohio 

Mary V. Robinson, Director of Exhibits Division, 
Women's Bureau, U. S. Department of Labor, 
Washington, D. C. 

Eleanor Skim in, Teacher, Northern High School, De- 
troit, Mich. 

George A. Stracke, Member of staff of School of En- 
gineering, University of Arizona, Tuscon, Ariz. 

Williston Wirt, Educational Director, St. John's 
Presbyterian Church, Berkeley, Calif. 

September, 1932 

Page 197 

Again D A • L I T E Scores! 

In Presenting 

New DeLuxe 


Larger, Stronger Model With 

New Operating Features 

Never Before on a Tripod Screen 

THE popularity of the Da-Lite Challenger has brought 
about an insistent demand for a larger model of 
this screen. 

And here it is — a product of the world's greatest experi- 
ence in theater screen building. The New De Luxe Chal- 
lenger possesses inherent features that proclaim Da-Lite's 
advanced screen engineering. It has a Da-Lite Super- 
surface screen — either Da-Lite ultra fine glass bead, the 
Da-Lite silver, or the mat white. 

The De Luxe Challenger comes in three sizes — a full 
60" — 72" and 96 inch. The tripod and stand are of 
heavier construction than the smaller model Challenger, 
and its easy operating features enable a child to erect the 
screen! The finish is of beautiful brown crackle lacquer 
and sparkling nickel. 

No other portable screen can boast of such ease of erection 
and portability. Note in the photo above the crank which 
operates a worm gear, and raises or lowers the screen with 
ease. Here's all you do to set up the New De Luxe Chal- 
lenger: — open the legs of the tripod and tighten the set 
screw . . . next you position the screen roller horizontally 
with the slotted side up . . . now raise the screen and 
hook it over the gooseneck on the extension rod . . . and 
turn the crank at the back to extend 
the screen to full height! There you 
are — a rigid wrinkle-free screen, per- 
fectly flat, because of the unique flat 
spring suspension hanger at the top of 
the screen which prevents any possi- 
bility of sagging. In a jiffy the New 
De Luxe Challenger is ready to re- 
flect to an eager audience a sparkling 
presentation that only a Da-Lite can 

For Full 

Send for descriptive 
pamphlet just off the 
press. Also get your 
copy of the Da-Lite 
folder. It describes and 
shows the most com- 
plete line of portable 
screens on the market 
—all uniquely Da-Lite. 

Look at These Features 


Note in above photo the strength of the base and 
extension rod. The large standard type Mapcaae 
has an adjusting screw for increasing or decreas- 
ing tension as necessary. 


Beautiful brown crackle-lacquer with bright nickel 
trim — an unobtrusive and dignified effect. 


It"s the crank that does the trick 1 Free acting 
motion operate* worm gear and smoothly raiaea 
extension rod to full height or lowers it within 
its housing. 


Three practical sizes: 46" 


X SO" — J40.O0 
X 72" — 56.00 
x 96" — 76.00 


Thirty pounds for the 45" x 60" site ■ 
pounds for the 62" x 72" screen. 




Page 198 

The Educational Screen 

Possibilities of Visual-Sensory Aids in Education 


AS A preliminary to this discussion, I quote 
from the report of Henry S. Pritchett's 
Vocabulary Test which shows that the 
average college senior knows but sixty-one out of 
one hundred words in familiar use by educated 
people; and in connection with Doctor Pritchett's 
report, the comment of one of the many newspapers 
that printed an anlysis of his findings — "We are 
unable to think of any argument," says the Mil- 
waukee Sentinel, "that releases college education 
from the responsibility of at least providing its 
disciples with a sufficient vocabulary to converse 
with men and women of ordinary culture." 

I also quote from the report given at the Minne- 
apolis meeting by Miss Elda Merton, Assistant 
Superintendent of the Waukesha, Wisconsin, Public 
Schools. Miss Merton's data covered an investi- 
gation of the preparation of students going from 
elementary to junior high schools. The results 
showed that the children had approximately a fifty 
per cent knowledge of the subject matter of the 
elementary curriculum. 

My personal investigations sustain the Pritchett 
and Merton statements. I have tried groups of 
words from the elementary curriculum such as malt, 
skewer, latex, Nokomis, travois, and found that 
some of the words were absolutely without mean- 
ing to those questioned, and others only superfi- 
cially known. These are but few evidences of the 
prevalence of verbalism in American schools. 

The cure for verbalism, in my judgment, lies in 
the effective use of visual-sensory aids both in the 
instructional and learning processes. But the effec- 
tive use of visual-sensory aids in instruction re- 
quires preparation on the part of teachers so that 
they may know these tools of teaching, where to 
get them, and how to use them ; and the responsi- 
bility for this knowledge and this technique rests 
on the shoulders of the teacher-preparation institu- 
tions of the country. 

As comprehended in modern instructional and 
learning procedures, visual-sensory aids are those 
concerned with the visual, auditory, and tactile 
senses. These sensory aids are regarded as es- 
sential tools of teaching and have the potential 
possibilities of reducing verbalism, retardation, fail- 
ure to master curriculum matter, and elimination 
from school. Summarized, all visual-sensory aids 
are included in the following types ; apparatus and 

♦Address before the College Section of the National Edu- 
cation Association, Atlantic City, N. J., June 30, 1932. 

equipment, school journeys or field trips, objects- 
specimens-models, pictorial materials (flats, stereo- 
graphs, slides, film-slides, films), and the miscel- 
laneous group such as dramatization, exhibit, pa- 
geant, etc. 

The values of visual-sensory aids in the instruc- 
tional and learning processes have been definitely 
established through scientific investigation. During 
the past year, it has been my privilege to have had 
close contact with a research student from Duke 
University, who, fired with a desire to carry out the 
plea of the director of his graduate work, Doctor 
W. A. Brownell, to do something worthwhile, 
- something constructive, something that will con- 
tribute to educational procedures, made a critical 
analysis of all known experimental studies in the 
field of visual education. Every major experiment 
in this and foreign countries, and all theses in the 
graduate schools of the United States — a total of 
more than one hundred — were thoroughly studied. 
The analysis reveals reliable testimony that the 
proper use of visual-sensory materials : increases 
initial learning, effects an economy of time in learn- 
ing, ipcreases permanence of learning, aids in teach- 
ing backward children, motivates learning by in- 
creasing — interest, attention, self-activity, voluntary 
reading and classroom participation. 

The frequency of these outcomes — which range 
from not fewer than three to more than twenty — 
is eloquent testimony of the possibilities of visual- 
sensory aids in education ; and right here is a chal- 
lenge to every superintendent and supervising offi- 
cial in this country. Instruction in the schools of 
our country can be improved by teacher preparation 
in these techniques and attention to the use of 
these materials on the part of supervisory officers. 

No school official will deny that apparatus and 
equipment are essential classroom tools, and that 
teachers should know the minimum amount of 
standard equipment and apparatus necessary for 
satisfactory outcomes in the respective subjects and 
school activities. This knowledge is very important 
from the economic and professional viewpoints. 
My own experience with fifty-four teacher groups — 
ranging in number from fifty to eighteen hundred — 
during the past two years, is that a very small per- 
centage of the teachers know standards for evaluat- 
ing materials and the minimum amount of standard 
equipment necessary. 

The school journey or field trip is a rich and 
valuable medium for instruction and learning. Grin- 
stead, as a result of the outcomes of his experi- 

September, 19)2 

Page 199 

mental studies, gives the following illuminating 
c< inclusions : 

Properly conducted school journe; 

1. Bring about an increased interest in Bchool 
work and a sustained interest in the topic 

2. Assist the pupil's comprehension 

3. Clarify principles 

4. Help children to organize their knowledge 

5. Develop constructive thinking 

6. Stimulate interest in natural and man-made 
things and situations 

7. Help pupils to find themselves 

8. Constitute a cooperative enterprise 

9. Blend school life with the outside world 

10. Enable or compel a teacher to conduct a more 
logical and orderly recitation. 

Reports from education departments in foreign 
countries sustain these conclusions. Great Britain, 
progressive European countries, and Japan make 
the school journey central in their educational pro- 
cedure. Local journeys are a definite part of their 
school schedules. Long journeys are encouraged 
in England, Germany, Sweden, Italy, Czechoslo- 
vakia. Two cities in this last progressive republic — 
Prague and Brno — have specially built busses to 
take crippled children on educational trips. The 
Japan department of Education reports that local 
school journeys are used regularly by elementary 
ami secondary schools. Longer or distant journeys 
are made at least once and sometimes twice a year. 

What has been cited is convincing evidence of the 
possibilities of this medium of instruction. The 
United States could consistently pluck a leaf from 
the notebooks of foreign countries so far as school 
journey procedure is concerned. .May I say that 
as a superintendent of schools I would expect every 
teacher not only to know how to organize, conduct 
and check a school journey or field trip, but would 
expect them to make it a part of the school pro- 

Equally valuable and closely related to school 
journeys and field trips is the effective use of ob- 
jects-specimens-models and museum lessons. More 
than a half dozen of the experiments examined 
testify to the worth of this type of visual aid and 
the museum as an asset to school work. Especially 
significant is the extent to* which the group of 
lowest mentality children profit through the use 
of object-specimen-model materials and visits to 
museums. Objects-specimens-models provide, for 
instruction, realistic and concrete elements. They 
enable pupils to see and handle materials which 
are being discussed thus revealing such character- 
istics as three dimensions, coloring, weight, texture, 
etc. By object is meant the thing itself; specimen 
means a part of the thing — as for example, a piece 

of coal, wood, clothing, etc.; model, a replica or 
representation in miniature. 

Museums, and they are becoming increasingly 
sible to teachers and children, have a wealth 
of material that, if used, will enrich and vitalize 
subject matter. Closer cooperation between school 
people and museum officials will make these ma- 
terials available to schools in the areas served. 
There is a grow ing feeling that schools should have 
their own collections of object- specimen-model 
materials and they can be assembled and made use- 
ful to practically every subject in the curriculum. 
There are limitless opportunities in this respect in 
the fields of geography, history, and science. Again 
I would expect teachers to know the sources of 
these materials, how to assemble and house them, 
and an effective technique for their use when oc- 
casion demands. 

We can profit by the practices of foreign coun- 
tries, where school journeys and museums are inter- 
related. In these countries, wherever museums are 
within reach of the schools, they are used fre- 
quently and fruitfully. 

NO comment is necessary regarding the values 
of pictorial materials since they are so well known 
and so widely used. I strongly suggest that the 
school people of the country become familiar with 
the twenty or more experiments that have been 
conducted with stereographs, slides, and films. Pic- 
tures tell a story more graphically and tersely than 
words. They bring the world and its activities to 
the child. In my work with school groups, I find 
few teachers who are in possession of definite 
standards for evaluating pictorial materials. To 
use pictorial materials effectively in instruction re- 
quires that teachers know standards of evaluation, 
guiding principles for their use, their adaptation 
and relationship to the curriculum, and when and 
how to use them. Untold damage has resulted 
through a lack of this knowledge. It is highly 
proper at this point to suggest that the greatest 
guiding principle for the use of visual-sensory ma- 
terials is that of justification. This principle should 
be impressed vividly upon the mind of every per- 
son engaged in the instruction of children. 

Radio is here and has a place on this evening's 
program. That precludes any discussion of the 
subject by me. Radio-vision belongs to the visual- 
sensory field. Its development thus far has been 
very interesting. I am referring particularly to 
what has been accomplished in the fields of geogra- 
phy, history, literature, mathematics, music, and 

From the Standpoint of enriching, vitalizing, and 
improving the quality of instruction, the possi- 
bilities of visual-sensory aids are very great. The 

{('•included on page 202) 

Page iUU 


The Mounted Picture as an Aid in Geography 


THE picture is essential to learning modern geog- 
raphy and it should be the center of geographical 
instruction in showing man's present adjustment 
to his environment. The pictures to be used must be 
so organized as to be study material for pupils. The 
Geography Curriculum is used as a guide for the 
selection of views. All pictures must be closely in- 
tegrated into each unit of the curriculum. 

Organization cf Mounted Picture Sets 

The mounted pictures necessary for the units of 
a curriculum are organized in unit sets of 20 to 25 
views. The views, original 8"xl0" photographs, are 
mounted on dark gray durable tagboard. Printed on 
the back of each picture are the "Study Helps", which 
promote definite pupil activity in studying the picture. 

One picture from the unit picture set on Switzer- 
land is here used as an illustration of the treatment 
given each picture in the unit. This view of Lauter- 
brunnen Village shows man's adjustment to a moun- 
tain valley environment. To understand this rela- 
tionship the pupil studies the picture, guided bv the 
"Study Helps". 

The "Study Helps" with the accompanying exer- 
cises guide the pupil in an interpretation of the pic- 
ture. They are written to capture the child's interest, 
encourage and challenge him to analyse the picture, 
and solve his own problems. The vocabulary and 
method of treatment for each unit set should be 
adapted to definite grade levels. Each Study Help 
consists of : 

1. Study Questions 

2. Game or Puzzle 

3. Vocabulary Building 

4. Information Paragraph 

A typical example of the Study Helps appears un- 
der the picture accompanying this article. 

Study Questions 

The questions are so stated that the pupil must 
actively study the picture. The first questions seek 
the simple obvious relationships which are clearly 
Shown. Whenever possible the questions call for the 
simple geographical inferences of relationships. The 
answers should be verified by comparing the picture 
information with a physical, rainfall, temperature, or 
soil map of the region. 

Sometimes the questions can be answered only by 
referring to other pictures, maps or graphs in the 
same unit set. For example, general landscape scenes 
are followed by close-up or detailed views of some 
specific object in the picture. In the Switzerland unit 
set. Picture No. 1 is a general view of the Lauter- 
brunnen Valley, and Picture No. 2, a detailed view of 
a chalet. The questions on the picture of the chalet 
ask the pupils to find the location of several chalets 

in the valley (Picture No. 1) and tell why they were 
built on the alps. This cross-reference to other closely 
related views in the set creates a united concept of the 
region. (See the Study Questions for pupils, I. under 
Study Helps.) 

Game or Puzzle 

The game or puzzle is used as a check-up on the 
facts studied in the picture. Playing the game or 
solving the puzzle is a pleasant challenge to the child. 
Several types of games used in unit sets of pictures 
are stated below : 

(a) The False or True Game 

1. The winters in Switzerland are mild. 

2. It lies in the north temperate zone. 

3. Fishing is the chief industry. 

4. Switzerland is a mountainous country. 

(b) Puzzle. Choose the correct words. {Multiple 

choice type.) 

1. Switzerland is a (hilly, level or almost level, 
mountainous) country. 

2. The natural vegetation suggests that the rain- 
fall is (scant, moderate, heavy.) 

3. Switzerland lies in the (temperate, frigid, tor- 
rid) zone. 

(c) Fill in Game {Completion type.) 

1. The village of Lauterbrunnen is built in the 

2. The mountain peaks are snow-capped through- 
out the year because of the high 

3 is an important industry in the 


(d) Puzzle. Match correctly the parts of the sen- 


(Sentence matching type) 

1. The valley of Lauterbrunnen (c) 

2. The mountain sides are 

3. The chalets are built 

(a) of wood. 

(b) river valley. 

(c) is U-shaped. 

(d) forest covered. 
(See Puzzle for pupils, II under Study Helps.) 

Vocabulary Building and Paragraph of Information 
Each picture requires the use of a geographical 
vocabulary. All of the new words are called to the 
child's attention and he is asked to identify them on 
his picture. Thus is formed a close association be- 
tween the word concept and its object. (See Vo- 
cabulary Building for pupils, III under Study Helps.) 
The information paragraph gives the location, the 
season and describes in an explanatory manner the 
geographic relationships shown in the picture. These 
three items are essential and of value. The location 
definitely places the picture in its world position. The 
time or season helps to explain why man is engaged 

September. 19}2 

Page 201 

in certain activities such as nuking hay in summer, 
or wood carving in winter. The explanatory descrip- 
tion not only tells how man lias adjusted his life 
to the environment, but explains some of the reasons 

therefore. (See the paragraph for pupils, IV under 

Study Helps.) 

Class Action with the Picture 

The teachers and pupils use the mounted pictures 
in geography instruction as follows: 

1. Preview 

In an introductory lesson 
the unit s t -t of pictures is 
given to the class. Each 
pupil may formulate some 
study problems which his 
picture suggests. These 
problems are solved by the 
entire class usin^ the pic- 
tures as work or laboratory 

2. Individual Study Tool. 

Each child works with 
an individual picture, the 
Study Helps entice him to 
try to understand the things 
seen. He is guided to think 
geographically in solving 
his own problems. 1 ie may 
write the answers or use 
the questions and games as 
silent study helps. Pictures 
and text books are used 
interchangeably. By the 
end of a week each pupil 
in the class has worked 

with every picture in the unit set. Thus he should 
have a clear concept of the geographical relation- 
ships which occur in this region. 

If geography problems an- solved by group work, 
several pictures may be studied and observed by 

the group. The information may be pooled and 
later presented to the class using the pictures the 
group has studied. After class reports have been 
given, the groups may exchange their pictures. In 

Village and Valley of Lauterbrunnen 

Copyright by Galloway 

| For Pupils) 

VilUict of Lsuterbrunnen. Switzerland, in mid-summer. 
1. Locate the land most used by these people. Why? 

Where is the village of Lauterbrunnen 7 Why? 

What is growing on the slope nearest you? 

What is the most common crop of this region? 

Why are the chalets in the field? 

Fur what are the chalet* used? 

How many falls do you see? Why are these beautiful? 

Which one is the Staubbach Falls? 

SuKKest the source of the falls. 

What is the shape of the Lauterbrunnen Valley? Draw it. 

What can you infer as to the origin of this U valley? 

Point to a small side valley which enters the Lauterbrun- 
nen high above its floor. 

Where do you see bare rock? Is it used by man? How? 

Is there any evidence of avalanche rock from these cliffs? 

Can you give a reason for letting the trees grow on the 
high slopes ? 

Where are the mountains snow covered? Why? 

The Jungfrau is feet above sea level and the village 

is feet. Does this account for the difference in 

temperatures which the picture shows? How? 

Where are glaciers? 

From the picture, infer how these people earn a living. 

Is life pleasant here? Why? 

Give illustration as to how these Swiss people have ad- 
justed their ways of living in a U shaped mountain valley. 
Swiss Puszle. Match the parts of sentences. 

1. The valley of Lauterbrunnen <•!< 

2. Switzerland is a 

3. Dairying is carried on 

4. The mountainsides are 










5. There are small glaciers 

6. The chalets are built 

7. The Falls of Staubbach 

8. Switzerland lies in the 

(a i in the alps. 

(b) on the mountains in the distance. 

(c) north temperature zone. 
nil is U shaped. 

tei mountainous country. 

ift add to the scenic beauty of Lauterbrunnen. 

(s;) forest covered. 

(h) river valley. 

(i) of wood. 

III. Vocabulary Building. 

1. Find in the pictures the features listed below. 

2. Write sentences about your picture using these words: 

valley floor trail 

hanging valley chalet 

U shapeJ alpine hayfield 

falls snow-capped peaks 


IV. Lauterbrunnen Valley. Switzerland, in mid-summer. 

The Swiss village of Lauterbrunnen is in the deep, steepsided 
U shaped valley along the Lauterbrunnen stream. This glacial 
stream joining others forms the head waters of the Rhine River. 
The Staubbach Falls drop 980 feet from the alp abovt 
valley floor. Its water turns into a misty spray as it falls and 
it appears as a delicate lacy curtain spread on the side of the 
dark valley wall. The contrast of the white snows, the bright 
blue sky. the green of the grassy alps, and the deep valley are 
all combined in this small valley of the Lauterbrunnen. Snow- 
capped peaks, among which is the Jungfrau, are in the back- 
ground high above the valley. This scenic beauty attracts many 
ts. Dairying and tourists are sources of Income to these 
Swiss people. 

Page 202 

The Educational Screen 

this way each group makes a detailed stud}' of 
every picture in the unit set. 
3. Lantern Slide Lesson, Games, Vocabulary Building. 

Many of the mounted picture units are dupli- 
cated in lantern slide sets. The mounted pictures 
may be studied in preparation for a slide lesson 
in which the pupil who has prepared the view pro- 
jected on the screen can lead the class discussion. 
He may ask his class mates some of the questions 
suggested in the Study Helps ; play the game or 
puzzle with them; point and identify the surface 
features suggested in the vocabulary list; and as 
a summary read the paragraph of information. 
After the slide lesson, the pupils may wish to refer 
and study in detail some lantern slide views. They 
can do so by using the mounted pictures as they 
are duplicates. 

Children play the games with their classmates 
during free time. One pupil may hold the picture 
and the others try to answer the questions from the 
picture. This gives the drill that is essential in 
successful geography instruction. 

Each new word of geographical significance is 
listed and the teacher makes certain that the pupil 
clearly associates the word with the geographical 
object in the picture. Some pupils keep an indi- 
vidual vocabulary in their note books. In some 
class rooms the geography vocabulary is placed on 
the blackboard or on a chart. This list will pro- 
vide material for language activities. 

Possibilities of Visual-Sensory 
Aids in Education 

(Concluded from page 199) 

achievement of these possibilities rests entirely 
with the teacher-preparation institutions and the 
school supervisory officers of our country. 

As I approach the conclusion of this discussion, 
I call the attention of the presidents of teacher 
preparation institutions and the superintendents of 
schools of the country to the following four declara- 
tions made in Washington in February when the 
National Academy of Visual Instruction and the 
Department of Visual Instruction of the National 
Education Association were merged : 

1. Experimental studies, research, and surveys, 
have revealed definite and important values 
for visual-sensory aids. 

2. A knowledge of these visual-sensory aids and 
a technique for their use require special prep- 

3. The contribution that visual-sensory aids make 
to improved instruction justifies a require- 
ment that every teacher in training in the 
public schools of the United States take a 
laboratory course in visual-sensory aids. 

4. Some means should be developed to train 
teachers in service in this course. 

These are sound constructive declarations. The 
consensus -of opinion of students of this subject is 
that combination visual-sensory aids courses — visual 
aids in history, visual aids in science, etc. — is a 
mistake since such a procedure results in much 
confusion and duplication of effort. The feeling 
prevails that the core curriculum of a visual-sensory 
aids course should consist of the following elements 
common to practically all subjects; research, his- 
torical background; psychological aspects and ver- 
balism; projectors and projection; school journeys; 
objects-specimens-models and museum procedure; 
pictorial materials ; photography — still and motion 
picture camera techniques ; blackboard and bulletin- 
board technique ; administering and budgeting 
visual materials; radio-vision; bibliography. 

I am absolutely in accord with this thought. I 
believe this core material should be the initial 
course in visual-sensory aids and that it should be 
mandatory. Surely no educator would defend re- 
peating these common elements and techniques in 
art, English, geography, health, history, mathe- 
matics, music and science. It is my firm convic- 
tion that next to educational psychology, this visual- 
sensory aids course possesses greater values, from 
the instructional and learning viewpoints, than any 
other professional course in education. 

It may be of interest to the National Education 
Association members to know that Pennsylvania's 
Superintendent of Public Instruction in an enthusi- 
astic believer in the possibilities of visual-sensory 
aids. I commend his viewpoint to the other State 
Superintendents of the country. Pennsylvania's 
Board of Teacher College Presidents has made a 
visual-sensory aids course mandatory in all the 
State-owned teacher preparation institutions of our 
Commonwealth. I commend their action to th< 
teacher college presidents of the country. 

The slogan of this meeting is "Looking Ahead 
in Education." The values of visual-sensory aids 
as revealed in scientific studies and practice have 
been pointed out. I recommend to the teachers of 
our country a wider use of school journeys and 
of objects-specimens-models in instructional pro- 

If a course in visual-sensory aids be made manda- 
tory on the part of every person preparing to teach 
in the schools of the nation ; if superintendents of 
schools will encourage teachers in service to take 
such a course — either in extension or at summer 
schools; and if visual-sensory aids be used ef- 
fectively in the school rooms of America, I predict 
that the next ten years will witness one of the 
greatest contributions to the improvement of in- 
struction that have ever been made in the history 
of our country. 

September, 193 2 

Page 203 

Programming in Visual Education 


IS IT possible to make a schedule for visual educa- 
tion material such a- slides, films, special pic- 
tures, and so forth, which are not kept in the 

The essentials involved are, First : a definite 
course of study in which visual aids have been as- 
signed a definite place. 

Second: a chairman, committee, or some inter- 
ested individual in each school to make the sched- 
ules. This is necessary in order to get the desired 
material at the right time, to prevent duplication, 
to make arrangements for presentation, to train a 
crew of projector operators, and it necessary to as- 
sist in instructing teachers in the use of visual 
education materials. 

Third: a visual education department, local, 
county, or state, or some commercial concern that 
can furnish the desired material according to 

Fourth: a corp- of visual-educationally minded 
instructor^ is essential in order to make out a satis- 
factory schedule. They must appreciate the prob- 
lems of the visual education department. 

The Course of Study. In most school systems a 
definite course of study has been provided which 
makes it possible for every instructor to know the 
approximate time at which the class will be study- 
ing a specific topic. If the course of study is to be 
followed and covered this type of schedule is neces- 
sary. The problem then arises as to the proper 
time, in reference to the order of topics studied, to 
introduce the visual aids. 

May I say here that this article is treating only 
such aids as films, slides, and so forth, which must 
be obtained from a visual education department or 
where a special education room is necessary. Such 
material as is available in the classroom will be used 
whenever needed. 

The time to introduce films and slides depends 
on the subject material and the use to be made of 
it. If visual aids are to introduce the new topic they 
should be shown after a very short class introduc- 
tion. If they are to be used as a review or sum- 
ming up to make the subject more vital, they should 
be given at the close of the study of the topic. It 
will be difficult to use material in which special 
equipment is necessary at the exact time the detail 
of the subject is given. 

Every course of study should have a bibliography 
and a sufficiently detailed description of visual aids 
to insure the proper selection by the instructor. 

The Visual Chairman in the Individual School. To 
avoid duplication, although there is a definite course 
of study in which visual aids have been enumerated, 
the actual scheduling must be done by a committee 

or by some interested individual assigned to the job. 
Giving the students a chance to remark, "This is 
the third time I've seen that rattle-snake crawl from 
that hole", or, "I've seen that every month this 
semester" should be avoided if possible. 

Available materials from all sources must be 
studied, proper selections made, and dates assigned. 
In a school using a central visual education room, 
it is well that each department be assigned a cer- 
tain day of the week. After the material has been 
selected and the dates made out the orders must 
be arranged and sent to the visual education depart- 
ment or to the various sources of material. The re- 
search necessary to secure visual aids from outside 
sources, and the correspondence connected with 
booking and scheduling them should be duties of 
the central visual education department rather than 
of individual schools. The selection and scheduling 
should be done six months to a year before the 
order is needed. Even then some companies fail 
to keep the schedule. It will also be found advan- 
tageous to post the schedule by days, giving the 
department and periods in which the special ma- 
terial is to be used. It is thus available at any time 
to all the instructors and to the operators. 

The Department of Visual Education. A good local 
visual education department is a great asset in pro- 
gramming. Although it may not be able to furnish 
all the desired material from its own department, 
all material within reason should be made available 
through it. It is absolutely imperative that films 
be made obtainable on the desired date for the ma- 
jority of departments. 

The Attitude of Instructors. A visual-educationally 
minded teaching corps is essential to a good visual 
education program. Some instructors may look up- 
on it as so much "extra bother," or as a diversion. 
Much of this attitude can be overcome by the com- 
mittee or the chairman. Other educative factors 
are essential to create the desired attitude. It 
should have begun in the teacher-training institu- 
tion. However, the proper attitude cannot be built 
up if suitable material is not available. This re- 
sponsibility must be assumed by the producers. 
Entirely too much material has been offered under 
the guise "Educational". 

In conclusion, may I say that the success of vis- 
ual education, provided good material is available, 
rests very largely on the individual or committee 
who does the scheduling or programming, secures 
material at the proper time, trains the operators, 
and creates a visually-minded teaching corps. The 
efforts of all concerned must be directed toward 
producing and delivering to the classroom, accord- 
ing to schedule, material suitable for the purpose 
of instruction. 

Page 204 

The Educational Screen 

What Is Being Taught in Courses in Visual Instruction? 


AS THE answer to that question could only come 
from a study of the courses themselves, each 
of the eighty-six institutions listed in the 1931 
Directory of the National Academy of Visual Instruc- 
tion as offering such courses was asked for a detailed 
outline of its course. Replies were received from 
forty-four institutions or approximately half. Of 
these, eleven stated that they had no course or depart- 
ment of visual instruction or that courses were no 
longer being offered. Among the others, some offer 
the work in regular sessions, others in summer ses- 
sions only, and a few in both. To determine the 
amount of time allotted to the course or the units of 
credit allowed was impossible in a majority of in- 
stances. The lower limit was fourteen one hour 
periods, while the upper limit was a division of the 
work into three classes, each consisting of three one 
hour classes and one laboratory period per week for 
one semester. 

Analysis of the outlines revealed a total of forty- 
nine topics, of which eight were taught in but one 
course each, while two were listed in thirtv courses. 
The thirty-three universities, colleges, and normal 
schools which sent outlines displayed a remarkable 
concurrence in emphasis on twelve topics. Seventy- 
five to ninety per cent of the institutions listed these 
topics, which are given in inverse order of their 
frequency : 

1. The Philosophy and Psy- 
chology of Visual In- 

2. Projectors — Operation, 
Mechanics, and Optics 

3. Motion pictures — Types 
(16mm. and 35mm.), 
Standards of Evaluation, 
and Instructional, In- 
formational, Auditorium 
or Entertainment 

4. Sources of Visual Aids 

5. Lantern Slides and their 

6. Stereographs and their 

7. Photographs and Prints 
and their Use 

8. Exhibits 

9. Organization of a City 

10. History of Visual In- 

11. Field Trips 

12. Care, Repair, and Storage 
nl Materials and Equip- 

Seven additional topics were offered in a majority 
of courses. Five courses were unanimous on these 
and the twelve listed above. The second group con- 
sisted of: 

13. Museum trips 

14. Specimens 

15. Models 

16. Bibliography 

17. Film slides 

18. Blackboard Materials and 

19. Photographic Principles 
and Practice 

The remaining thirty-one topics are indicative of 
the diversity of opinion existing among visual edu- 
cation instructors as to the value of these phases of 
our work. Most of them are offered only in one 
or two, or at the most, five institutions. One-third 
or less of the courses included : 

Visual Aids in Specific Sub- 


Types of Visual Aids (Gen- 
eral Discussion of) 

Organization of a School De- 


Charts and Graphs 

Teacher Training 


Standard Equipment Rec- 

Photographic Darkroom 


Classroom Conditions 


Laboratory Practice in Prep- 
aration of Visual Aids 


Demonstration Lessons In- 
volving Use of Aids 

Functions of a State Depart- 


Tests of Visual Aids 


School and Community 

Still Films 


Organization of a County 

Textbook Illustrations 


School Museums 


Classroom Demonstrations 
and Experiments 

Duplicating Processes — Mim- 

' eograph, Hectograph, etc. 

Ten institutions agreed on fifteen of the above 
nineteen topics. 

Some courses which do not list a number of these 
topics as such may teach them as phases of the more 
general topics. Whenever such inclusion was indi- 
cated, however, the sub-topic has been listed, in order 
to make this survey as comprehensive as possible. 

The importance of some, undoubtedly, has been un- 
derestimated, and any arithmetical count such as it 
was necessary to use here, is not a measure of their 
true values. A weighted value arrived at by con- 
sideration of the relative importance and history of 
the department or institution offering each topic might 
effect a considerable change. 

All of the nineteen topics included in the first two 
divisions above, together with possibly four or five 
of the remainder, including: 

Teacher Training Demonstration Lessons In- 

Research volving the Use of Aids 

General Discussion of all Laboratory Practice in the 

types of Visual Aids Preparation of Aids 

constitute a good basic outline for a course of study 
in visual instruction. 

This digest is offered in the sincere belief that one 
sure method of discovering the effectiveness of one's 
own teaching methods is to learn what others are 
doing in the same field. 

September, 19)2 

Page 205 

The Doctors Say, Use Stereoscopes 


WHEN Dr. Oliver Wendell I lolmes perfected 
tin* stereoscope in the form which has been 
nic 1-1 popular from his days to ours, he prob- 
abl) had no thought about its therapeutic value. To him 
it was an instrument which would add pleasure to the 
pursuit of knowledge or pleasure for its own sake. Such 
it has proved to be to literally millions of people. 

But it was soon discovered that not all persons were 
able to interpret the Stereograph correctly and com- 
fortably. Furthermore, for some years, outstanding 
eye physicians of the world have been using stereo- 
various types for the discovery and treat- 
ment of those hidden discomforting and retarding eye 
conditions which result probably from our neglect to 
give the eyes their proper recreation and training. 
The stereoscope is the only instrument with which 
it is possible to detect and treat these conditions suc- 

It has been stated on good authority that if two 
eye-physicians were to examine the eyes of the chil- 
dren of any school — one physician using the regular 
vision and health tests and the other, the stereoscope 
to test for faulty co-ordination of the two eyes — 
the one using the stereoscope would discover more 
case- needing attention than the first. 

David \\ . Wells, M. I).. F. A. C. S., whose years 
carch in his practice in ophthalmology and whose 
lectures and writings have done much to restore nor- 
mal, comfortable, binocular vision to many thousands 
of people, writes : 

"A recent review of one thousand cases of 
eye strain shows that 25 per cent needed treat- 
ment because of some failure of the two eyes to 
work together properly. Since each person is 
obliged to learn the art of using the two eyes 
together as a part of his own experience, and 
has no instruction whatever, some of us learn it 
well and some of us learn it quite imperfectly. 
Now it is quite possible that, if a child were given 
a stereoscope and set of views, many of those 
who now fail individually to pick up a good 
fusion faculty might very likely, with this early 
training, develop this capacity, and so be saved 
from much eye strain later in life." 
The reason for Dr. Wells' belief in the value of the 
Stereoscope as a therapeutic instrument lies in the 
fact that ability to see stereoscopically depends upon 
the proper co-ordination of the externi-recti muscles 
as well as the stimulation of some certain fusion center 
in the brain. These muscles can be developed by ex 
ercise. just as can any other muscles. Probably the 
only effect on the fusion center is the development 
of the sense of awareness when once it begins to 

In order to interpret a stereograph properly, the 
eyes must converge and diverge under perfect nerve 
control, as differing details of the picture are per- 
ceived. Fortunately, the accommodation i< relaxed, 
and the delicate ciliary muscles, which are constantly 
fatigued by the vast amount of "close work" de- 
manded in modern times, can take a rt 

It thus appears that the daily use of the stereoscope 
by all children between the ages of 5 and 12, during 
which period the fusion sense is being developed, 
would result in positive eye betterment for all. It 
would relieve and strengthen those eyes which are 
considered normal ; it would assist many to attain 
normal fusion .ability; and it would point out, for 
further assistance from the eye-physician, those who 
are unable to interpret properly and comfortably the 
stereoscopic pairs of views. 

It is highly probable that the schools will soon be 
asked to include such eye conservation exercises in 
their daily programs as of equal importance with 
toothbrush drills and physical training exercises. 

Psychologically, to stimulate the use of stereographs 
as an adjunct to regular school work and for their 
intrinsic worth would be much more effective than 
to introduce them for their eye training value only. 
This is in line with modern theories of motivation 
as an essential factor in the learning process. Setting 
up exercises have been superseded by free play as 
more effective in physical development. Likewise 
correct eye habits will be formed more readily as an 
incidental process in a fascinating and motivated ex- 
ercise in learning than they will in formal drill of 
any type. 

It is fortunate that so many schools already have 
exactly the equipment necessary to put this program 
into effect. Thousands of 600 sets of stereographs, 
Primary Sets, and other collections in schools are 
in daily use. Others, just as_ valuable, have been 
allowed to become inactive, through neglect and in- 
ertia. Most of the subject matter of these old sets 
is just as important for regular class work as it ever 
was. With revisions made to bring these sets up to 
date, they have great value in the modern teacher's 
daily program, Broken stereoscopes are easily and 
cheaply repaired, and new material is available in 
any quantity and on a wide variety of subjects. 

School executives and teachers will welcome this 
new incentive to the use of material already at hand 
and of known intrinsic value. Schools for once may 
be able to show that they are already carrying out 
a program which the experts have just discovered to 
be effective and valuable. 

Page 206 

The Educational Screen 



The Federal Women's Bureau and Visual Education 


THE MOST effective educational program calls for 
a well-balanced combination of available mediums. 
Uncle Sam was satisfied several decades ago to pre- 
sent information on a variety of subjects in black and 
white statistical and technical reports, which were of 
incalculable value to the initiated but often as mean- 
ingless as Greek to the average person. Today, how- 
ever, Uncle Sam realizes the importance of also 
parading facts in sufficiently attractive regalia to in- 
terest the man on the street, the woman in the home, 
and the child in the school. Such displays when char- 
acterized by color, action, and illumination serve as 
an entering wedge upon an individual's attention and 
help to fasten facts more definitely in the mind. 

A die-hard of the old regime, objecting to such pop- 
ular methods, voiced the opinion that if people wanted 
information they would avail themselves of it, irre- 
spective of form. This is a debatable point. But the 
real truth is that many people must be made to want 
information, and a wise teacher instead of scorning 
exhibits will employ them, not as a royal road to learn- 
ing, but as sign posts and invitations along the way. 
Such aids are now available from Uncle Sam on many 
unsuspected subjects. 

Are you a teacher confronted with the problem of 
trying to present in your social science classes, to girls 
and boys in their teens, the complicated subject seem- 
ingly remote from their interests of women's gainful 
employment? If so, you will perhaps welcome this 
message on how to obtain cooperation from the 
Women's Bureau. 

The Women's Bureau, charged with the task of 
formulating standards and policies to promote the 
welfare of wage-earning women and of collecting and 
distributing facts about their problems, is a young or- 
ganization, created in July, 1918. Its investigations 
reveal the need to get over to the public many facts 
of vital concern, in view of the dove-tailing of the 
problems of breadwinning women with those of men 
wage-earners of the family and of the community. 
It has, therefore, from the beginning aimed to sup- 
plement its published reports with material designed 
for visual instruction. 

Each year the bureau receives a greater number of 
requests for such graphic materials, as the results 
of two trends : First, the growing interest in visual 
education ; and second, the increasing appreciation of 
the social and economic importance of questions con- 
cerning women workers. 

Users of the Women's Bureau exhibits include edu- 
cational institutions ; groups interested in health, in- 
dustrial, labor, social, civic, and religious matters; 
women's, clubs and organizations ; employees ; and 
State Departments of Labor. 

The past few years have brought a striking increase 
in the use of these exhibits by schools, colleges, and 
universities, and even by the junior high and grade 
schools. In many places the subject of women wage 
earners has now been given a definite place in the 
curriculum, in connection with civics or economics 
courses. Doubtless there are thousands of schools 
which want graphic materials for more effective pre- 
sentation of this subject but which are unaware of 
the ability of the Women's Bureau to meet such needs. 

Available exhibits from the bureau include motion 
pictures, models, maps, charts, posters, and folders. 
Material is sent to every State in the Union and to 
foreign countries upon request. The displays are lent 
free of charge, the borrower paying the transportation 
costs on all material that can not be sent under frank. 
Certain wall exhibits are sent free for permanent use. 
Others such as motion pictures and one model, of 
which there are a number of copies, can be borrowed 
for intensive use during a school term. 

The Women's Bureau offers a motion picture li- 
brary of four subjects in both the 16 mm. and 35 mm. 
film. The aim behind the pictures has been to sim- 
plify technical matters and to tie them up with the 
everyday interests of the average person. Though 
dealing in facts and not fiction, the pictures have cer- 
tain entertaining features in the form of animated 
cartoons, rhymes, and scenes showing how familiar 
things like candy, cigars, shoes, automobiles are made 
in these days of mass production. 

The most recent picture "Behind the Scenes in the 
Machine Age" (3 reels) stresses modern technological 
changes or the substitution of machines for hand labor 
as a factor in unemployment of women, pointing the 
need of a well-balanced program for adjustment of 
displaced workers. This theme is one phase of the 
general subject of human waste in industry which 
is treated in the picture from the viewpoint of women, 
with emphasis on the efforts of the Women's Bureau 
to improve the situation through its investigations and 
standards for women's employment in the way of 
shorter hours, better wages, and safe, sanitary, and 
comfortable working conditions. "Woman's Work 

{Continued on page 219) 

September, 19)2 

Page 207 



President's Address in This Issue 

Dr. Hoban's spkndid address, delivered at the re- 
cent N. E. A. meetings ;it Atlantic City, appears in 
full on a preceding page. It was the first discussion 
of visual education on the general X. E. A. program. 
The interest and enthusiasm it aroused should ensure 
visual instruction its proper, permanent place on 
future programs of the National Education Asso- 

Next Meeting in Minneapolis 

The winter meeting of the combined Department 
of \ isual Instruction will be held in Minneapolis, 
Minnesota, concurrently with the meeting of the 
Department of Superintendence of the N. E. A. 
Plans for the winter meeting are well under way 
and a good attendance is expected. Visual instruc- 
tion directors and workers in the north central sec- 
tion of the United States will be asked to assist 
with the program. More complete information con- 
cerning plans will appear in later issues of this 

Department to Publish Directory 

The annual directory of visual instruction di- 
rectors and active users of visual aids throughout 
the United States is being prepared at the present 
time and should be available for distribution in 
October. It will contain the names and addresses 
of approximately three thousand of the persons 
who are most active in the field. 

As in the past, the directory will be sent without 
charge to each member of the Department, but 
those who are not members will be obliged to pur- 
chase it at $2 the copy, postpaid. The directory is 
of greatest value to manufacturers and distributors 
of visual instruction materials and equipment, many 
of which maintain membership in the Department 
and receive this service without extra charge. 

News Bureau Service Established 

Important developments in the field of visual in- 
struction will be covered by the news bureau serv- 
ice which has been established through the office 
of the secretary of the Department of Visual In- 
struction. These news releases will be mailed to 
educational journals throughout the United States, 
as well as to other magazines which may apply for 
the service. The releases are furnished without 
charge to newspapers or periodicals. 

Those who desire to report developments to the 
news bureau service should send complete informa- 

tion to the central office of the Department of 
Visual Instruction, 1812 Illinois Street, Lawrence, 
Kansas, where they will be given prompt and care- 
ful attention. Magazines which desire the service 
should direct their requests to the same address. 

Membership Increasing Steadily 

Membership in the Department of Visual Instruc- 
tion of the N. E. A. is greater than at any time in the 
history of the organization and is increasing each 
month. Several branch organizations are being de- 
veloped during the fall and other groups are becom- 
ing interested in such possibilities. The increasing 
membership is making it possible for the Department 
to offer the news bureau service to magazines, to 
publish the annual directory, and to make plans for 
other services to members. As the membership in- 
creases, the extra revenue derived from membership 
fees will be used to increase the value of the organ- 
ization to its members. 

Membership Application lilauk 

Office of the Secretary-Treasurer, 
Department of Visual Instruction & 
National Academy of Visual Instruction, 
1812 Illinois Street, Lawrence. Kansas. 


I herewith make application for □ Active □ Asso- 
ciate □ Institutional □ Contributing Membership in 
the Department of Visual Instruction of the National 
Education Association, combined with the National 
Academy of Visual Instruction, covering the period 
of one year from date. 

Chech below the preferred date for payment of dues. 
□ Remittance attached D First of next month. 




City & State 

I am D / a member of the National Education 
I am not D \ Association. 

NOTE — Make checks payable to the Department of 
Visual Instruction. 

Page 208 

The Educational Screen 





United States Has 1,400 Museums 

Museums, for years large city luxuries, are rapid- 
ly becoming the educational need of every commu- 
nity in the United States, according to Laurence 
V. Coleman, director of the American Association 
of Museums, reporting to the Federal Office of Edu- 
cation in the United States. There are now 1,400 
museums in the United States, most of which are 
regarded as important and necessary sources of 
education. Every two weeks, on an average, a new 
museum was founded in the United States during 
the period 1928 to 1930. Growing public interest in 
archeology and history, scientific progress and geo- 
graphical discovery during the last several years 
has resulted in decided museum development. Mu- 
seum service for every American will soon be a 
reality, says Mr. Coleman in his Biennial Survey 
Report. "Recent Progress and Conditions of Mu- 
seums," Office of Education Bulletin 1931 No. 20, 
Chapter 22. 

The trend in modern times is distinctly away 
from museums embracing more than one field. 
There is much discussion of decentralization, and 
subjects are replacing objects as museum exhibits. 
Museums of today are not only found in houses or 
buildings, but also in trails through woods and 
fields, "paths of learning." Park historians are 
being employed to teach history education in a 
classroom built by nature. During the past decade 
13 trail-side museums have been established, includ- 
ing Wayside Museum at Coolidge, New Mexico, 
and those in Glacier National Park and Yellowstone 
National Park systems. 

America's museums range from merest begin- 
nings in rooms to large establishments with build- 
ings and extensive educational a n d technical 
activities. Some have exhibits and nothing more. 
Others are almost disembodied services using 
temporary displays. Historical houses, themselves 
exhibits, are the homes of many passive museums. 

The majority of museums recently established are 
devoted to art, science and history. The study re- 
veals, however, that there has been a total neglect 
of art in State and National appropriations for re- 
cently established museums. State support is 
largely directed toward museums which deal with 
science, and national support is largely given to 
outdoor museums. Small town museums favor 
history, large cities give art first place. 

Thousands of school classes now visit museums, 
and workable methods of meeting the needs of pu- 
pils are being developed. A revolution in museum 

practice is the exhibition of subjects rather than 
objects. In 1929 the new Buffalo Museum of Sci- 
ence opened with chapter of natural history, ex- 
pounded in the following succession : Physics, 
astronomy, geology, biology, botany, invertebrate 
zoology, vertebrate zoology, evolution, heredity, 
geography and concepts of each science. 

Forty of 50 recently established museums have 
been in communities with fewer than 100,000 popu- 
lation, Mr. Coleman points out. Most decided mu- 
seum development in recent years has been in the 
States of Maine, New York, Pennsylvania, New 
Jersey, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, Michi- 
gan, and the Pacific Coast States. 

Visual Activity at California School 

One of the outstanding features of Education week 
at the Julia C. Lathrop Junior High School in Santa 
Ana, California, was the demonstration of visual aids 
used in the Social Science department. 

The week opened with motion pictures given to the 
United States history and geography classes. Films 
on the lives of great American Statesmen and the lead- 
ing world industries were among those shown. 

Still films concerning the history of California and 
colored slides on the Orient were explained by stu- 
dents. Stereoscopes and stereographs were placed in 
all class rooms and stimulated interest. Clay and pa- 
per replicas had been made to show the early mission 
life in California. Bolsa wood was cleverly used to 
represent the development of transportation through 
the periods of water, land, and air. 

The historic characters of Betsy Ross, Benjamin 
Franklin, Martha Washington, George Washington, 
The Minutemen, Priscilla and John Alden. Miles 
Standish, Balboa and Columbus which had been 
dressed by students were on display in the form of 

Large posters and pictures secured from Foreign 
Tourist Bureaus had heen grouped and assembled by 
Miss Hazel Nell Bemus, Director of Visual Educa- 
tion in the city schools. These lent an air of vivid 
color to the entire exhibit. They were also an in- 
centive for students to be on the alert for interesting 
and worthwhile pictures. 

A most unusual use of pamphlets of United States 
and foreign travel pamphlets and folders were the 
browsing table helps mounted by Miss Bemus. The 
pictures cut from pamphlets are mounted on the tele- 
scopic folders and labeled. These may be laid on the 
library table or placed in a standing position on the 
table where they attract the eye of the student. 

At the disposal of the department were various for- 

Srpttmber, 1932 

Page 209 

eign exhib ved through the exchanges made by 

the Junior Red Cross. < Outstanding in this group were 
those recently received from Samoa, Japan, New Zea- 
land, and JugO-Slavia. Commercial exhibits of linen, 
tlax. wool, cork and aluminum direct from great in- 
dustrial plants made real the relationship between the 
raw materials and the manufactured articles. 

The success of this exhibit was due to the combined 
efforts of all the teachers of the Social Science De- 
partment and their principal, II. < i. Nelson. 

Film Strip Prices Lower 

New low prices for United States Department of 
Agriculture Sim strips will prevail during the fiscal 
year 1932-33, according to an announcement recently 
issued by the < Hfice of ( ooperattve Extension Work of 
the United States Department of Agriculture. The 
prices for film strips until June 30, 1933, will range 
from 14 to 85 cents each, depending upon the number 
of illustrations in the series. The majority of the 135 
scries that the department lias available will sell for 
28 and 35 cents each. Film strips are available on 
such subjects as farm crops, dairying, farm animals, 
farm forestry, plant and animal diseases and pests, 
farm economics, farm engineering, home economics, 
and adult and junior extension work. Lecture notes 
are provided with each film strip purchased. 

The popularity of film strips among extension work- 
ers, teachers, and others has been due primarily to the 
reasonable prices charged for them, the convenience 
with which they can be bandied, and their effectiveness 
in educational work. A list of available film strips and 
instructions on how to purchase them may be obtained 
by writing to the Office of Cooperative Extension 
Work. United States Department of Agriculture, 
Washington, D. C. 

Writer to Conduct Cinema Course 

Harry Alan I'otamkin, formerly foreign corre- 
spondent for the National Board of Review, now mem- 
ber of Exceptional Photoplays Committee of the 
Board and correspondent for Close Up, as well as 
contributor to the general and film press here and 
abroad (Revue du Cinema, International Reviezv of 
liditcatiomil Cinematography, Proletarskoy Kino of 
Moscow, etc.) will conduct a course on the cinema at 
the New School for Social Research. New York, be- 
ginning October. The course is in the evening and 
therefore all adults and students, educators and artists, 
professionals and amateurs, who wish to enjoy the 
first course considering the film on equality with the 
other arts and sciences, will find time to attend. The 
lectures will treat the film historically and for its con- 
temporary and future manifestations. The economic, 
social, political network of cinema will be established ; 
the inter-relationships of the various national cinemas 
—of U. S. A.. France, England, Sweden. Italy, Ger- 
many, Japan, Russia, etc. — will be examined ; the basic 
aesthetic principles will be sifted from the film-falla- 

and "primitive phenomena;" pivotal films will be 
analyzed ; the film-animation will be scrutinized in and 
beyond the American "cartoon" to the Japanese rice- 
paper cut-out and the Soviet multiplication-film; film- 
humor will be the subject of one lecture, to begin with 
the jumping-jack film and proceed to explicit satire. 
The lectures will be accompanied by film excerpts, full 
films and other a . as well as by specialists 

representing important cinema fields. 

Motion Pictures Rate High 
in Advertising Survey 

"Motion Pictures in Industry," a 10-page report is- 
sued by the National Industrial Advertisers Associa- 
tion, in cooperation with the Association of National 
Advertisers and the United States Department of 
( ommerce, gives in concise form the results from a 
questionnaire sent to 2000 industrial advertisers, cov- 
ering the three main classes of business films — Sound 
Motion Pictures, Silent Motion Pictures and Still- 

Of the 110 concerns reporting, 82 used silent motion 
pictures, 14 used sound motion pictures and 48 used 
still-films. There were a considerable number that 
used combinations of these various types, but com- 
paratively few used all three classifications. Of the 
motion picture users who indicated the size of film 
they used, 35% used 16 mm. film only, 17% 35 mm. 
film only and 34% both 16 mm. and 35 mm. 

To the question, "Do you consider your film activi- 
ties successful?" all of the sound film users answered 
"Yes." Again 100', replied that their sound film ex- 
penditures were "as resultful as the same sum spent 
on other promotional activities." The replies to these 
same questions in the case of silent films were 82% 
for "success" and 75% for "comparison with other 
promotional activities." Of particular significance 
was the fact that companies reporting showed an av- 
erage of 11% of the advertising and sales promotion 
budget was spent on sound films— 3%- was the figure 
for silent films. 

That movies prepare the sales background was 
strikingly demonstrated by the fact that the sales 
force of 90% of the companies reporting tried to be 
i •resent at film showings and follow up the prospects 

Distribution, usually the chief problem in any film 
project, is broken down into charts, and indicates the 
great variety in the type of audiences reached and 
the methods of showings in the case of the films of 
many representative companies. 

Subjects such as "Silent vs. Sound," "Cost of Pro- 
duction." "Weights and Costs of Projectors," and 
many other salient facts are covered in the report, 
with the interpretations and conclusions of the Com- 
mittee. The report packs a lot of valuable and inter- 
esting information for those using or contemplating 
the use of the screen for advertising, promotion or 

Page 2 1 

The Educational Screen 

sales. Copies can be obtained for 50c from the Na- 
tional Industrial Advertisers Association, 420 Lex- 
ington Ave., New York City, attention C. F. Ivins, 
Vice-President, The Pathescope Company of America, 
Inc., Chairman of the Motion Picture Committee, 
under whose auspices the survey was conducted. 

Radio and Film Strip 
Lectures on Agriculture 

The combined use of radio and film strips in rural 
education was the subject of a recent experiment con- 
ducted by the agricultural extension service at Ohio 
State University, in cooperation with five county agri- 
cultural agents. 

In broadcasting the illustrated radio meeting from 
the Ohio State University's radio station, a film pro- 
jector was set up in front of the speaker in the studio. 
The projector was operated by an attendant, who at 
the signal of a gong struck by the speaker turned to 
the next picture on the strip. This method insured 
that the speaker would not forget to warn agents at 
local meeting places of a change in the picture. Each 
slide was conspicuously numbered and at each sound 
of the gong five agricultural agents in five different 
counties in the State turned simultaneously to the next 
picture on their film strips. 

Local discussions on the subjects emphasized in the 
radio talks and film strips were led by agents immedi- 
ately after the illustrated part of the program. Dur- 
ing the discussion period, questions were phoned in to 
designated phones at the university. Later, the ques- 
tions were answered by radio. 

Ninety-eight per cent of the farmers and homemak- 
ers attending the meetings, which were on poultry 
raising, indicated they considered them successful and 
asked for similar discussions on other topics. They 
also suggested other uses for the illustrated radio 
meeting, such as, at farmer's institutes, for class work 
in schools, study groups of many different types, com- 
munity organizations, and cooperative associations. 

A Report from a Visual Worker 

After spending ten years in Europe gathering visual 
education material for a number of American educa- 
tional institutions, covering fourteen different coun- 
tries, Mr. R. Raffius is now touring Asia to secure 
similar material depicting the industry, commerce, 
agriculture, transportation and life of the people in 
general. He writes : 

"I arrived in Beirut well equipped with photo- 
graphic paraphernalia. From here I launched upon 
an extremely ambitious itinerary. I travelled the trans- 
desert route into Iraq from where I emerged with an 
excellent set of negatives. From Basra I took the boat 
for Karachi, India, for a trip up the Indus Valley as 
far as the Kashmir country. My itinerary from here 
will lead me to other parts of India, the Ganges Valley, 
Assam, the plateau region of Deccan, Mysore, Gurma, 
Ceylon, The Federal Malay States, Siam, French 
Indo-China, China, Japan, Manchuria, and such near- 
by Pacific Islands as The Philippines and The Dutch - 
East Indies. I intend to turn west again and cover 
such territories as I have missed, such as Afghanistan. 
Persia and parts of the Near East, Palestine and Syria 
— finally back to Europe." 

Visual Education for Boy Scouts 

In many localities where the Boy Scout movement 
has flourished it is the custom to hold once each year a 
Merit Badge Exposition. Each troop selects one of 
the ninety or so merit badges to portray, and is as- 
signed a booth in the local auditorium where the show- 
ing is to be held. With the interest and co-operation 
of some thirty boys on each individual subject, a great 
deal of ingenuity results, and some very striking dis- 
plays are achieved. 

In the Exposition held at Berkeley, California, Feb- 
ruary 12 and 13, 1932, Troop 6 was assigned the Merit 
Badge in Lifesaving and Swimming. Since a por- 
trayal of this subject involves certain activities in and 
under water, some discussion was held as to the possi- 
bilities of importing a canvas tank for the occasion. 
Limitations of cost and space, however, precluded 
such a plan, whereupon the suggestion was made that 
16 mm. motion pictures of the activities be made in 
some outdoor pool, and that these be thrown on the 
screen during the Exposition. 

This was done. A camera was borrowed, and 100 
feet of film purchased. The Instructor in Swimming 


at the University of California, himself a Scoutmaster, 
provided a sunny corner in an outdoor, heated swim- 
ming pool. A number of scouts of Troop 6 who were 
adept at the various "holds", "breaks", and swimming 
strokes, were put through their paces in the water, 
and photographed. 

The results exceeded all expectations, and were pri- 
marily responsible for the Troop being awarded Third 
Prize. In the booth, during the Exposition, one of 
the scouts would explain in detail each of the neces- 
sary functions involved in earning a right to wear the 
Life Saving Merit Badge. Other scouts would be 
called on to demonstrate the motions involved in each 
separate test, and then a portion of the motion picture 
would be run off, showing the results to be achieved 
in the water. It was felt that the pictures were su- 
perior in educative value to what an actual demonstra- 
tion in the water would have shown, for the reason 
that the angles from which the pictures were taken, 
and the lighting involved which made it possible to 
discern the actions beneath the water, could not have 

{Concluded on page 218) 

September, 7 932 

Page 2 1 1 


Tbe aim of this new department it to keep the educational field intimately acquainted with the 
increating number of film production! especially suitable for use in the school and cburcb field. 

A Free Loan Teaching Film 
Charles High Productions have a one-red 16 mm 

ill),' film on home canning, entitled Capping Na- 
ture's Finest, which they offer on a free loan basis to 
schools, churches and community meetings. 

This motion picture will create a firm desire to do 
more storing of fruits, vegetables and meats in the 
homes for future use. During the peak financial years 
just passed, the Storing of money has been paramount 
and the home storing of fund neglected : approximately 
30 million town and city dwellers discontinued home 
canning and 20 million newl\ established families have 
gained no knowledge of the simple canning proa 

Life's first necessity is food, storing of food is na- 
ture'- first by-law of self-preservation. This film 
teaches it- audience- accurately the most modern 
methods of home canning a- approved and taught by 
our United States Department of Agriculture. 

Car Maintenance Shown in Movie 

Keeping the Cars Rolling is the title of an interest- 
ing movie produced for the Chicago Rapid Transit 
Company by Charles E. Keevil and Lester H. Reich- 
ard, of the company's stall. The original purpose of 
the picture, which was filmed with a 16 mm. Bell & 
Howell amateur camera, was one of employee educa- 
tion, but while preparing the scenario it was seen that 
the subject could be so treated that the film would be 
interesting to the general public and thus be useful in 
public relations work. The finished film of 650 feet 
gives a dear and interesting account of the inspection, 
painting, and overhauling of elevated cars as prac- 
ticed by this company. It is being shown to schools, 
clubs, and other organizations in Chicago, and can be 
secured for similar showings on application to the 
transit company. 

E. M. Newman Making New 
Series for Vitaphone 

E. M. Newman, the famous traveler, lecturer and 
author, who completed a series of thirteen Travel Talk 
shorts for Vitaphone, is back at the Brooklyn Vita- 
phone studio and is now whipping into short subject 
form, the vast amount of film material which he has 
gathered during his many trips around the world. Mr. 
Newman's new Vitaphone series will not be Trave- 
logues, but something entirely different from his pre- 
vious motion picture work. Each short, no two of 
which will be alike, will be based upon a single idea 
having an international scope. 

Two of the series which are now available are 

Transportation of the World, showing the various 
modes of travel as used in various sections of the 
globe, and An Oriental Cocktail, presenting a fasci- 
nating trip through the Orient. 

Edison's Menlo Park Activities 
Told in Sound Picture 

The re-enactment of the creation of the incandes- 
cent lamp, the making of the foil record which marked 
the first practical reproduction of the human voice 
and the story of many other momentous occasions 
taking place in Thomas A. Edison's Menlo Park Lab- 
oratory are vividly told in a 13-reel sound motion pic- 
ture produced, with RCA Photophone recording 
equipment, for the Ford Motor Company by the Met- 
ropolitan Motion Picture Company. 

Its title, Roniniscenses of Menlo Park, suggests its 
purpose, which is to preserve for posterity the sound 
picture story of Edison's work in the development of 
his most important inventions. Edison's original 
Menlo Park Laboratory, which has been transported 
to Henry Ford's Greenfield Village at Dearborn, 
Michigan, forms the setting for the entire story. 

In the picture, Frances Jehl, who assisted Edison 
in his work many years ago, and who is now custodian 
of the Laboratory, tells the story of these important 
experiments. As he conducts the audience through 
the Laboratory, he points out various apparatus, ex- 
plaining their importance toward the development of 
these inventions, and, in a number of cases, re-enact- 
ing the entire story. 

Metropolitan has also completed a sound picture 
of the building of Gar Wood's new boat, Miss 
America X. with which he defended the Harms- 
worth Trophy on Lake St. Clair this summer. Co- 
incident with the laying of the keel, the filming of 
the picture began. Each day or so additional foot- 
age was shot to show the progress of the construc- 

Anti-War Film 

Must War Be?, a five-reel picture directed by \\ al- 
ter Nubuhr for the Peace Film Foundation of New 
York, had its premiere Aug. 12 at Unity House, For- 
est Park, Pa., summer resort. Governor Pinchot of 
Pennsylvania, Dr. Harry Elmer Barnes of the New 
York "World-Telegram" and David H. Robbins of 
the Peace Films Foundation were among those pres- 
ent. The picture contains accurate records of im- 
portant events, together with actual scenes of war 
preparations by the big powers. 

Page 212 

The Educational Screen 



The Irish Monthly (July) "Is It Education?" by 
the Rev. H. E. G. Rope, M. A., attacks bitterly the 
vaunted advantages of visual education. After in- 
troducing his theme that "it is commonly assumed 
that greater ease in learning, as in other activities, 
justifies the contempt of former methods and con- 
ditions, and unanswerably demonstrates the superi- 
ority of 'our innovations'," the writer attacks the 
frequent verbosity of educational method. From 
that he passes to the "cinema (if we must use that 
barbarous abbreviation)" and suggests that "it 
does not enhance one's confidence in the judgment 
of Signor Mussolini to learn that he has patronized 
the International Cinematograph Institute whose 
object is to develop to the uttermost this new in- 
vention as a means and instrument to education." 
The writer prefers the comment of a leader writer 
he quotes from the Daily Telegraph of July 23, 
1929: "If we regard education as an affair purely 
of the intellect then no amount of instruction by 
means of films will teach a student to read for him- 
self or think for himself or to make his own dis- 
coveries. At best the film can only become a more 
or less valuable extension of the black board; at 
worst it might be a positive hindrance to developing 
the habit of serious reading." 

This author seems a bit behind time in his knowl- 
edge of these things. The dangers he point out 
have long ago been recognized and fairly well dis- 
posed of. Signor Mussolini probably knows that 
the Institute he so trusts has long ago learned that 
the educational film is, and zvill always be, a supple- 
mentary form of aid, never to displace either teacher 
or text book. Signor Mussolini may also know that 
the film is better than an extension of the black- 
board, because the blackboard can present only 
Static images, whereas the film offers moving images, 
and psychological experiment has proven conclu- 
sively that the moving image arrests and holds the 
attention better than the still form. Witness the 
extra expenditure of the advertiser in these matters, 
and he counts the cost as balanced by any gain 
closely ! 

The author then points to the bad effects of com- 
pulsory education against the so-called illiteracy in 
agricultural portions of the country, where such 
education often fails to "combine inherited instinct 
with scientific knowledge." The article closes with 
the comment, "Better ten million times such illiter- 
acy than the continued 'culture' of the garage, the 
film house, and the dancing hall, and all of the 
vapid boredom of 'Progress'.'' 

This is a human document, this bit of Irish criti- 
cism ! One remembers the charm of the Synge 
dramas with their lovely fisher folk idiom; one re- 
calls the struggle of the Celt to have his young 
generations remember things Celtic, even to the 
language itself. All this sense of rebellion against 
destroying the essential beauty of an ancient em- 
pire, shrunk now to a slender fringe of islands, 
dominated by another empire, shines through this 
commentary on modern education, and particularly 
visual education. The writer has allowed his emo- 
tion to blind him to a progress as certain as the 
passing of the Celtic Empire of earlier days. The 
international-mindedness for which we all pray will 
smooth away these emotional blocks that insinuate 
themselves into the simplest and smallest problems, 
even into that of visual education and its worth. 
The charm of simple rural life is infinitely better 
than the cheap sophistication these simple people 
ape, once they become soaked with Hollywood 
civilization. But, after all, what has that to do with 
the staid subject of visual education, unquestion- 
ably established as an efficient aid to the funda- 
mental methods of education? 

The Nation (July 6, August 17) "Morals, Facts 
and Fiction," by Alexander Bahsky, discusses our 
modern attitude toward animals in relation to the 
Buck film, Bring 'Em Back Alive. 

Like the Chinese Mandarin of old who sur- 
rounded himself with every rare and aesthetic ex- 
perience and yet could slaughter human life without 
turning a hair, or like the ancient Roman who 
copied so appreciatively all that Greek culture had 
to offer, yet gorged himself like a beast and slew 
Christians as enthusiastically as he copied Grecian 
art, so we view the life of an animal as next to 
worthless. Therefore we do not object to the kill- 
ings in this film. The critic has, however, more 
cheerful comment to make anent this production. 
Facts as facts are not interesting generally. It is 
when they are unfamiliar facts that audiences find 
them arresting. Thus, the facts of the jungle life 
depicted in this film fascinate film audiences. Of 
such interest were the Alpine scenes in The Doomed 
Battalion. Similarly, morals interest audiences when 
in the garb of a film like The Dark Horse with its 
showing up of American political follies. 

In the August 17th number, we find Alexander 
Bahsky 's "Concerning Dialogue," in which he points 
out that the old cry against dialogue in the talkies, 
in films, because dialogue belonged to the legitimate 

September, 19)2 

Page 2 1 3 

drama, is only the same old cry originally made 
against dialogue in the legitimate drama, because 
talking "intellectualixed drama," whereas it should 
remain visual to appeal directly to the senses! lie 
further suggests that speech is an integral part of 
human experience and belongs in both the film and 
the drama, but that Hollywood has made the mis- 
take of taking over dramatic dialogue completely 
ami putting it into the film. Even with a good 
amount of deflation, it is still too much stressed and 
throws the film hack to the rigidities of its earlier 
stages. Dialogue in the film is and must be of a 
length and kind particularly adapted to that me- 

Reviews of Reviews (English) (July) "The Film 
in National Life" (George Allen Unwin, Ltd.) is 
the report of an unofficial body, a committee on 
Education and Cultural Films, established in No- 
vember. 1 ( L") to advise on production, selection, 
distribution and use of films. Included oil the com- 
mittee were such diverse personalities as J. L. 
Meyers, Lord David Cecil, Mr. C. T. Cramp, Mr. 
St. John Ervine, Gen. Sir \V. T. Fune, Dr. Wini- 
fred Cullis, and Sir Richard Gregory. The findings 
of the committee are encouraging. They felt that 
there was a need for a higher standard of production 
as usual, but they felt, as well, what is not as usual ; 
namely, that there was a new interest in a more 
constructive use of the film. They found that all 
countries have some positive control and co-ordina- 
tion of film production, Italy's control being the 
most marked. In Russia, of course, the control is 
drastic, almost a matter of complete government 
production, with no injury, however, to the artistic 
quality, as one might suppose such propagandic 
control might result in. The art of Russian and 
German film production they found unrivalled ex- 
cept by the work of the Frenchman. M. Rene Clair. 

The Saturday Review (July 9) "Are Films De- 
grading?" is a brief debate, "No" being upheld by 
J. Deffell and, "Yes" by C. P. Herries. The Eng- 
lish gentleman who espouses the affirmative offers 
vitriol in the form of general assertion upon general 
assertion. His statements have been made hun- 
dreds of times on both sides of the Atlantic. He 
graciously admits that "the film should not and 
need not" degrade, but that it does because "it de- 
bases the currency of language and that vile dis- 
service is the result of the 'talkies', that bastard 
art form which has supplanted the silent film with 
all its magic power". We recognize the British 
prejudice against American slang and a not unusual 
dislike of the talking form of films, characteristic 
of any nation. But beyond that the writer's state- 
ments are simply assertions that bear no weight as 
reliably proven. The talkie further degrades be- 

cause "it bewilders, cheapens, obscures, bores and 
ides the mind." Mr. I terries then speaks of 
the Novelette of Victorian days, read behind closed 
doors, but considers its evil influence mild indeed, 
beside the modern cinema "which distorts every 
moral value and undermines every foundation of 
civilized society" Such wholesale condemnation 
would seem to stamp the film output of the world 
a- an inexcusable performance. It would seem that 
the gentleman is as lacking in discrimination as he 
would have us believe the film world is in decency. 
His opponent comes back at him on that very score. 
Says Mr. Deffell, "Emphatically NO! . . . Are 
plays degrading? Are novels, are friends degrad- 
ing?" lie answers his own question by suggesting 
that these things are degrading only when we, our- 
selves, select degrading representatives of those 
experiences. He asserts that he should hate to be 
forced to defend the vulgarities of Mickey Mouse, 
but that the large mass of film production deserves 
no such calumny as offered by his opponent. He 
suggests that one sees, in the first place, other foot- 
age than that of the feature film at any movie-house 
program. For example there are educational shorts 
and travel films. As for the feature film, there are 
plenty that measure up to a decent standard if one 
selects his pictures carefully. Those who frankly 
dislike the cinema as an art form or an amusement 
cannot judge its output fairly. Such films, concludes 
Mr. Deffell, as the German films of the Siegfried leg- 
end. Varieties, and the incomparable French produc- 
tions. The Miracle of Wolves, Le Vert Galant and 
Napoleon, and even our own Mr. Victor McLaglen in 
A Girl in Every Port, need no defense. One may 
disagree with a critic's choice, as one might easily 
draw a line at A Girl in Every Port, but the statement 
behind the choices is sound, and a much fairer pre- 
sentation of his subject than that offered by the 
negative side. 

The Living Age (May) "Letters and Arts" re- 
ports briefly upon the work of V. I. Pudowkin, a 
leading Russian Director who has "procured en- 
tirely new effects by adapting the technique of slow 
motion to the ordinary film." This gentleman is 
one of the several referred to in Professor Orton's 
invaluable discussion of the cinema and its technique 
in the May issue of the Atlantic Monthly. In twelve 
items the editor gives the continuity of one se- 
quence in the Russian's experiments, — a man swing- 
ing a scythe. It was found that his formula applied 
"produced the desired effect upon the spectators, 
who claimed that they experienced a wholly new 
sensation of moisture, weight, and force." He con- 
cludes that slow-motion is not a trick to be used, 
"not a distortion of an actual process but a conscious 
guidance of the attention of the spectator to some 
significant happening. It offers a new method of 
emphasis. It is a 'close-up' of time." 

Page 214 

The Educational Screen 




Being the Combined 

Judgments of a National Committee on Current Theatrical Films 

(The Film Estimates, in whole or in part, may be reprinted only by special arrangement with The Educational Screen) 

Almost Married (Alex. Kirkland, Violet 
Heming) (Fox) Grim, murder-mystery thrill- 
er of real merit for tense action, fine acting, 
continuous dramatic suspense, granting initial 
promise of long-lost husband gone mad with 
jealously and bent on killing. Decidedly above 
average of its kind. 

A — Good of kind Y— Thrilling 

C — Too thrilling 

American Madness (Walter Huston, Pat 
O'Brien) (Columbia) A masterpiece, timely, 
clean, strong, virile, direction and action to 
delight the intelligent audience. Concerns 
banking, mob hysteria, bank runs, and value 
of character versus collateral. Fine dramatic 
values. A picture in a hundred. 
A — Excellent Y — Very good 

C — Mostly beyond them 

Bird of ' Paradise (Dolores Del Rio, Joel 
McCrea) (RKO) Effective screen version of 
the tragic love of a white man for South 
Sea island princess. Thrilling action, beau- 
tiful photography, against background of na- 
tive superstition, tribal ceremonials, etc. 
A — Good of kind Y— Doubtful C— No 

Blondie of the Follies (Marion Davies, Rob- 
ert Montgomery) (Columbia) Clever, deftly 
played, sophisticated story of two show girls 
and one irresistible man. The old over-worked 
motif, "Love but don*t marry— it kills love," 
is now replaced by "Can't marry unless you 
real ly love — can on ly live together " . Prom - 
ising new motif for a whole series of future 
A — Depends on taste Y — Pernicious C — No 

By Whose Hand? (Ben Lyon) (Columbia) 
Lively murder-mystery yarn, laid mostly on 
through train, with breezy, wisecracking re- 
porter again the chief factor in solution. 
Rather complex story, but fast-moving and 
more or less gripping throughout. Uneven 
in acting values and convincingness. 
A— Hardly Y — Exciting C — Hardly 

Congorilla (Mr. and Mrs. Martin Johnson) 
(Fox) Interesting picture of animal and na- 
tive life in the Belgian Congo, filmed by the 
Johnsons with genuine African sound effects. 
Studies of engaging tribes of pygmies. Go- 
rillas particularly entertaining. Many hum- 
orous touches. 
A — Excellent Y — Excellent C — Excellent 

Devil and the Deep (Tallulah Bankhead) 
( Para. ) Submarine commander is cruel hus- 
band, hence wife is easy subject for seduction 
by the hero, woodenly played by Gary Coop- 
er. Enraged husband's attempt at grim. 
under-sea revenge fails and he dies insane. 
Sensational but ordinary, save for Laughton*s 
acting of the husband role. 
A — Hardly Y — By no means C — No 

Divorce in the Family (Jackie Cooper) 
(MGM) Fine work by Jackie as unhappy little 
son of divorced parents, both still devoted to 
him. Strong supporting cast with two ex- 
ceptions. Generally human, appealing story, 
but dialog and actions are sometimes more 
theatrical than realistic. 
A— Good Y— Very Good C— Good 

Downstairs (John Gilbert, Paul Lukas) 
(MGM) Hero is brazen, vulgar cad, in service 
as chauffeur in Viennese baronial castle. By 
thievery, blackmail and promiscuous seduction, 
he disrupts whole household. After six gay 
reels he meets grotesque tragic end. Nasty 
bits of action and offensive dialog. 
A — Unpleasant Y — Pernicious C — No 

Down to Earth (Will Rogers, Irene Rich) 
< Fox i Much comment from Will Rogers on 
the depression in his usual serious-humorous 
vein, but little else. Story and action so 
exaggerated as to border on burlesque. Un- 
convincing. Film can hardly strengthen 
Will's hold on his public. 
A — Hardly Y — Passable C — No interest 

Exposure (Lila Lee, Walter Byron) (Tower) 
Belated picture of the tabloid-newspaper 
thriller cycle, of some real merit in plot, hu- 
man interest and acting of the leading roles. 
Much of it rings true, but some situations 
and episodes are trite and cheaply sensational. 
A — Passable Y— Doubtful C — No 

First Year, The (Janet Gaynor, Charles 
Farrell) (Fox) Skillful screening of fine 
stage-play by Frank Craven. Domestic real- 
ism at its best, genuine character portrayal. 

Estimates are given for 3 groups 
A — Intelligent Adult 
Y— Youth (15-20 years) 
C— Child (under 15 years) 
Bold faced type means "recommended" 

human and humorous. Two small town boys 
after one girl. She chooses correctly, though 
there is much doubt about it at times. 
Minor roles well done. 

A— Pleasing Y — Excellent 

C — Good as far as it interests 

Guilty As Hell (Edmund Lowe, Victor Mc- 
Laglen) ( Para. ) Stupidly chosen title for 
ordinary murder-mystery., unobjectionable save 
for a few cheap, risque lines inserted in dull 
dialog. Audience shown murderer at start, 
cast spends rest of film hunting for him. 
Lively action and good suspense, but acting 
and dialog mediocre. 
A — Passable Y — Perhaps C — Hardly 

Hold 'Em Jail (Wheeler and Woolsey) 
(RKO) Another "howling" farce comedy about 
two wisecracking specialty salesmen, who 
land in jail where their horseplay antics make 
havoc of prison discipline. Hilarious foot- 
ball game between rival prison teams is the 
A — Depends on taste Y — Funny C — Funny 

Hollywood Speaks (Pat O'Brien) (Colum- 
bia) And speaks about as would be expected. 
Moviedom probably unaware that this sup- 
posed portrait of its life shows nothing but 
elementary impulse, sex obsession and cheap 
intrigue. Wisecracking reporter is only bit 
of normal human interest. Likely to con- 
firm the widespread and unfavorable opinion 
of Hollywood life. 
A — Cheap Y — By no means C — No 

Horse Feathers (Four Marx Brothers) 
( Para. ) Typical fast and furious horseplay, 
foolish or vulgar antics and slapstick, more 
riotous than ever. Funny to those who en- 
joy this quartette's particular brand of hu- 
mor. Supposedly their best to date. 
A — Depends on taste Y — Doubtful C — Doubtful 

Igloo (Native Cast) (Univ.) Seemingly 
vivid, convincing and intensely interesting 
portrayal of Eskimo tribal life in extreme 
north. Childlike pleasures and tragic strug- 
gle against hopeless odds. Life at its sim- 
plest and grimmest. An important film if true, 
but some obvious faking casts grave doubt 
upon authenticity of whole 

A — Exceptional Y — Good if true 

C — Too strong 

Jewel Robbery, The (Wm. Powell, Kay 
Francis) (Warner) Daring methods and 
charming manner of clever jewel thief prove 
irresistible to bored young wife of million- 
aire. She assists his escape from police and 
promises further meetings. Lively acton, 
sophisticated dialog. Crook hero made very 
A — Fairly good Y — Very doubtful C — No 

Lily Christine (Corinne Griffith t ( British 
production) Rather interesting and fairly con- 
vincing picture, sincerely played and directed, 
concerning two fine English people whom 
circumstances involve in serious divorce tan- 
gle. Fine acting by Colin Clive. 
A— Quite good Y— Better not C — No 

Madame Racketeer (Alison Skipworth, Rich- 
ard Bennett) (Para.) Fine bit of character 
work by star as "countess" with long check- 
ered career as swindler and jailbird. Her 
chronic crookedness made most engaging, but 
action borders on burlesque sufficiently to 
make story harmlessly amusing throughout. 
A — Amusing Y — Probably good C— Hardly 

Mr. Robinson Crusoe (Douglas Fairbanks) 
(U. A.) Light, breezy, whimsical picturizing 
of extremely modern Robinson Crusoe in self- 
chosen exile on South Sea island. Builds in 
few months elaborate living quarters and in- 
genious mechanical contraptions — ■ which 
couldn't be done single-handed in twenty 
A — Fairly amusing Y — Amusing C — Amusing 

My Pal the King (Tom Mix) (Univ.) Dis- 
tinctly different from usual Mix picture. 
Lively heroics and Western thrills combined 

with pleasing, fanciful story of mythical king- 
dom with child monarch whom Mix rescues 
and restores safely to throne, defeating plots 
of treacherous cabinet. 
A — Good of kind Y — Very good C — Excellent 

Old Dark House, The (Boris Karloff) (Univ.) 
Melodramatic, tense mystery story of single 
night spent by some wanderers who have 
sought shelter from storm in sinister old 
house. Gripping, chilling, harrowing. Aims 
at score and succeeds masterfully. 
A— Good of kind Y— Doubtful C — No 

Passport to Hell (Elissa Landi, Paul Lukas) 
(Fox) Complicated, improbable story. "Hero- 
ine" tricks young German military officer in- 
to marriage. He is assigned to post in Afri- 
can jungle. She and young engineer fall in 
love. Confused situations result in husband's 
suicide. Waste of good cast. 
A— Hardly Y— No C— No 

Purchase Price, The (Barbara Stanwyck, 
George Brent) (Warner) Cheap, shoddy film 
about cabaret singer who becomes mail order 
bride of boorish Dakota farmer. Absurd, 
burlesqued situations and actions. Inexcusable 
mishandling of Arthur Stringer's fine story. 
"The Mud Lark." 
A— Stupid Y— Worthless C— No 

70,000 Witnesses (Phillip Holmes, Dorothy 
Jordan) (Para.) Lively, wholesome thriller, 
combining football, convincing crooks and de- 
tectives, a novel murder, and some excellent 
comedy by Charles Ruggles in choice role of 
tippling reporter. Highly improbable in spots 
but healthily entertaining for practically any 
A— Amusing Y — Entertaining C — Exciting 

Skyscraper Souls (Warren William) (MGM) 
Super-rich banker is tricky financier and ex- 
pert seducer of women. Stays married for 
protection. Smooth, sophisticated sex stuff 
dominates the whole picture. Charming hero- 
ine and engaging hero serve mainly to supply 
moral ending. 
A — Depends on taste Y — Pernicious C — No 

Speak Easily (Buster Keaton) (MGM) Riot- 
ous slapstick comedy. Keaton ridiculous col- 
lege professor tricked into becoming backer 
and manager of cheap show which becomes 
ludicrous Broadway success. Naive antics 
with some questionable burlesque sex stuff. 
Tries hard to be funny ; partially succeeds. 
A— Silly Y— Doubtful C— Hardly 

Stranger in Town (Chic Sale) (Warner) 
Probably best so far of pictures built around 
Chic Sale's typical old-man roles. Homely, 
laughable story of belligerent old grocer fight- 
ing the depression in general and the chain 
stores in particular. With much talk and 
action he wins. 
A— Fair Y— Good C — Good 

Two Against the World (Constance Bennett) 
(Warner) Wealthy heroine, shielding married 
sister, permits brother to believe her guilty 
of liaison with worthless cad whom he kills. 
Lawyer-hero unwilling prosecutor, but broth- 
er's confession brings acquittal by "unwrit- 
ten law" defense. 
A— Trite Y— Doubtful C— No 

Vanishing Frontier, The (John Mack Brown i 
(Para.) Harmless, mildly entertaining story 
of California in 1850 when rule by military 
force was gradually ended by steady opposi- 
tion from native Spanish inhabitants. Not- 
ably good cast, save for unctuous acting of 
hero and his weird attempts at Spanish ac- 
A— Perhaps Y — Rather good C — Fair 

War Correspondent (Jack Holt, Ralph 
Graves) (Columbia) Two brazen braggarts 
wrangle over same girl, with Chinese war as 
lurid background. Cowardly, wisecracking 
war correspondent wins out over tough, brutal 
hero who is impossibly heroic and equally 
unadmirable. Again violence and excitement 
are supposed to make "drama''. 
A— Hardly Y — Unwholesome C — No 

White Zombie (Bela Lugosi. Madge Bellamy) 
(U. A.) Another naive, artificial scare film, 
made as horrible as possible by weird effects, 
ghastly make-ups, and exaggerated acting. 
Exploits the superstition that the dead are 
made to rise and work for witch doctors. 
Grewsome love story woven in. Almost no 
human interest. 
A — Waste of time Y— Certainly not C — No 

September, 19)2 

Page 215 




D R. 


Director, Scarborough 


Scarborough-on-Hudson, N. Y. 

The Decoration of School Room Windows as a 
Visual Aid in Teaching 


IN THESE t inns when teachers' programs are more 
than full and when every moment of the school day 

has to be used for worthwhile work, any device which 
tends to make the pupils' work more interesting and 
at the same time more instructive is of great value. At 
the John Hancock and Lincoln Schools in Ouincy, 
Massachusetts, the teachers have been making use of 
such a device for the past year with a great deal of 
success and enjoyment. It is not a new idea and 
no claim is advanced for its originality, window dec- 
oration having been 
employed by teachers 
for many years during 
holidays and times of 
special celebration. 
I low ever, we feel that 
the method used in 
these schools is a little 
out of the ordinary and 
that we have gone a 
little farther than just 
building decoration. 

The materials used are inexpensive and very easy 
to obtain. Most teachers have a goodly supply of 
colored chalk short-ends, practically useless for board 
work, but just the thing for our purpose. These are 
crushed to a fine powder, mixed with powdered Bon 
Ami, moistened with water to the consistency of thin 
cream and are then ready for use. These different 
colors are applied to the window panes with brushes 
in whatever designs are desired. If properly done, 
the results will be found to be very good from the 
inside and still better from the outside. Care should 
be taken that the mixture is not applied too thickly. 
When the value of the decoration has become ex- 
hausted, wiping with a dry cloth will remove all of 
the designs completely and polish the glass, leaving 
the window panes in better condition than before 
using, a condition that never obtains when designs 
are pasted on the windows. 

We have found that this device opens up many 
opportunities for self-expression by the children oth- 
erwise lacking in the various rooms. It gives the 
younger children a chance to become familiar with 
handling a brush and the older children an oppor- 
tunity to plan and execute much original work. This 
work has been in many cases merely decorative but 
from time to time there has l>een some fine correla- 

tive work with history and civics, particularly in con- 
nection with different holidays and patriotic celebra- 
tions. When this work is done by all the rooms in 
a building, the pupils not only benefit as stated above 
but the building itself becomes very noticeably attrac- 
tive on the outside. This in itself is a good lesson 
in civics for the pupil-. 

The window work in the lower grades necessarily 
has to be of a simple nature, in many cases the teacher 
furnishing the outline in the window and the pupils 
doing the filling with the proper colors. At other 
times the pupils may experiment themselves with sim- 
ple designs. As specific examples, at Christmas there 
were drawings of Santa Claus in some rooms; candle 
designs in others; Christmas trees in others, and so 
on. During the Washington Bicentennial celebration, 
silhouettes of Washington in black and white, hatchets 
or cherry trees in colors, or some other appropriate 
designs were in order and were used with marked 
success. Many of the rooms have had quite elaborate 
snow scenes worked out on the windows during the 

In the upper grades, the work has been done en- 
tirely by the pupils, the teacher acting merely as ad- 
visor. During February, one of the fourth grade 

rooms had pictures of five prominent Americans born 
during that month, on five different windows flanked 
by appropriate designs, i.e., Lindbergh, with airplanes : 
Edison, with the first electric light ; Longfellow, with 
scrolls, and so on. During the same month, a sixth 
grade room had pictures of Lincoln and Washington 
in white on black ovals, with scenes from the file of 
each in other windows. For the Bicentennial, a fifth 
grade room worked out a set of scenes from the 
life of Washington which was not only very well 
cuted but was of much aid to the teacher in teaching 
about his life. Last spring one of the buildings dressed 
itself up for the Kastcr season. Naturally, there was 

Page 216 

The Educational Screen 



Comprehensive Library of Silent 

and Talkie Films 

on almost every Educational Su 

bject, as well as 

wholesome Comedy and Entert 

ainment subjects. 


nklin St., Buffalo, N. Y. 

little opportunity here for correlation with anything 
save drawing but the results were very gratifying. 
One room had a design consisting of a large blue bowl 
rilled with vari-colored flowers; another had a design 
of daffodills ; another had purple irises alternating 
with white lilies ; another had boxes of tulips of 
various colors. 

The opportunities are endless. The interior of each 
room is very attractive, while from the outside the 
building as a whole has taken on an appearance that 
is eliciting much favorable comment. The teachers 
have found that there are many times when this work 
is of definite, practical aid in teaching, and in general 
have taken to the idea with a great deal of enthusiasm. 
In fact, the teachers seem to get as much pleasure 
out of helping and supervising the pupils' activities 



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as the pupils themselves show in planning and exe- 
cuting the work, which appeals to me as teaching 
on its highest plane. 

A Shorthand Moving Picture Film 


AT THE request of The Educational Screen, 
the writer is glad to give the field some account 
of a film recently made in her classroom for use in 
teaching shorthand to High School classes. 

Shorthand is essentially a skill subject. Before 
training can be given in the development of any skill, 
it is necessary that the precise nature of that skill 
be understood. The skillful person, whether he be a 
dancer or a bricklayer, has acquired a series of 
smoothly functioning habits of action. He is the 
master of his profession or trade. He has technique, 
and technique is nothing more than habits of action. 

Our best habits are those we form consciously and 
correctly, attending to them when they are in the 
infant stage and bringing, them up in the way they 
should go until they reach the age of maturity and 
can walk alone. A reaction becomes a habit when 
it has been done so frequently that it is done auto- 
matically and with little attention. 

The moving picture attempts to analyze the precise 
nature of writing shorthand. The hand position in the 
first picture, shows very conclusively that the hand 
should be held with palm down and wrist level. The 
reason that the wrist must not be turned much to 
the side, is that this position prevents the hand from 
sliding easily across the paper. To make this sliding 
movement easily, the hand should rest upon the third 
and fourth fingers. The fingers slide upon the nails. 
You will notice, in the picture, that the hand, in 
executing the oval exercise, followed by the horizon- 
tal strokes — r, l, k, g, n, m — does so with a very 
rhythmic stroke and with a quiet movement. 

The pen should be grasped easily and lightly in a 
position which is natural to the form of the hand of 
the writer. The thumb and first finger should not 
be drawn in or tightly pressed against the penholder. 
The first finger should rest nearer the point of the 
pen than the thumb. It is well to stop the picture and 
hold the position for a few minutes so that students 
may look at it very carefully and get a good eye- 
picture of the correct position. 

"The eye's a better pupil and more willing than the 
Fine counsel is confusing, but example's always clear; 
We can soon learn how to do it, if we only see it 

We can watch your hands in action, but your tongue 

too fast may run, 
All lectures you deliver may be very wise and true, 
But we'd rather get our lessons by observing what 
you do." 

September, 19)2 

Page 2 1 7 

We may distinguish between two aspects of the 
writing movement. The first has to <lo with the side- 
le progression of the hand across the page, while 
the shorthand characters are being formed, Exper- 
imental analysis has shown that this is one <>f the must 
important aspects of the writing movement. The mov- 
ing picture brings tin's out very clearly. Hxercises 
should be given to develop this movement When 
the sideward movement is not properly carried out, 
the shorthand becomes cramped and shorthand forms 
can not be easily funned. 'J 'he second aspect of the 
writing movement is the up and down characters 
which are made with more finger action than, the 
horizontal strokes. The important thing to learn is 

ombine the two movements. Specific exercises 

will facilitate this combination of the sideward move- 
ment and writing of shorthand character forms. The 
oval drills, to the count of three, followed by p, b, 
will develop the proper finger action in the formation 
of these character-. Likewise with f and v and the 
strong up-and-down stroke- t. d. sh, ch. and j. Yoii 
will notice in the moving picture that all the writing 
i- very quiet. There are not a lot of flourishing arm 
movements which are detrimental to fast writing. 

Another aspect of writing movement which has not 
received a- much attention as it should, is rhythm. 
You will notice that the trained writers in the picture 

Photographs of the 
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August 31, 1932, taken with photo telescope 
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are writing with rhythmic movements. The good 
writer, as contrasted with the poor writer, writes 
smoothly and quietly. There is no excessive movement 
in his hand, while writing. He has control of his hand 
and its movements. The untrained writer, in the 
picture, shows very conclusively that her hand is not 
trained; her hand clutches her pencil and she is work- 
ing altogether too hard to get her dictation, while 
the trained writer goes on smoothly, quietly, and care- 
fully, with a marked degree of confidence that she 
is getting what is being dictated. 

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Page 218 

Sir Galahad the Deliverer 

Suggestions for an Art Lesson Correlated With Visual Aids 

The Educational Screen 


J< SSIGN reading of adventures of the quest for 
" * the Holy Grail to pupils of class. Have each 
pupil study carefully just one adventure. When the 
slide relating to his adventure appears have him tell 
of it. The list of slides used is given below, together 
with some of the topics for discussion. 
Typical Medieval Castle. 

Why is this castle located at this point? (strong, 
defense position.) 
The Infancy of Galahad. 

(Appearance of vision to mother and child.) 
"The Accolade." 

(Knighting of Sir Galahad.) 
"Round Table of King Arthur." 

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( Tell here of Sir Galahad's coming to the round 
The Departure or Benediction upon the Quest. 

(Why did Galahad seek the Grail?) 
The Castle of the Grail. 

(Tell of his first visit to the Castle.) 
The Loathly Damsel. 

(Why was she called loathly?) 
Conquest of the Seven Deadly Sins. 

(What were the seven deadly, sins? How was 
each conquered?) 
The Key of the Castle. 

(How did Galahad obtain it?) 
The Castle of the Maidens. 
The Ship of Solomon. 
City of Sarras. 
The Golden Tree. 
The Burial of Leister. 

Sir Galahad as Watts the artist pictured him (pref- 
erably a colored slide). 

Material for the lesson was drawn from "Great 
Pictures and Their Stories," Book V, by Lester. 

Pupils should discuss questions and material on 
pages 105-117 freely in connection with corresponding 
slides. Teacher should read material to class and 
have brief discussion on it before presenting slides 
so children will feel well acquainted with subject and 
willing to add thoughts when slides are shown. 

Impress point that Abbey is the artist in all except 
cases starred and that the original painting adorns the 
library in Boston. 

Suggestions for special work : 

1. Draw own frieze for school room of Galahad's 
story. (Explain meaning of frieze to pupils.) 

2. Write short composition on "Why I think this 
was a good type of decoration for a public library." 

3. List places in home city where "story-telling 
friezes" can be seen. 

Visual Education for Boy Scouts 

(Concluded from page 210) 

been duplicated in a small demonstration tank. More- 
over, there was no limit to the number of spectators 
viewing the picture, and it could be run an indefinite 
number of times, while the crew explaining and demon- 
strating could be frequently changed. Following the 
Exposition, the film will be available for other troops 
or organizatons which desire instruction in Life 

Suffice it to say, that another year will find this 
particular Troop making full use of "visual education" 
in this particular enterprise. 

September, 19)2 

Page 2 1 9 


High-grade, up-to-date photographs of all parts of 

the world for VISUAL EDUCATION. 

l'h.-t.>irrHphs wtllA <>" approval. 


105 40th St., N«w York, N. Y. 

The Federal Women's Bureau and 
Visual Education 

{Concluded from pagt 206) 

Past and Present" (l'j reels) contrasts women's 
former industrial work in the home with their factory 
jobs of today. "Within the Gates" (2 reels) gives 
the Story Of I 'ad's shirt from the picking of the cotton 
to the sale of the shirt over the counter, portraying 
women's part in the mass production and business 
methods characteristic of our civilization. "The Story 
of the Women's Bureau" ( 1 reel) tells of the origin, 
aim. standards, and activities of the bureau with typ- 
ical scenes of its staff at work. 

For the use of classes not equipped for showing 
movies, the Women's Bureau offers a photographic 
display illustrating women's work in a wide variety 
of plants, including textile mills, laundries, metal 

For Screen Projection 

Write for free samples. 

1674 Broadway. New York, N. Y. 

shops, food factories, and so on. 

A model entitled "Steps to Safety and Efficiency" 
for Wage- Earning women, and consisting of three 
panels with seven scenes, illustrates the beneficial and 
wide spread effects of good standards for employed 
women, which make for the well-being of industries, 
the workers, the home, the family, the race, and the 
Nation. This exhibit is available in two sizes. The 
smaller model, of which there are a number of copies, 
is well adapted to class-room use. being light in weight 
and designed for table display, with very nominal 
transportation costs. 

More detailed descriptions of the above equipment 
as well as of available wall exhibits, such as posters 
and charts on different subjects pertaining to women 
workers, can be obtained by writing to the Women's 
Bureau, U. S. Department of Labor. Washington, 
D. C. 

A Sense of Responsibility 

^IMost of the larger motion picture companies have stopped distributing 
SILENT pictures, flAs a long-established non-theatrical distributing con- 
cern, we fully realize our responsibility to those who CAN SHOW ONLY 
SILENT FILMS, and as a result, we have gathered a library of silent photo- 
plays that will compare more than favorably with any product available. 
^Write for our new catalog of silent pictures. We have an enormous num- 
ber of educational and entertainment film subjects on both 16 mm. and 
35 mm. widths, from which complete showings for an entire season may be 
selected. fiWith few exceptions, prints of our 16 mm. educational subjects 
are available for outright sale to school bodies. Prices are lower than they 
have ever been in visual educational history. Ask us to quote sales price 
if you are interested. 


630 N I NTH Ave.. NEW YORK 

Page 220 

The Educational Screen 


Where the commercial firms — whose activities have an important bearing on progress in the visual field 

are free to tell their story in their own words. The Educational Screen is glad to reprint here, within nee- 
essary space limitations, such material as seems to have most informational and news value to our readers. 

A Novel Cine Kodak 

Eastman Kodak Company has just introduced the 
Cine-Kodak Eight, which is designed to lower the 
cost of home movies considerably since a 25-foot roll 
of film in this new camera, which is small enough 
to fit in a coat pocket, will give as many pictures as 
100 feet from other cameras using 16mm. film. 

The new camera loads with a 25-foot roll of special 
16mm. film, but it exposes only half the width of 
the film at a time, recording a series of complete 
images on each half. When the 25 feet have run 
through once, the spool containing the film is removed 
and placed on the supply spindle. The other half of 
the film is then exposed. The width of each image 
being thus reduced by half, the height is similarly 
reduced and the number of images down the length 
of the film is doubled in consequence, thus quadrupling 
the number of images recorded in a given length of 
film. When the exposed film reaches a processing sta- 
tion, it is processed, slit down the middle, spliced end- 
to-end, and then returned to the movie maker as a 
50-foot reel of 8mm. film with perforations down 
one side. Perforations on the special film for the 
Cine-Kodak Eight are spaced half as far apart as 
on other 16mm. film. 

The special 25-foot rolls of film have an extremely 
fine-grained panchromatic emulsion that assures a 
clear, sparkling screen image in spite of great mag- 
nification. A black coating on the hack of the film 
reduces the possibility of halation. 

The Cine-Kodak Eight, equipped with a Kodak 
Anastigmat f.3.5 lens, is the lightest, "smallest home 
movie camera with a film capacity permitting four 
minutes of projection. The low cost of both the 
apparatus and the film, together with the novel com- 
pactness and simplicity of the equipment at no sac- 
rifice of convenience, promise that the Cine-Kodak 
Eight will find wide acceptance among the large group 
of persons who wish to make movies but who feel 
that they cannot afford the special features of 16mm, 

Two Kodascope Eights have been designed for 
the projection of the new 8mm. movies. Both Koda- 
scopes have the capacity to project 200 feet of 8mm. 
film at a single showing — the equivalent of 400 16mm. 
feet — with a running time of 16 minutes. 

The Kodascope Eight, Model 60, is equipped with 
a 100-watt pre-focussed projection lamp with a de- 
centered filament. The projection lens has a focal 
length of one inch. A high-speed motor-driven re- 
wind requiring no changing of belts or reels, and pro- 

vision for plugging in a table lamp to turn on auto- 
matically when the projector is turned off, are other 
features. The Kodascope Eight, Model 20, also has 
a one-inch lens. It is equipped with a dependable lamp 
for adequate illumination. The size of both projectors 
permits very easy carrying. 

As in the case of full-width 16mm. movies, titles 
will be available for spacing into film exposed in the 
Cine-Kodak Eight. Miscellaneous successful profes- 
sional motion pictures for showing with the Koda- 
scope Eight also will be prepared, under the name 
"Cinegraph Eight." 

A New Leica Projector 

Leica owners as well as all miniature camera owners 
will be interested in the new Udimo Film and Glass 
Slide Projector which is now being distributed by E. 
Leitz, Inc., New York City. This projector uses 
single frame, double frame and the half vest pocket 
(3x4cm) size pictures. 

The new Udimo Projector permits the use of all 
the interchangeable Leica objectives and also the 
80mm. and 120mm. special projection lenses. The 
projector is provided with large film spools to ac- 
commodate 35mm. film up to 35 feet in length. Inter- 
changeable sliding gates are used for covering the 
different picture areas on the film and glass slides. 

Another novel feature of the new projector is the 
glass slide changing magazine which holds 60 2x2 
inch glass slides. The slides are automatically changed 
from one side of the projector to the other during 
the showing of the pictures. This arrangement is 
of special value for lecturers who wish to keep their 
pictures in definite sequences and at the" same time 
have an opportunity to change the order of the pic- 

"Projecting Leica Pictures" is the title of a new 
Booklet No. 1209 giving complete information about 
the fJdimo Projector. Copies of this new booklet 
may be secured from E. Leitz, Inc., 60 East 10th St., 
New York, X. Y. 

Two Lenses Announced 
by Bell & Howell 

Two newly developed Cooke lenses are now offered 
by the Bell & Howell Company, Chicago. Both are 
for 16 mm. cine use, one being for the Eilmo 70 Cam- 
era and the other for the Filmo Projector. 

The Filmo Camera lens is the Cooke 1-inch El. 3. 
It is asserted that this objective has the fastest work- 

{Concluded on page 222) 

September, 19)2 

Page 221 

Your Stereopticon 

Is Only as Good as 

Its luminant 

Many a teacher does not use an avail- 
able projection lantern because it 
contains a lamp burned dim with use. 
Do not condemn her. Provide your 
lanterns with new lamps at least once 
a year. You will then assure projection 
work that will make vivid and useful 
pictures, which will be real aids in 

New lamps may be secured from the 
manufacturers of your projection lan- 
terns or from 

Keystone View 

Meadville, Penna. 


to the Biggest 
and Best 
in Current 

Write today for free 
non-theatrical Cata- 
log 78. 





730 Fifth Ave. 
New York City 

ask about 
*Vv* of the 


i.ilct »l 5-Rc«lc» 
• Tr«**f'« outl»«< 
i Ailed on «ppl*-' 


Evolution Made 

Plain in 

Clarence Darrow's 


7 Reels 

Write for 

Page 222 

The Educational Screen 

Among the Producers 

{Concluded from page 220) 

ing speed yet satisfactorily attained in a Filmo Camera 
lens, which should he welcome news to many 16mm. 
film users. This new lens, being one and nine-tenths 
times as fast as the F 1.8 lens, is most desirable for 
filming sporting events in slow motion under weak 
light, theater productions, indoor athletic events, sur- 
gical operations, home interior scenes, factory pro- 
cesses, etc. Used with supersensitive panchromatic 
film, it permits getting fully exposed scenes under 
heretofore impossible light conditions. 

The Filmo Projector lens is an extremely wide angle 
objective, for giving the largest possible screen image 
when distance from projector to screen is necessarily 
closely restricted. Its focal length is only .64-inch, 
whereas the shortest focal length previously offered in 
a Filmo Projector lens was .75-inch. It also gives a 
brighter picture, for its working aperture of F 4 is 
a large one for a lens of such short focal length. This 
new lens should prove useful for window displays, 
convention booths, and exhibits with either continuous 
or regular projector. At 24 inches a picture approx- 
imately 14x11 inches in size is shown; at 36 inches 
21x16 inches. 

Do You Know Your Tools? 

Photography is without doubt the most useful tool 
of the Visual Educator. 

Can you use this valuable medium properly, effi- 
ciently, artistically? 

authoritative texts on any photographic subject. 
The CAMERA CRAFT magazine brings you the 
latest news and instructive articles. 

Write for our free catalog giving a com- 
plete list of photographic books and a 
sample copy of Camera Craft Magazine 

Camera Craft Publishing Company 

703 Market Street - - San Francisco, California 

Slides on France 

Three new sets of glass slides on France have 
recently been released by Eastman Educational Slides 
of Iowa City. The titles of them are "The Spirit of 
the French as shown in Architecture," "The Spirit 
of the French in Costume," and "Every Day Life in 

In this group of slides they have endeavored to 
show first the spirit of the French as expressed in 
their architecture, which is the most easily studied 
of any expression of the national life. Selections 
have been made from the beautiful, interesting and 
historically important structures in France. 

The set on the French spirit in costume explains 
in an interesting way why the French are today the 
leaders in the world of style, and how they have 
expressed this spirit through the centuries. 

In the "Every Day Life of the French" is shown 
a number of unique customs of the people which 
differ decidedly from those of English-speaking peo- 
ple. The street life of Paris, the method of building 
farm houses in a cluster, and the public market of 
the peasantry are a few of the customs depicted. 

Distribution for Electrical 
Research Library 

An announcement, viewed as significant of the grow- 
ing importance with which the motion picture industry 
regards the non-theatrical field, is contained in the 
statement by J. R. West, Manager of the Non-Theat- 
rical Department of Electrical Research Products, 
that the talking pictures made by his company will, 
in future, be available to religious, educational and 
industrial organizations through the Educational Film 
Exchanges in Seattle, Los Angeles, Chicago and New 
York. These four exchanges, in conjunction with the 
New York office of Electrical Research Products will 
serve as the nucleus for the nation wide distribution 
of an unusual library of educational, religious, scien- 
tific and musical subjects that have been prepared over 
a period of three years under expert supervision. 

Most of the pictures in the library are one or two 
reels. Many of them have been prepared strictly from 
a pedagogical standpoint. Others combine learning 
knowledge with such general entertainment value that 
they have already had theatrical showings. 

September, 19 U 

Page 223 

gfatih--0cme SOUND PROJECTOR 

f o r 


THE Simplex-Acme Sound Projector, consisting of a com- 
plete standard motion picture projector and sound repro- 
ducing equipment, gives unsurpassed professional results 
in large and small auditoriums and is particularly adapted to 
the requirements of moderately sized theatres, schools, colleges, 
churches, etc. In all buildings accommodating audiences of 
2,000 — more or less — the Simplex-Acme furnishes the highest 
type of sound and visual projection and in certain particulars 
it is superior to any other equipment made by this Company 
or any other manufacturer of motion picture apparatus. 

Simplex-Acme produces results that are actually superior to 
those obtained with much of the best and extremely expensive 
theatre equipment. It is the first unit of its kind which has 
been designed to meet the most exacting requirements of 
sound reproduction and in no sense is it to be confused with 
that type of equipment consisting of makeshift apparatus, 
assembled from silent equipment with sound attachment added. 

The basic idea in the design and manufacture of Simplex- 
Acme was to secure compactness and at the same time retain 
all the notable qualities of Simplex professional projectors used 
in the largest theatres of the leading cities throughout the world. In seeking compactness, however, 
we have also developed a unique and remarkable simplicity which has enabled us to secure a maximum 
of efficiency and dependability. 

We, therefore, offer Simplex-Acme Sound Projector with the complete confidence that it will 
meet every requirement of schools, colleges, churches, auditoriums and large commercial organizations. 
The Simplex-Acme for the first time relieves owners of the necessity of paying a tremendous price for 
standard professional apparatus and thus frees them of the handicap created in using inferior equip- 
ment. Although the Simplex-Acme is reasonably priced it is sold with the absolute guarantee that it will 
give the finest professional projection and within certain reasonable limitations is unsurpassed by any 
apparatus regardless of price. 

We Will Be Pleased to Supply Pull Details and Send Booklets Describing 

Simplex-Acme Sound Projector 

Simplex Professional Projector 

Simplex Pockette 16 mm. Movie Camera 

Simplex Casette 16 mm. Home Movie Projector 




Page 224 

The Educational Screen 


A Trade Directory for the Visual Field 


Bray Pictures Corporation (3, 6) 

729 Seventh Ave., New York City. 

Carlyle Ellis (1, 4) 

S3 Hamilton Terrace, New York City 
Producer of Social Service Films 

Eastman Kodak Co. (4) 

Rochester, N. Y. 

(See advertisement on outside back cover) 

Eastman Teaching Films, Inc. (1, 4) 
Rochester, N. Y. 

Edited Pictures System, Inc. (1, 4) 

130 W. 46th St., New York City 

F. C. Pictures Corp. (3) 

265 Franklin St., Buffalo, N. Y. 
(See advertisement on page 216) 

General Electric Company (3, 6) 

Visual Instruction Section, 
Schenectady, N. Y. 

Herman Ross Enterprises, Inc., (3, 6) 
630 Ninth Ave., New York City 

(See advertisement on page 219) 

Ideal Pictures Corp. (1, 4) 

26 E. Eighth St., Chicago, 111. 

Modern Woodmen of America (1, 4) 
Rock Island, 111. 

Pinkney Film Service Co. (1, 4) 

1028 Forbes St., Pittsburgh. Pa. 

Ray-Bell Films, Inc. (3, 6) 

817 University Ave., St. Paul, Minn. 

Society for Visual Education (1, 4) 

327 S. LaSalle St., Chicago, 111. 

(See advertisement on page 194) 

United Projector and Films Corp. (1, 4) 
228 Franklin St., Buffalo, N. Y. 

Universal Pictures Corp. (3) 

730 Fifth Ave., New York City 
(See advertisement on page 221) 

Williams, Brown and Earle, Inc. (3, 6) 

918 Chestnut St., Philadelphia. Pa. 

Y. M. C. A. Motion Picture Bureau (1, 4) 
347 Madison Ave., New York City 
300 W. Adams Bldg., Chicago. 111. 


Ampro Projector Corp. (6) 

2839 N. Western Ave., Chicago, 111. 
(See advertisement on inside front cover) 

Bell & Howell Co. (6) 

1815 Larchmont Ave., Chicago, 111. 

(See advertisement on inside back cover) 

Eastman Kodak Co. (4) 

Rochester, N. Y. 

(See advertisement on outside back cover) 

Edited Pictures System, Inc. (1) 

130 W. 46th St., New York City 

Ideal Pictures Corp. (1, 4) 

26 E. Eighth St., Chicago, 111. 

International Projector Corp. 

90 Gold St., New York City 

(See advertisement on page 223) 

Regina Photo Supply Ltd. (3, 6) 

1924 Rose St., Regina, Sask. 

United Projector and Film Corp. (1, 4) 

228 Franklin St., Buffalo, N. Y. 

Williams, Brown and Earle, Inc. (3, 6) 
918 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 


Publishers' Photo Service, Inc. 
105 W. 40th St., New York City 
(See advertisement on page 219) 


Da-Lite Screen Co. 
2721 N. Crawford Ave., Chicago 
(See advertisement on page 197) 

Williams, Brown and Earle, Inc. 
918 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 


Conrad Slide and Projection Co. 
510 Twenty-second Ave., East 
Superior, Wis. 

Eastman Educational Slides 
Iowa City, la. 

Edited Pictures System, Inc. 

130 W. 46th St., New York City 

Ideal Pictures Corp. 

26 E. Eighth St., Chicago, 111. 

International Artprints 
64 E. Lake St., Chicago, 111. 

(See advertisement on page 216) 

Keystone View Co. 
Meadville, Pa. 

(See advertisement on page 221) 

Radio-Mat Slide Co., Inc. 

1674 Broadway, New York City 
(See advertisement on page 219) 


210 E. 73rd St., New York City. 
(See advertisement on page 217) 

Society for Visual Education 
327 S. LaSalle St., Chicago, 111. 

(See advertisement on page 194) 

Spencer Lens Co. 

19 Doat St., Buffalo, N. Y. 

(See advertisement on page 193) 

Williams, Brown and Earle, Inc. 

918 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 


Keystone View Co. 
Meadville, Pa. 

(See advertisement on page 221) 


Bausch and Lomb Optical Co. 
Rochester, N. Y. 

(See advertisement on page 217) 

E. Leitz, Inc. 
60 E. 10th St., New York City 
(See advertisement on page 218) 

Regina Photo Supply Ltd. 
1924 Rose St., Regina. Sask. 

Society for Visual Education 
327 S. LaSalle St., Chicago, 111. 

(See advertisement on page 194) 

Spencer Lens Co. 

19 Doat St., Buffalo, N. Y. 

(See advertisement on page 193) 

Williams, Brown and Earle, Inc. 
918 Chestnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. 


(1) indicates firm supplies 

35 mm. 


(2) indicates firm supplies 

35 mm. 


( 3 ) indicates firm supplies 

35 mm. 

sound and silent. 

(4 > indicates firm supplies 

16 mm. 


( 5 1 indicates firm supplies 

16 mm. 


(6) indicates firm supplies 

16 mm. 

sound and silent. 

Teachers Library 



Visual Instruction New? 

C O N T E N T J 

Sources and Uses of Visual Aids in Teaching Biology 

Visual Aids in an Assembly Program 

New Developments in Visual Aids 

Objective Presentation in Educational Procedure 

Needed-— More Public Health Exhibits 


Single Copies 2 5c 
• $2.00 a Year 



Renders a Specific Service in Teaching 

Today, the new type of education demands 
modern educative tools to attain a satisfactory 
degree of efficiency in training boys and girls to 
meet the problems of current life. 

Of all the tools available to meet this demand, 
the educational film is the most suitable. It brings 
the seeing experience in motion to the class room. 
This is fundamental to the learning process and 
the most efficient and effective method of dispens- 
ing knowledge accurately. 

The educational film not only simplifies teaching 
but improves the quality of attainment. It initiates 
and intensifies interest, and is both economical and 
productive. Teaching time is conserved and mass 
instruction made possible. 

Due to the wealth of available subjects, the 
adaptation of the film to modern school pedagogy 
is both practical and proficient. 

It remained for Ampro to complete the means 
of adaptation by designing a machine entirely suit- 
able and fitted for class room procedure. The 
New Ampro fulfills these requirements in every 
way. Thus it renders a specific service to teaching. 

An Ampro will quickly pay for itself through 
entertainments for parent-teachers associations or 
community gatherings. 

Makers of Precision 
Instruments Since 1914 


2839 N. western Ave., Chicago, Illinois. 

Please send literature on Ampro projectors for schools. 

Name Position 



City State 

Ideally Suited 

to the School • • 

Ampro projects 16 mm. films — the 
popular size for the school. It is easy 
to operate and does not require ex- 
pert attention. Unusual brilliancy 
of the projected picture is obtained 
through a specially designed shutter 
mechanism and a superior means of